B

Ba, Mariama – (1929 – 1981)
Senegalese writer
Mariama Ba was born in Dakar, the daughter of a politician. She was raised by her grandparents and attended school in Rufisque. She trained and worked as a school teacher but was forced to resign due to ill-health (1959) and became a school inspector. After her divorce from her husband she became actively involved in various women’s groups such as the Soeur Optimistes Internationales. Ba was famous for her first novel, written when aged fifty entitled Une si longue lettre (So Long a Letter) (1979), for which she received the French Noma award (1980). Her second novel Un Chant ecarlate (Scarlet Song) (1981) was published shortly after her death.

Baader, Ottilie – (1847 – 1925)
German socialist and feminist
Baader was born into a poor background and was trained to work as a seamstress. She influenced by the work of the German socialist August Bebel entitled Women Under Socialism (1879), and later became one of the leading figures of the German Socialist Women’s Movement.

Baarova, Lida – (1910 – 2000)
Czech actress
Born Ludmila Babkova in Prague, Bohemia, she made her first film appearance in The Career of Pavel Camrda at the age of sixteen (1931). Baarova went to join a German film company in Berlin, Prussia, where her appearance in the film Barcarole (1935) opposite Gustav Froehlich, made her a household name in Germany, where the Nazi leader Goebbels became infatuated with her beauty, which caused Hitler and the Reich some anxiety. Her role in Verrater (Traitors) (1936), which dealt with the depiction of foreign spies, was highly praised by the Nazis.
Later banned from Berlin, Baarova later travelled to Rome (1939) and Spain, before returning to Prague at the end of the war. Imprisoned by the Americans because of her Nazi connections, Baarova was eventually released because of lack of evidence. The taint of her tenuous connection with the Nazis was never forgotten and her sister killed herself because of it. She appeared in only two other films The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant (1975), by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, and the Czech televison film biography Lida Baarova’s Bittersweet Memories (1995). Lida Baarova died (Oct 27, 2000) at Salzburg, Austria.

Babak, Renata(1934 – 2003)
Ukrainian-American mezzo-soprano
Renata Babak received her early operatic training under Sophia Preobrahzenskaya at the Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory in Leningrad, and appeared at the Leningrad Opera (1957 – 1958).
Babak excelled in roles such as Carmen, Marina in Boris Godunov, Ortrud in Lohengrin, Azuchena, Lubasha in Tsar’s Bride, Olga in Eugene Onegin, and the countess in the Queen of Spades. She toured world-wide, performing in Canada, the USA, Finland, Bulgaria, France and Italy, during an impressive three decade career. For twenty years she worked as a vocal trainer at the Washington Conservatory of Music.

Babanova, Maria Ivanovna – (1900 – 1983)
Russian actress
Maria Babanova appeared as Pauline in Ostrovsky’s Place of Profit (1920) at the Theatre of the Revolution. Babanova is perhaps best remembered in the role of Juliet in Popov’s production of Romeo and Juliet. She received the Stalin Prize for her portrayal of the heroine in Arbuzov’s Tanya (1941).

Babata – (c30 – c70 AD)
Jewish litigant
Babata belonged to a wealthy family resident at the town of Mahoza, south of the Dead Sea. She was widowed young, and left with a son, but inherited considerable property. Her second marriage did not last. Babata’s son Yeshua was brought up outside her household, though for what reason remains unknown. She herself became involved in lengthy lawsuits regarding her son, and property left her by her husband, which claims were instigated by his angry relatives. With the disruption brought by the military strife between the Romans and the Jewish followers of Simon Bar-Kochba, Babata and others took refuge in inaccessible caves, bringing provisions and some possessions. There they all eventually died the victims of thirst, starvation, and eventually, cannibalism. Their bones were later properly interred in the caves, and Babata’s legal files were recovered.

Baber, Alice (1928 – 1982)
American painter
Born in Charlestown, Illinois, she graduated from Indiana University in Bloomington. Alice Baber resided in New York and Paris, and married the artist Paul Jenkins. After their divorce (1968) she made New York her permanent home. Best known for her lyrically abstract work, which was exhibited in America and abroad, her technique was to fuse light and colour to provide a perspective of limitless space.

In conjunction with the artist Dorothy Gillespie, Alice established the ‘Functioning in the Art World’ course at the New School for Social Research (1977). She taught and lectured on colour lithography, art history and design at various prestigious universities and colleges, and by arrangement with the States Department of the USA, she exhibited in over a dozen Latin American countries (1976 – 1978). Alice Baber died (Oct 2, 1982) aged fifty-four, in New York.

Babhion (fl. c920 – c950)
Irish queen consort
Babhion was the daughter of Arcah, and granddaughter of Murrough O’Flaherty, lord of West Connaught. She became the wife (c920) of Cineadh, King of Thomond, to whom she bore a large family of twelve sons, the most important of whom was the famous Irish hero, King Brian Boru (926 – 1014).  Many old Irish families claim descent through Babhion and her younger sons, including those of Eustace, O’Kennedy, O’Regan, O’Kelleher, O’Casey, and MacCraith of MacGrath.

Babois, Margeurite Victoire – (1760 – 1839)
French poet
Margeurite was born at Versailles, near Paris, the daughter of a shopkeeper. Madame Babois separated from her husband and the death of her daughter led her to write the Elegie sur la mort de ma fille (Elegy on the Death of My Daughter) (1792). She maintained several literary connections and later published the collection entitled Elegies et poesies diverses (Diverse Elegies and Poems (1810).

Babou, Francoise – (c1542 – 1593)
French society figure
Francoise Babou was the daughter of Jean Babou, Seigneur de La Bourdaisiere and his wife Francoise Robertet. Francoise became the wife (1559) at Chartres of Antoine IV d’Estrees (1529 – 1609) Marquis de Couevres and Vicomte de Soissons, and was the mother of Gabrielle d’Estrees (1569 – 1599), the famous mistress of King Henry IV and of Diane de Balagny. Famous for the sexual irregularity of her life, she was killed with her lover at Issoire by an enraged mob (June 9, 1593).

Baburiana – (fl. c160 – 180 AD)
Roman matron
Baburiana was an upper class matron of the town of Concordia. She defaulted on some unspecified public construction project for which she had promised financial assistance, and the decision of the courts had gone against her. Cornelius Fronto wrote to his friend, Gaius Arrius Antonius, consul (170 AD), on her behalf, seeking a modification of his judgement in this case.

Baccelli, Giovanna – (c1755 – 1801)
Italian ballerina
Giovanna Baccelli made her stage debut at the King’s Theatre, in England in the grand performance of Pirhame et Thisbe (1774). Baccelli continued to perform pantomime ballets in England such as Pygmalion amoreuse de la statue (1775) and performed with fierville in the ballet Diane et Endymion. Her career as an opera dancer continued for the next seven years, during which she became the mistress of John Frederick Sackville, Duke of Dorset, and she resided with him at his family estate at Knole Park, in Kent. Baccelli continued to perform only sporadically, but most notably in the role of Creusa in Medee et Jason (1781) the grand ballet of Noverre. Baccelli worked in Paris (1782 – 1783), and Venice and Italy (1783 – 1786), before returning to England for her long-standing engagement with the King’s Theatre. Baccelli was most admired in Gardel’s comic opera Ninette a’ la cour. She later performed with the Paris Opera (1788) but returned to England with the outbreak of the revolution. Giovanna Baccelli died (May 7, 1801) in Piccadilly, London.

Bacciochi, Madame    see    Bonaparte, Elisa

Bacewicz, Grazyna – (1909 – 1969)
Polish musician and composer
Grazyna Bacewitz was born in Lodz, and studied the violin and composition at the Warsaw Conservatory. From 1932 – 1934 she studied under Nadia Boulanger in Paris, at the completion of which she was appointed professor at the State Academy of Music in Warsaw. An inspirational composer in the neoclassic style of Boulanger, Grazyna is best known for her seven violin concertos composed (1938 – 1965), her seven string quartet pieces, composed between the same period, and five violin sonatas, besides the Polish Overture (1954) and Pensieri notturni (1961).

Bach, Anna Magdalena – (1701 – 1760)
German musician
Anna Wilcke was the daughter of Johann Caspar Wilcke, a trumpeteer at the royal court. She is associated with the two volumes of music known popularly as the ‘Anna Magdalena Notebook.’  This was composed by her husband Johann Sebastian Bach, for her especial instruction.

Bach, Maria – (1896 – 1978)
Austrian pianist and composer
Maria Bach was born (March 1, 1896) in Vienna, of the famous Bach dynasty, the daughter of a violinist. She was taught piano from childhood and then studied the violin under Arnold Rose. Bach originally intended to become a concert pianist but with the success of her piano piece Flohtanz (1917) she studied composition under Joseph Marx. Her other instrumental pieces included Sonata (1922) for violincello, Wilde Myrthe (1952) and Holztanz (1957) for the piano.
Maria Bach was awarded the first prize in the Buenos Aires International Composer’s Competition (1962). She also composed songs cycles such as the Japanischer Fruhling (1921) which consisted of fifteen Japanese songs with traditional lyrics, and several lieder compositions. Maria Bach died (Feb 26, 1978) aged eighty-one.

Bachauer, Gina – (1913 – 1976)
Greek pianist
Gina Bachauer was born in Athens and studied under Sergei Rachmaninoff (1932 – 1935). She made her debut with the Athens National Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Dmitri Mitropoulos in 1935. Bachauer gave her first American performance at New York’s Town Hall in 1950, and then toured America annually till her death, performing with the New York Philharmonic and other prestigious American orchestras. Gina Bachauer died in Athens.

Bache, Constance – (1846 – 1903) 
British composer and translator
Constance Bache was born at Edgbaston, the daughter of Reverend Samuel Bache, and the sister of Walter (1842 – 1888) and Edward Bache (1833 – 1858) both famous composers. Constance studied music under her brother Walter and others, and then at Munich, Bavaria under Frits Hatvigson, and also with Klindworth in London. An accident prevented Constance from pursuing a career as a public musician, and she turned instead to musical teaching, translating and writing. She was the translator of Franz Liszt’s letters, von Bulow’s letters, a libretto of Hansel and Gretel, and numerous other works by Liszt, Robert Schumann, Brahms, Cornelius and Max Bruch. She was the author of Brother Musicians (1901) the biography of her talented brothers. Constance Bache died (June 28, 1903) at Montreux, Switzerland.

Bache, Sarah – (c1771 – 1844) 
British hymnist
Sarah Laugher was born at Bromsgrove, the niece of Reverend Timothy Laugher, of Hackney and was a cousin to Joshua Tilt Bache (c1782 – 1856). Her half-sister Anna Penn married the Unitarian divine Rev. Lant Carpenter (1780 – 1840). Brought up at Worcester by maternal relatives, Sarah attended the ministry of Dr Priestly, before moving to Birmingham (1791). Therafter for many years, in conjunction with a half-sister, Miss Penn, she organized and managed the Islington school in London. Sarah wrote the hymn ‘See how he loved,’ which first appeared in the Exeter collection in 1812, which was compiled by Dr Carpenter. She remained unmarried. Sarah Bache died at Birmingham, Lancashire.

Bachelor, Stephanie – (1912 – 1996)
American actress
Stephanie began her career as a fashion model, and later switched her career to acting in the 1940’s. Her film included, Lady of Burlesque (1943), Lake Placid Serenade (1944), I’ve Always Loved You (1946), and, King of the Gamblers (1948).

Bacheracht, Therese von – (1804 – 1852) 
German traveller and author
Born Therese von Struve in Stuttgart, in Wurttemburg, she was the daughter of s Russian diplomat. Educated in Hamburg she was married firstly (1825) to Herr Bacheracht, and travelled widely throughout the Alpine regions, Russia and the East. Madame von Bacherat was the author of the travelogue Briefe aus dem Suden (1841), and she was also achieved notice as a talented novelist, her most famous work being Lydia (1844). With her divorce from her first husband Bacheracht, Therese remarried to Herr von Lutzow, who was an officer in the Dutch service, and accompanied him to Java where he was stationed (1849). Therese von Bacherat died (Sept 16, 1852) aged forty-eight, at Cilacap, Java.

Bachimont, Marie de – (fl. 1674 – after 1688)
French alchemist
Madame de Bachimont was implicated in the infamous ‘Affair of the Poisons’ (1679 – 1681) during the reign of Louis XIV. She was arrested and sentenced to be imprisoned for life.

Bachmann, Charlotte Caroline Wilhelmine – (1757 – 1817)
German vocalist and musician
Charlotte Bachmann was born at Berlin, Prussia, the daughter of the chamber musician Wilhelm Heinrich Stowe, who provided her musical training. From 1779 she performed at the music lovers’ concerts, founded jointly by Ernst Heinrich Benda and the court violinist Karl Ludwwig Bachmann (1743 – 1800), whom she ultimately married (1785). She herself composed lieder music and an adept and talented pianist, enjoying a successful career as a vocalist at the Prussian court.  From 1791 she was appointed a member of the Berlin Academy of Singers, where she achieved recognition as a talented solo vocalist, and also provided musical training for students. Charlotte Bachmann died (Aug 19, 1817) aged fifty-nine, in Berlin.

Bachmann, Ingeborg – (1926 – 1973)
Austrian poet and novelist
Bachmann was born (June 25, 1926) at Klagenfurt, and was raised there. She studied philosophy at the universities of Graz, Innsbruck and Vienna, and then worked as a correspondent. Bachmann produced two volumes of verse Die gestundete Zeit (1963) and Anrufing des Grossen Baren (1956). She collaborated with the composer H.W. Heinze and wrote the libretti for the operas Der Prinz von Homburg (1960) and Der junge Lord (1965). Ingeborg Bachmann died (Oct 17, 1973) aged forty-seven, in a housefire in Rome.

Bachofen von Echt, Claudia – (1863 – 1922) 
German Catholic nun
Born Johanna Bernardine Bachofen von Echt at Munster, Westphalia, she qualified to become a teacher in 1881. For several years Johanna was employed as a governess in Arnsberg and in Russian Poland, but desired to devote herself to the nursing preofession. With this goal in mind she entered the order of the Sisters of Clemency as a novice (1888) in order to be trained in their school of nursing, taking the religious name of Claudia. From 1889 – 1895 she both trained at, and was employed by, the local eye hospital near Munster, and later acted as a theatre sister in the city hospital (1895 – 1902). She was then recalled to the school of nursing where she had received her original training, in order to be assisstant to the mother superior there. Mistress of novices from 1907 – 1911, she was ultimately chosen as superior (1911 – 1922). Sister Claudia died (Oct 6, 1922) aged fifty-nine, at Munster.

Backer, Catharina – (1689 – 1766)
Dutch painter
Catharina Backer was born into an upper class family, and was married to Allard de la Court van der Voort. Catharina specialized in painting flower studies, fruit, and still lifes.

Backer-Grondahl, Agathe Ursula – (1847 – 1907)
Norwegian composer and pianist
Agathe Backer was born in Holmestrand, and was taught piano by Halfdan Kjerulf (1815 – 1868) in Christiania, and then studied under Theodor Kullak (1818 – 1881) in Berlin, with Hans von Bulow (1830 – 1894) in Florence, Italy, and also  with Franz Liszt in Weimar, Saxony. She was married to the noted vocal instructor, Grondahl. Agathe travelled throughout Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain performing in concert, but is mainly remembered as the composer of almost two hundred Norwegian songs. She was possesses of a unique technical skill and her lyrical style was wideley admired. Agathe Backer-Grondahl died (June 6, 1907) aged fifty-nine, in Christiania.

Backhoffner, Caroline – (fl. c1820 – 1835)
British painter
Caroline Derby was the daughter of artist William Derby, and sister to Emma Maria Derby, herself a talented painter. Trained by her father, Caroline produced admired works from a young age, and was awarded a silver palette by the Society of Arts (1826) as well as a silver Isis medal for her chalk drawing copy of a bust (1827).  The society gave her two further honours for the production of an oil painting (1828), the copy of a miniature (1829) and a silver medal for a water-colour portrait (1832). Her later exhibits (1833 – 1835) appeared under her married name of Backhoffner, but she appears to have deventually discontinued her artistic career.

Backhouse, Lady Flower    see   Clarendon, Flower Backhouse, Countess of

Backhouse, Hannah Chapman Gurney – (1787 – 1850)
British Quaker traveller and author
Hannah Backhouse visited the USA for several years (1830 – 1835), and left memoirs which dealt with her various experiences there entitled, Extracts from the Journal and Letters of Hannah Chapman Backhouse (1858), which was published posthumously in London.

Backhouse, Juliet Nancy – (1924 – 1997)
Australian missionary
Juliet Backhouse was born in Armidale, New South Wales, the daughter of a clergyman and was educated in Mosman and Darlinghurst before attending the University of Sydney, where she trained as a surgeon, gynaecologist and obsterician before joining the Church Missionary Society of Tanzania as a missionary. Backhouse arrived in Tanzania (then Tanganyika) in Africa (1952) becoming the first female missionary physician to be sent there. She worked in many isolated regions of the country in hospitals set up by the Society, such as Berega (1957 – 1962), Mvumi (1962 – 1966), and at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi (1972 – 1974). Juliet Backhouse died (March 9, 1997) aged seventy-two, in Tanzania.

Backhouse, Margaret Holden – (fl. 1846 – 1882) 
British painter
A native of London, she exhibited drawings and portrait miniatures at the Royal Academy for nearly four decades. Margaret Backhouse was the mother of Mary Backhouse Miller was also an accomplished artist and exhibited at the Academy.

Backus, Bertha Adams – (fl. c1900 – c1920)
American poet
Backus was best known for the poem ‘Then Laugh’ (1911).

Baclanova, Olga – (1899 – 1974)
Russian actress
Olga Baclanova appeared in several American films such as, Street of Sin (1927), the cult classic Freaks (1932), Billion Dollar Scandal (1932) and Claudia (1943).

Bacon, Albion Fellows – (1865 – 1933) 
American housing reformer and author
Albion Bacon was born at Evansville, Indiana. She wrote Songs Ysame (1897), with Annie Fellows Johnston, and other works including Beauty for Ashes (1914), Consolation (1922), The Path to God (1928) and The Charm String (1929) amongst others. Albion Fellows Bacon died (Dec 10, 1933) aged sixty-five.

Bacon, Alice Barnham, Lady    see   Barnham, Alice

Bacon, Alice Mabel – (1858 – 1918) 
American educator and Japanese scholar
Alice Bacon was born at New Haven, Connecticut. Bacon was the author of several works including, Japanese Girls and Women (1891), A Japanese Interior (1893), and In the Land of the Gods: Some Stories of Japan (1905). Alice Mabel Bacon died (May 1, 1918) aged sixty.

Bacon, Alice Martha – (1910 – 1993)
British civil servant
Alice Martha Bacon was born at Normanton in Yorkshire, the daughter of a miner, and was educated at the Normanton Girls’ High School and the Stockwell Training College. She worked as a schoolmistress before entering politics with the Labour Party. Bacon remained unmarried and became a member of parliament for northeast Leeds (1945 – 1955), was appointed as chairman of the Labour Party (1950 – 1951), and then served as MP for southeast Leeds (1955 – 1970). She worked for the Home Office (1964 – 1967) and the department of Education and Science (1967 – 1970), and was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire (1953) by Queen Elizabeth II. Alice Bacon was later appointed as a Life Peer (1970) as Baroness Bacon of Leeds and Normanton, in York. Baroness Baron died at Normanton.

Bacon, Anne Cooke, Lady – (1528 – 1610)
English writer
Anne Cooke was the second wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509 – 1579), and was the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, of Gidea Hall, Romford, Essex, and his wife Anne Fitzwilliam, the daughter of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Gains Park, Essex. A noted linguist, speaking Latin, Greek, Italian and French fluently, she received an extensive humanist education. Lady Bacon translated some sermons of Bernardin Ochines from the Latin (1560), as well as works by Bishop Jewel (1564) and Theodore Beza. Her letters to her sons survive. In old age her mind became unstable, and she was buried in the church of St Michael, at St Albans. Lady Bacon was the mother of Anthony Bacon (1558 – 1601) and of Francis Bacon, Earl of Verulam (1561 – 1626). Her son Anthony dedicated to her his Meditations.

Bacon, Delia Salter – (1811 – 1859) 
American controversial author
Delia Salter believed that the works of English dramatist William Shakespeare were in fact penned by his contemporary Sir Francis Bacon. She was born into a Puritan community in Tallmadge, Ohio, the daughter of a minister, and the sister of Leonard Bacon. Later educated in Hartford, Connecticut, a classmate of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Delia lectured on historical and cultural subjects in Boston and New York. A humiliating public court case concerning her former fiancee caused her to retire from the lectern and study. It was during this period that her theories concerning the real origins of Shakespeare’s work began to develop. She believed that Francis Bacon, Sir Walter Raleigh, the poet Edmund Spenser, and others had written Shakespeare’s plays (with his own role reduced to no more than that of an actor) in order to spread their radical concept of democracy. Support from Ralph Waldo Emerson enabled her to visit England, where she met Thomas Carlyle. She became a recluse, and began to exhibit eccentric behaviour, but in 1857, on the recommendation of Nathaniel Hawthorne, her work, The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfolded appeared. Her mind eventually gave way, and her family returned her to America. Delia Salter Bacon died in an asylum (Sept 2, 1859).

Bacon, Elizabeth – (fl. c1490 – c1520)
English gentlewoman
Elizabeth Bacon served in the household of John Bourchier (1467 – 1532), second Baron Berners and became his mistress (c1500) during the lifetime of his wife Lady Catharine Howard, daughter of John Howard, the first Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth bore Lord Berners four children James, Humphrey, George and Ursula whom he acknowledged as his own. Her eldest son was Sir James Bourchier (died after 1532) of Benningborough, Yorkshire, who was knighted by Henry VIII and left issue.

Bacon, Gertrude – (1874 – 1949)
British balloonist and aeronautical engineer
Gerturde was born at Cambridge, the daughter of a scientist. She was mainly educated by her father at their home at Coldash in Berkshire. Due to her father’s experiments in ballooning, Gertrude Bacon became the first British woman to make a balloon flight (1898). She was also permitted to accompany the British Astronomical Association on various expeiditions to India, the USA and Lapland. Bacon was also the first British woman to be a plane passenger and was the author of The Record of an Aeronaut (1907) and Memories of Land and Sky (1928).

Bacon, Janet Ruth – (1891 – 1965)
British classical scholar, lecturer and academic
Janet Bacon was born at Oxford (Oct 26, 1891), the daughter of Richard Bacon. Educated at Oxford High School and Girton College, she majored in the classics. Bacon was appointed Assistant Mistress at King Edward VI’s High School in Birmingham (1916 – 1918), before becoming director of Studies and lecturer in Classics at Girton College from (1919 – 1935). She served for a decade as principal of the Royal Holloway College at the University of London (1934 – 1944). She was the author of The Voyage of the Argonauts (1925). She remained unmarried. 
Janet Bacon died (Jan 25, 1965) aged seventy-three, at Oxford.

Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam – (1876 – 1961)
American writer, poet and humourist
Josephine Bacon was born (Feb 17, 1876) in Stamford, Connecticut. Bacon was the author of Smith College Stories (1900), The Inheritance (1912), Medusa’s Head (1926), and compiled the collection, Best Nonsense Verse (1901). Josephine Daskam Bacon died (July 29, 1961) aged eighty-five.

Bacon, Katherine – (1896 – 1982)
Anglo-American pianist
Katherine Bacon was born at Chesterfield, Derbyshire, and studied the piano under Arthur Newstead, whom she later married (1916). She toured throughout the USA and Canada, and gave the first ever public performance of the Piano Sonata composed by Charles Tomlinson Griffes (1923). Bacon was an exponent of the works of Isaac Albeniz (1860 – 1909) and Alexander Nikolaievitch Scriabine (1872 – 1915). She later played the complete Beethoven piano sonatas in two series of seven recitals in New York over a twelve year period (1927 – 1939). She was later a member of the faculty of the Juilliard School in New York for three decades. Katherine Bacon died (Jan 30, 1982) aged eighty-five, in New York.

Bacon, Lydia B. Stetson – (1786 – 1853)
American military wife and letter writer
Lydia Stetson was the wife of Josiah Bacon, a lieutenant with the American revolutionary army. Lydia accompanied him on his tour of duty (1812) and recorded her experiences in a private journal which covered over four decades of her life (1811 – 1853), and which was used to form part of The Biography of Lydia B. Bacon (1856) which was published posthumously.

Bacon, Mary Schell – (1870 – 1934)
American author
Born in Aitchison, Kansas as Mary Schell Hoke (Nov 20, 1870), she was married to Charles Bacon. Adopting the pseudonymof ‘Dolores Marbourg,’ she wrote I Will Ne’er Consent (1888) and The Diary of a Musician (1904). She co-wrote the novel Juggernaut (1891) with George Cary Eggleston (1839 – 1911). Bacon compiled the volume entitled, Songs That Every Child Should Know (1906). Mary Schell Bacon died (June 2, 1934) aged sixty-three.

Bacon, Peggy – (1895 – 1987)
American illustrator and author
Peggy Bacon was born in Ridgefield, Connecticut (May 2, 1895), and was married to Alexander Brook. Bacon was best known for her children’s stories, such as The Lion-Hearted Kitten (1927), Mischief in Mayfield (1933), Starting from Scratch (1945) and The Good American Witch (1957).

Bacon, Philippa – (c1670 – 1710)
English Stuart noblewoman
Philippa Bacon was the fourth surviving daughter and coheiress of Sir Edmund Bacon (died 1685), fourth Baronet, of Redgrave and Mildenhall, Suffolk, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter and heir of Sir Robert Crane, Baronet, of Chilton, Suffolk. Her mother later remarried to John Tate, serjeant-at-law. Philippa was married (1688) to her kinsman, Sir Edmund Bacon (1672 – 1721), fourth Baronet (1686 – 1721), of Gillingham, Norfolk, as his first wife. Lady Philippa Bacon was buried (July 12, 1710) having died aged about forty. She left three sons,

Bacon, Virginia Murray – (1891 – 1980)   
American political hostess
Virginia Bacon was the wife of Republican representative Robert Louis Bacon. She was the descendant of John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia before the American Revolution. Married in 1913, she was widowed in 1938 with two daughters, but remained until her death one of the last famous political hostesses of Washington society. A trustee of Adelphi University, Garden City, Long Island, in 1960 President Eisenhower made Mrs Bacon a member of the Advisory Committee on the Arts for the National Cultural Center. Mrs Bacon died in Washington. 

Badalla, Rosa Giacinta – (c1660 – c1715)
Italian composer
Rosa Badalla was a Benedictine nun at the convent of Santa Radegonda at Milan in Lombardy. She published the collection of solo motets entitled Motetti a voce sola (1684), as well as the two secular cantatas, Vuo cercando and O fronde care, for which she penned the text.

Badarzewska-Baarowska, Tekla – (1834 – 1861)
Polish pianist and composer
Tekla was born in Warsaw, and received no formal musical training, her talent being entirely amateur. She composed the internationally famous salon composition entitled Modtliwa dziewicy (The Maiden’s Prayer) (1856). Tekla Badarzewska-Baranowska died (Sept 29, 1861) aged twenty-seven, in Warsaw.

Baddeley, Angela – (1904 – 1976)
British actress
Born Madeleine Angela Clinton-Baddeley in London, she was the sister of actress Hermione Baddeley. She was educated under the supervision of a governess and made her stage debut in 1913, playing the child Duke of York in Richard III. She toured Australia in the title role of Mary Rose (1926). Angela was married (1929) Glen Byam Shaw, the actor and director. Baddeley appeared in The Speckled Band (1931) which featured Sir Arthur Conan Doyles’s famous detective character Sherlock Holmes, Night Must Fall (1935), The Importance of Being Earnest (1939) and Quartet (1948), a series of tales by Somerset Maugham.
Baddeley toured Russia (1958 – 1959) with the Old Vic Company and played the role of the nurse in the stage production of Romeo and Juliet in Leningrad and Moscow. Her television successes include her 1964 performance as Chaucer’s Wife of Bath, her appearance in the adaptation of Charles Dickens’ novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1965) and the character of the cook Mrs Bridges in the popular series Upstairs, Downstairs (1973 – 1975). Angela Baddeley died in London.

Baddeley, Florence Bertha Mathews, Lady – (1877 – 1962)
British baronetess (1922 – 1926)
Florence Mathews was the daughter of Joseph Douglass Mathews of Highbury New Park, the noted architect. When aged thirty-five she became the second wife (1912) of Sir John James Baddeley (1842 – 1926) of Lakefield, who was created a baronet by King George V (1922). Lady Baddeley served as Lady Mayoress of London (1921 – 1922) during her husband’s term in that office. Their marriage remained childless and she was the stepmother of Sir William Baddeley (1869 – 1951), the second baronet. During WW I Lady Baddeley organized nursing and ambulance units to tend to the soldiers at the front and was appointed D.G.St.J (Daughter of Grace of St John of Jerusalem) in recognition of her valuable voluntary work. Florence survived her husband for over three decades as the Dowager Lady Baddeley (1926 – 1962) and was appointed as a Justice of the Peace for Middlesex. Lady Baddeley died (April 7, 1926).

Baddeley, Hermione – (1906 – 1986)
British actress
Born Hermione Youlanda Ruby Clinton Baddeley at Broseley, Shropshire, she was the daughter of Clinton Baddeley. Hermione was the younger sister to the equally famous actress, Angela Baddeley. Hermione first went on the stage at the age of twelve. At age sixteen (1924), she starred in the popular play, The Likes of ‘Er. Baddeley had an impressive stage career, and specialized in comic roles, but also appeared in many films, most notably, Brighton Rock (1947), Passport to Pimlico (1949), The Pickwick Papers (1952), and Room at the Top (1958).
Hermione Baddeley also made appearances in popular television series such as, Camp Runamuck (1965 – 1966) and Maude (1974 – 1977) in the USA with Bea Arthur and Adrienne Barbeau. Baddeley wrote her autobiography, The Unsinkable Hermione Baddeley (1984). She was married firstly (1928) to the Hon. (Honourable) David Pax Tennant (1902 – 1968), the younger son of the first Lord Glenconner as his first wife. They had two children and were divorced (1937). Hermione was married secondly to Captain J.H. Willis.

Baddeley, Sophia – (1745 – 1786) 
British actress
Sophia Snow was born at St Margaret’s at Westminster, London, the daughter of the trumpeter Valentine Snow and the granddaughter of Moses Snow, the royal musician. Her early career was as a popular singer in the Ranelagh and Vauxhall Gardens. At the age of eighteen she eloped with the actor Robert Baddeley (1732 – 1794), who had previously fought a duel over her affections with the brother of actor David Garrick.
Sophia Baddeley was best known for her Shakespearean roles, specializing as the heroines such as Portia and Ophelia, and she sang at the Shakespeare Jubilee (1768). At the command of King George III, the court painter Johann Zoffany painted Sophia as Fanny, the character of George Colman and David Garrick’s dramatic production The Clandestine Marriage. However, her riotous lifestyle and her addiction to laudanum eventually brought about her early death (July 1, 1786) at Shakespeare Square in Edinburgh, Scotland where she had worked since 1783 in order to avoid her creditors.

Baddo – (fl. c585 – c600)
Visigothic queen of Spain
Baddo’s parentage remains unknown and she was married (c585) to Reccared (c554 – 601), the Visigothic King of Spain, though she was not the mother of his son Liuva II (584 – 603) who was illegitimate. Together with her husband Queen Baddo signed the document at the Third Council of Toledo (May 8, 589) which anathematized Arius and all his teachings, and recognized the doctrines of the councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon. The queen was formally referred to as ego Baddo, gloriosa regina in letters from the Imperial court in Constantinople. It was thought that Queen Baddo died (c594) because some sources credit Reccared with remarrying to the Merovingian princess Chlodoswintha, daughter of Sigebert I of Austrasia but this marriage never took place, so there is no reason to think the queen did not survive her husband, though she is not mentioned in any other contemporary source.

Baden-Powell, Agnes – (1858 – 1945)
British Girl Guide leader
Agnes Baden-Powell was born in London, the daughter of Baden Powell of Oxford, and was sister to Lord Robert Baden-Powell (1857 – 1941), founder of the Boy Scout movement. With the assistance of her brother, Agnes founded (1910) the Girl Guides, and served as national vice-president of that organization, movements of which spread to most countries in the world. Agnes died unmarried, but her work for the Girl Guides was carried on by her sister-in-law, Lady Olave Baden-Powell.

Baden-Powell, Olave St Clair Soames, Lady – (1889 – 1977)
British Girl Guide organizer
Olave Soames was the daughter of a wealthy brewer, she was married (1912) to the war hero, General Sir Robert Baden-Powell to whom she bore three children. Associating herself with her husband’s scouting movement, she assisted with the establishment the Girl Guides (1908), also called Girl Scouts, becoming Chief Commissioner (1916) and then Chief Guide (1918). This growing movement she led for forty years, travelling all over the globe helping to establish the Guides in other countries, and bringing membership to over six and a half million world-wide.
Lady Baden-Powell published her autobiography Window on My Heart (1973). She was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1932) by King George V in recognition of her volunteer work and the country of Finland awarded her the Order of the White Rose, and Peru the Order of the Sun.

Badger, Charlotte – (1778 – after 1826)
Anglo-New Zealand convict
Charlotte Badger was baptized (July 31, 1778) at Bromsgrove in Worcestershire, and was originally sent to Port Jackson in New South Wales as a convict aboard the Earl Cornwallis (1801) having been sentenced to seven years for housebreaking. She was sent to the Parramatta Female Factory (1806 – 1808) and her illegitimate daughter was born there. She was then sent to Hobart as a domestic servant aboard the Venus, but the ship’s crew mutinied and took control of the ship.
According to varying accounts Charlotte then dressed in male attire, armed herself with a pistol and flogged the captain, and had urged the male convicts to rebel. They group sailed to Rangihoua Bay in the Bay of Island in New Zealand, where Charlotte Badger became one of the earliest recorded white women in New Zealand. Charlotte and her child appear to have been accepted by the local Maori population, and despite two offers of return to Port Jackson, she preferred to remain at Rangihoua. However, relations with the Maoris later became untenable, though the reason remains unclear. Finally Charlotte and her daughter escaped by sea and settled in Tonga, and was living there in 1826.

Badgery, Dorothy    see    Wall, Dorothy

Badia, Agnes de     see    Armengol i Altayo de Badia, Agnes

Badoero, Elena – (fl. 810 – 827)
Italian Dogaressa of Venice
Elena Badoero became the wife of Doge Agnello Badoero, to whom she bore two sons, prior to his election (810).With her husband and eldest son, Elena founded and patronised the abbey of Sant ‘Ilario and San Zaccaria. She also financed the building of the church of St Giustina in the Calle del Te Deum, which was later suppressed and dismantled in the seventeenth century.
Renowned for her simple religious piety, which values she instilled into her sons, the eldest of whom was Doge Giustiniano Badoero (827 – 829), during whose reign the relics of St Mark the Evangelist were translated to Venice from Alexandria, in Egypt (828). Elena survived her husband and was interred at San Zaccaria. Her younger son was Doge Giovanni Badoero (829 – 836).

Badruddin, Gitaujali – (1961 – 1977)
Indian child poet
Gitaujali Badruddin was born in Meerut the daughter of Khushi Badruddin (mother). She died of cancer in Bombay aged only sixteen. Gitaujali had secretly written many poems prior to her death, which her mother had published posthumously. A collection of one hundred and ten of these verses were published (1982) as Poems of Gitaujali. Her verses, which received critical acclaim in India and Great Britain, reveal her courage and personal composure at her approaching death.

Badshah Begum – (1777 – 1846)
Indian queen
Badshah Begum was the wife of Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Haider, ruler of Avadh (Oudh). Her religious observances caused some problems within the kingdom. The queen later quarrelled with her son Nasir-ud-Din Haider concerning the legitimacy of her grandson Munna Jan. With the death of her son (1827) Badshah Begum placed Munna Jan on the throne as his successor, but this succession was not permitted by the British government. The queen mother and her grandson were forced to leave Avadh and the British placed Muhammad Ali Shah on the throne instead. Badshah and Munna were arrested and confined at Kanpur, but were later placed in confinement near Varanasi.

Baebia Galla – (fl. c100 – c120 AD) 
Roman patrician
Baebia Galla was possibly related to P. Baebius Italicus, quaestor of Cyprus and Imperial legate of Gallia Narbonensis, and married Quintus Licinius Silvanus Granianus, an Imperial procurator, and ducenarion of Hispania Citerioris. Baebia is attested by a surviving inscription from the cemetery of Tarraconensis in Spain, which reveals that she held the rank of priestess (flaminica), probably attached to the Imperial cult. She was the mother of Quintus Lucinus Silvanus Granianus Quadranius Proculus, consul suffect (106 AD) and proconsul under the Emperor Hadrian (117 – 136 AD).

Baebia Heliodora, Aelia – (fl. c230 – c250 AD)
Graeco-Roman patrician
Aelia Baebia Heliodora was the daughter of Aelius Baebius Heliodorus, the granddaughter of Aelius Heliodorus, and was perhaps related to Lucius Baebius Caecilianus, Imperial legate to Pannonia. Baebia Heliodora was attested, togther with her father and grandfather, by a surviving inscription from Thessalonika in Greece, which has been dated to before the reign of Emperor Traianus Decius (249 – 251 AD).

Bafana – (c1834 – 1887)
Ethiopian queen consort
Born of humble origins, Bafana possessed beauty and ambition and was married twice with children from both marriages when she became the wife (1865) of King Menelik of Shawa (1844 – 1913) (afterwards the Emperor Menelik II), who was a decade her junior. Queen Bafana caused considerable trouble within the kingdom whilst trying to gain power for her own son Amen Shawa (c1853 – 1887).
Queen Bafana later unsuccessfully attempted to have her husband overthrown (1877) with the held of the Emperor Yohannes IV, in the hope that she would be appointed to rule Shawa as regent for her son. After the summoning of a royal council Queen Bafana was exiled, but Menelik’s affection for her caused her to be recalled. A second exile proved more permanent and she was sent to a convent at Dabra Libanos where she died.

Baffo, Safiye     see    Safiye Baffo

Bage, Freda – (1883 – 1970)
Australian biologist
Anna Frederika Bage was born at St Kilda, in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of a chemist. She was educated at Oxford in England, and at Melbourne University where she was later employed as a biology lecturer. After further studies at King’s College in London, where she received a Linnean Society fellowship, she returned to Australia, and was later appointed as principal of the Queensland University Women’s College, a position she retained for over three decades (1914 – 1946). A prominent member of the National Council of Women, Bage was twice chosen to represent Australia at the League of Nations. She was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1941) by King George VI in recognition of her contribution to civic life. The Australian Federation of University Women established the Freda Bage scholarship in her honour. Freda Bage died (Oct 23, 1970) aged eighty-seven, in Brisbane.

Bage, Jessie Eleanor – (c1890 – 1980)
Australian civic leader
Jessie Bage was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of Charles Bage. With the outbreak of WW I Jessie joined the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) and served on hospital trains around Australia as well as in hospitals in England and France (1916 – 1919). Miss Bage was appointed as the assistant comptroller of VAD’s for the state of Victoria (1928). She was a member of the management committee of Melbourne Hospital. She remained unmarried.

Bage, Margeurite de – (c1203 – c1252)
French mediaeval heiress
Margeurite was the only daughter of Guy I, Seigneur of Bage (c1212 – c1218), and of Mirabeau in Bresse. She inherited the fief of Mirabeau from her father, which he had received from his own mother, Alix of Thiern, the first wife of Ulrich V of Bage, and became the Dame de Mirabeau. Margeurite de Bage became the wife (1219) of Humbert VI (c1199 – 1250), Seigneur de Beaujeu, the son of Seigneur Guichard IV Le Grand, and Sybilla of Hainault. Her husband was killed at the Battle of El Mansourah in Egypt, fighting against the Infidel with the army of St Louis IX of France. His remains were conveyed home to France, and he was buried in the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. Her marriages and other details were recorded in the Cartulaire Lyonnais, and in the Histoire de Bresse et de Bugey (1650) by Samuel Guichenon. Her children were,

Bagehot, Eliza Wilson – (1832 – 1921)
British literary figure
Eliza Wilson was the daughter of James Wilson, the founder and first editor of the Economist newspaper. Eliza became wife to the economist and historian Walter Bagehot (1826 – 1877) the marriage introducing Bagehot to a much wider circle of political and literary acquaintances. Her correspondence with him was later edited and published posthumously as, The Love Letters of Walter Bagehot and Eliza Wilson (1933). Eliza Bagehot kept private diary and journal for seven decades (1851 – 1921).

Baghdad Khatun – (c1306 – 1335)
Muslim queen
Baghdad Khatun was the daughter of the powerful councillor and adviser Cuban, whilst her mother was the sister of Ilkhan Abu Sa’id. She was married (1323) to Shaykh Hasan Buzung, the founder of the Jalayirid Dynasty (1336 – 1432). Before her marriage, Baghdad had been desired by her uncle Ilkhan, but her father seems to have frustrated his incestuous plans. Cuban was finally assasinated (1327), and she married her uncle. Her influence over political affairs caused great concern, especially when she was granted the honorific title of khidawandigar (sovereign). In 1332 her power was briefly eclipsed after she was accused of conspiring against Abu Sa’id, but her demotion did not last long. In 1334 Abu Sa’id married Baghdad’s niece, Dilshad Khatun, who was accorded the rank of principal wife. Such was her reaction to her replacement, that when the sultan died (1335), Baghdad was accused of complicity in his murder. She was beaten to death on the orders of his successor, Ilkhan Arpa.

Bagley, Sarah – (1806 – after 1848) 
American labor leader
Sarah Bagley formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, and also joined with the fledging male union groups, who were battling for a ten-hour working day. Her organization spread throughout several states in America, but it took decades for these aims to become official in law, firstly in Massachusetts (1874). Sarah retired from union business in order to take up a career as a telegraph operator, the first woman in America to be so employed.

Baglioni, Atalanta – (c1456 – after 1507)
Italian patrician and patron
Atalanta Baglioni was the daughter of Angela d’Acquaviva, Contessa di San Valentino. She married (1473) her cousin Grifone Baglioni of Perugia, who was killed in exile in 1477.  Her eldest son Federico known as ‘Grifonetto’ was killed as the result of a dynastic feud in 1500. Atalanta, who had previously removed herself in anger from his household as a sign of her maternal displeasure at his wild folly, was reconciled with him in the closing hours of his life. In 1507 she commissioned the painter Raphael to produce his Entombment of Christ for the chapel she erected to Grifonetto’s memory in the chapel of St Matthew in the church of San Francesco el Prato.

Bagnesi, Maria Bartolommea – (1514 – 1577)
Italian nun and saint
Maria Bartolommea was born in Florence, the daughter of the patrician Carlo de Rinieri Bagnesi, and his wife Alessandra Bartlommea Orlandini. She was raised by a nurse at Impruneta, outside the city. An illness contracted when she was seventeen (1531) made Maria a lifelong invalid, unsuited either for marriage or the convent. Finally, at the behest of her father, she joined the Third Order of St Dominic (c1547). Her health never improved, but she became noted for her religious sanctity and piety. Maria Bartolommea died in Florence, and an immense crowd attended her funeral bier. She was interred in the Carmelite church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, and was revered as a saint (May 28), being recorded in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum.

Bagnold, Enid Algerine – (1889 – 1981)
British novelist and children’s writer
Enid Bagnold was raised in Jamaica and attended school in Switzerland. She won poetry for her verses whilst a teenager. Enid ran away from home and worked in France and at Marbug in Germany. Having acquired financial idependence, she resided at Chelsea in London, where she studied art under Walter Sickert. Bagnold was friendly with such literary figures as H.G. Wells and Vita Sackville-West. During WW I she worked with the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) at a hospital at Woolwich.
After the war Enid worked as a driver in France, attached to FANY (First Aid Nursing Yeomanry). Enid Bagnold achieved literary recognition with her popular novel Serena Blandish (1924), which was published anonymously so as to spare her father embarrassment. She is best known for the children’s story of a young girl and her horse National Velvet (1935), made into a classic film starring the young Elizabeth Taylor (1944). Enid Bagnold became the wife (1920) of Sir Roderick Jones, a chairman of Reuter’s News Agency, to whom she bore four children. she published her autobiography (1969).

Bagnolesi, Anna – (fl. c1720 – 1732) 
Italian contralto
Anna Bagnolesi was married to Giovanni Battista Pinacci, the tenor. Anna and her husband arrived in London from Italy (1731) and she sang Admeto (Dec, 1732), and also the role of Antignona. Her other roles included Valentiniano III in Ezio, Erenice in Sosarme, Veturia in Coriolano, Servilio in Lucio Papirio, and Filli in Acis and Galatea. Nothing in recorded of her her career after 1732.

Bagot, Theodosia – (1865 – 1940)
British volunteer worker
Theodosia Leslie was born (Jan 5, 1865) the third daughter of Sir John Leslie (1822 – 1916), baronet of Glaslough in Ireland, and his wife Lady Constance Wilhelmina Frances Dawson-Damer, the daughter of Colonel Hon. (Honourable) George Lionel Dawson-Damer (1788 – 1856) and sister to Lionel Seymour William Dawson-Damer (1832 – 1892), the fourth Earl of Portarlington. She was married (1885) to Josceline Fitzroy Bagot (1854 – 1913) of Levens Hall, Westmorland, to whom she bore four children.
Her husband was nominated for a baronetcy (Jan 1, 1913) but died before this rank could be conferred (March 1, 1913). Mrs Bagot was then raised to the rank of the widow of a baronet by Royal Warrant from King George V (April 12 following) and her son became a baronet in his father’s stead. The warrant stated that Theodosia Bagot should ‘have, hold and enjoy the same style, title, place and precedence to which she would have been entitled had her said husband survived and been created a baronet of the United Kingdom as was the Royal Intention.’
As a widow she resided at Morland near Penrith. Theodosia then became officially known as the Dowager Lady Bagot (1913 – 1940).
During WW I Lady Bagot performed valuable volunteer work for the war effort and became a member of the Royal Red Cross. She worked with foreign troops in Europe and was appointed as a member of the Royal Red Cross of Serbia and was awarded the medal of Queen Elisabeth of Belgium in recognition of her service. She was also appointed D.G.St.J. (Dame of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and received the South African medal. Lady Bagot remarried secondly (1920) to Reverend Sidney Bellingham Swann, Vicar of Lindfield in Essex, and Rector of Kingston-by-the-Sea in Brighton. Lady Bagot died (Feb 21, 1940) aged seventy-five. Her children were,

Bagration, Katharina Pavlovna Shavronska, Princess – (1783 – 1857)
Russian political salonniere and diplomatic figure
Katharina Shavronska was the daughter of the Latvian peer, Count Pavel Shavronksi, and was the great-niece of Prince Potemkin, the powerful favourite of Catherine the Great. Her family were closely related to the empress Catherine I (1727 – 1727), the widow of Peter the Great. Educated at the court of Catherine II and Maria Feodorovna, she was married firstly (1800) to Prince Peter Bagration (1765 – 1814).
Highly intelligent, dark-haired and angelically beautiful, Princess Bagration became the mistress of the Austrian chancellor Prince Metternich (1801) and was the mother of his daughter Clementine Bagration (1802 – 1829), who was raised with his own legitimate daughters. This liasion lasted until 1812, when her husband was commanding Russia’s Second Army. Her rivalry with the Duchesse de Sagan, Metternich’s new mistress, was said to have afforded him much amusement. She was used by the Russian tsar, Alexander I as a spy against Austria, and was one of the most prominent society ladies present during the Congress of Vienna (1814), and she is frequently mentioned in the diplomatic correspondence of the period. The princess returned to Paris (1815) where she later remarried secondly (1830) to a British peer, John Hobart Caradoc, second Baron Howden (1799 – 1873), she being fifteen years his senior. They were later formally seperated.
During her later years Princess Bagration afforded society much amusement by her eccentric habit of retaining the nymph-like fashions she had worn during her youth. On one occasion she appeared so strangely dressed that Prince Metternich felt obliged to warn the Foreign minister before her arrival at a public reception. The princess later visited London (1849). Princess Katharina Begration died at Vienna (May 21, 1857).

Bagryana, Elisaveta – (1893 – 1991)
Bulgarian poet
Born Elisaveta Belcheva in Sliven, after joining the staff of the literary periodical Zlatorog (Golden Horn) (1922) she adopted the pseudonym of Elisaveta Bagryana. Bagryana wrote the collection of verse entitled, Vechna i suyatata (The Eternal and the Saint) (1927). She strenuously advocated freedoms for women and was an inveterate traveller.

Bahlatum – (fl. c1780 – c1770 BC)
Karana princess
Bahlatum was a close relative of Aqa-Hammu, King of Karana in Assyria, perhaps his sister or daughter. If Aqa-Hammu was her father, then her mother was probably his wife Queen Iltani. Bahlatum is known from surviving clay tablet letters uncovered from the former royal archive at Tell-el-Rimah. The princess had engaged the services of a goldsmith named Ili-idinnam, and provided him with gold and silver to be made into a necklace for her. Her letter bemoaned the fact that the goldsmith had taken four years and still the object was not finished. The princess urged the goldsmith to complete the task for her, and ordered that he use bronze to complete the necklace if the gold and silver proved to be insufficient to complete the task.

Bahuche, Margeurite – (fl.c 1600 – after 1614)
French painter and portraitist
Margeurite Bahuche was married to fellow portraitist, Jacob Bunel. The couple resided and worked at the court of Fontainebleau, during the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII. When her husband died (1614), Margeurite was permitted, by command of the king, to retain their apartment in the Louvre Palace.

Bahuta – (c295 – c343 AD)
Persian Christian martyr
Bahuta was a widow when she became a convert to Christianity, and was one of the many Persian Christians who shared the martyrdom of Narses, Bishop of Sciaharcadat, at Beth-Germa, in Persia, during the persecutions of King Sapor. The church recognized her, along with several other female martyrs (Nov 20).

Bai, Lakshmi    see    Lakshmi Bai

Baida, Maria Karpovna – (1922 – 2002)
Russian war heroine
Maria Baida was born (Feb 1, 1922) and attended school in Jankoi. She never completed her education and worked in a co-operative near Krasnoperekopskogo, before she joined the Red Army (1941). She served as a nurse at the front lines, and killed fifteen German submachine gunners, before being wounded. She still managed to escape. In recognition of her bravery, Baida was awarded the military honour, Hero of the Soviet Union (1942). Baida was later captured by the Germans and spent time in a concentration camp in Slavuta before being transferred to the infamous Ravensbruck (1942 – 1945), where she remained until being liberated with other inmates by the American forces. During her later life Baida headed the civil registration department in the city of Sevastopol, and served on the city council. Her service was recognized when she was created a Hero and an Honourable Citizen of the city (1976). Maria Baida died (Aug 30, 2002) aged eighty.

Baignieres, Laure – (1844 – 1918)
French salonniere
Laure Boilay became the wife of Henri Baignieres, brother to the noted wit and writer Arthur Baignieres (1834 – 1913). Madame Baignieres was a regular attendant at the salon of the famous Madame Aubernon, and presided over her own fashionable salons in Paris and at her estate the Villa Quatorze in Geneva, Switzerland. Madame Baignieres was admired by the novelist Marcel Proust and his character Madame Blanche Leroi from A La Recherche is based upon Laure Baignieres.

Bailey, Abigail Abbott – (1746 – 1815)
American memoirist
Abigail Abbott was the wife (1768) of Major Asa Bailey. She sought permission from the Congregational Church to divorce her husband (1793), having endured his violent and brutal physical abuse and adultery for twenty-five years, after he committed incest with their daughter Phebe. Her petition was granted. Abigail kept a personal journal of her fightening domestic life with Bailey, and this work was edited by Ethan Smith and published in Boston, Massachusetts, the year of her death as Memoirs of Mrs Abigail Bailey, Who had been the Wife of Major Asa Bailey…..written by herself……to which are added, Sundry original biographical sketches.

Bailey, Anne – (1742 – 1825)
American frontierswoman and revolutionary heroine
Born Anne Hennis at Liverpool in Lancashire, England, she immigrated to America (c1761) and was married (1765) in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia to a colonist named Richard Trotter. Her husband was killed in a skirmish with Shawnee Indians at the battle of Point Pleasant (1774). Mrs Trotter then placed her young son with relatives and became a frontierswoman, working as a scout and courier, and wore buckskins. She later remarried (1785) to a ranger named John Bailey with whom she resided at the Clendenin settlement (near modern Charleston) in the Great Kanawaha Valley.
When Fort Lee in the Great Kanawaha was under siege from the Indians (1791) Anne Bailey made the brave and historical journey over one hundred miles to Fort Savannah at Lewisburg in order to get gunpowder in order to help the besieged forces. The route was a complete wilderness but Anne proved successful and the required help arrived in time. This courageous act formed the basis of the poem Anne Bailey’s Ride (1861) by Charles Robb.
John Bailey was later murdered (1794) near Point Pleasant and a few years later Anne removed to reside with her son and his family in Gallia County in Ohio, though she still continued to travel the country. Anne Bailey died (Nov, 1825) aged eighty-three at Harrison in Ohio. She was later interred in the Point Pleasant Battle Monument State Park.

Bailey, Deborah – (1953 – 2001)
Australian journalist
Deborah Bailey was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of a naval pilot. She resided in England for several years (1958 – 1962) before returning to Australia to reside in Nowra and Canberra, and was educated at Canberra Grammar School, and at Wenona, Sydney. Bailey began as a journalist with The Canberra Times and The Australian Women’s Weekly and married fellow journalist David Armstrong (1980), later editor of The Bulletin and The Australian, to whom she bore two daughters. She later became assistant editor of The Australian Women’s Weekly, managing editor of She, and deputy editor of Family Circle. Deborah Bailey died (July 23, 2001) in Sydney, of motor neurone disease.

Bailey, Florence Augusta Merriam – (1863 – 1948) 
American ornithologist and author
Florence Merriam was born at Locust Grove, New York, and showed an early interest in birds, contributing articles to the Audubon Magazine, whilst a student at Smith College. While spending time in Mexico recuperating from an illness, Florence produced Birds of New Mexico, for which she was awarded the Brewster Medal (1931). Merriam was later married to the naturalist Vernon Bailey, with whom she travelled wideley, producing popular books on botany which reached a wide group of readers. Other of her works include, Birds Through an Opera Glass (1889), My Summer in a Mormon Village (1895), and Birds of Village and Field (1898).

Bailey, Lilian     see    Henschel, Lilian Bailey

Bailey, Mary Westenra, Lady – (1890 – 1960)
British aviatrix
Mary Westenra was born in London, the only daughter of Derrick Westenra, Baron Rossmore, of Monaghan, Ireland, and his wife Mittie, the daughter of Richard Naylor, of Hooten Hall, Chester. She married (1911), the South African millionaire, Sir Abe Bailey (1864 – 1940), to whom she bore five children. Keenly interested in aviation, Lady Bailey was granted her pilot’s license (1927), having attended the London Aeroplane Club at Stag Lane (1926).

Lady Bailey was the first woman to fly across the Irish Sea (1927), and in July of the same year, with Mrs Geoffrey de Havilland, she climbed to over 17, 280 feet in a Moth, the greatest height to which any woman had flown in a light aeroplane. She made an epic solo flight from Croydon to Cape Town and back (1928), which act she considered to be a gesture of female independence and of faith in light aircraft.

Lady Bailey entered the King’s cup race in 1927, 1929, and 1930, and flew in the international challenges round Europe in 1929 and 1930. She was awarded the Britannia Trophy by the Royal Aero Club (1930) and was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1930) by King George V. Lady Bailey was the first woman to receive a certificate for ‘blind flying.’ Lady Bailey died (Aug 22, 1960) at Kenilworth, near Cape Town.

Bailey, Mildred Rinker – (1907 – 1951)
American jazz vocalist and pianist
Mildred Bailey was born in Tekka, Washington. She was married (1933 – 1945) to the xylophonist, ‘Red’ Norvo, from whom she later divorced. Bailey was one of the first white women to establish herself as a successful jazz singer and band vocalist. She performed with Benny Goodman and Paul Whiteman, before embarking on her own solo career.

Bailey, Pearl Mae – (1918 – 1990)
Black American vocalist and actress
Pearl Bailey was born in Newport News. Her career began as a nightclub singer and dancer in Washington D.C., and was later married (1932) the drummer, Louie Bellson. She appeared on stage on Broadway in St Louis Woman (1946), and in the Hollywood film Hello, Dolly ! (1967) which starred Barbra Streisand. Bailey also published her autobiography The Raw Pearl (1968).

Bailleul, Marie – (fl. c1640 – c1690)
French salonniere
Marie Bailleul and her sister Agnes were members of the the famous precieuse group which gathered at the salon of the Marquise de Rambouillet in Paris. She was a friend for over three decades to the famous letter writer Madame de Sevigne, and was married (1658) to the Marquis d’Uxelles.

Baillie, Lady Grisell – (1822 – 1921)
Scottish philanthropist and deaconess
Grissell Baillie was the youngest daughter of George Baillie of Mellerstain and Jerviswoode, and his wife Mary Pringle. When her brother George Baillie succeeded as tenth earl of Haddington (1858), she received the courtesy title of ‘Lady.’ She remained unmarried, and died aged ninety-nine. Lady Grisell taught Sunday school at Bowden for over five decades, and was a long time supporter of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) in Scotland, of the temperance movement, and of the Church of Scotland Women’s Guild. Also interested in missionary work in the British colonies, Grisell assisted with the establishment of the Zenana Mission (1881). The Church of Scotland appointed Grisell as its first deaconess at Bowden Church, Roxburgh (1888).

Baillie, Grizel Home, Lady – (1665 – 1746)
Scottish traveller and poet
Lady Grizel Home was born at Redbraes Castle, Berwickshire, the eldest daughter of Sir Patrick Home, earl of Marchmont. She refused the offer of a position at the court of Mary, Princess of Orange as a maid-of-honour (1680), and eventually married (1692) George Baillie of Jerviswood, son of the patriot Robert Baillie. After her father was proscribed as a criminal and her father-in-law was hung (1684), the Baillie family fled to Utrecht in Holland. Times were then tough, but in her memoirs, Lady Baillie looked back on them with great happiness. Her Memoirs (1822) wer later published in a quarto volume by Thomas Thomson. From childhood she had written verse and prose, and her daughter, Lady Binning, possessed some manuscript volumes of various compositions, some of them half-written. Some of her Scottish songs appeared in Allan Ramsay’s Tea Table Miscellany, perhaps the best known of these being ‘And werever my heart light I wed dee.’ Her two surviving children were, Grizel, wife of Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope, and Rachel, wife of Charles, Lord Binning. Lady Baillie died aged eighty-one (Dec 6, 1746) and was interred with her husband at Mellerstain.

Baillie, Dame Isobel – (1895 – 1983)
Scottish soprano
Isobel Baillie was born in Hawick, the daughter of a baker. She received vocal training when the family moved to Manchester in Lancashire. After being employed as music shop assistant and a municpal clerk, Isobel made her stage debut with the Halle Orchestra, led by Sir Hamilton Harty (1921). She later had more training in Milan and performed with Sir Thomas Beecham, Arturo Toscanini and Bruno Walter, amongst other noted composers. Dame Isobel is remebered for giving over one thousand performances of George Frederic Handel’s Messiah. Dame Isobel Baillie died (Sept 24, 1983).

Baillie, Joanna – (1762 – 1851)
Scottish poet and verse writer
Joanna Baillie was born at Bothwell in Lanarkshire, on the Clyde River, of an ancient family that claimed descent from the nationalist hero Sir William Wallace. During her youth Joanna moved to Hampstead in London with her sister Agnes, and the two resided there for the rest of their lives. Her first literary work Fugitive Verses, appeared anonymously in 1790, followed in 1798 (also anonymously) by A Series of Plays.
This book was followed by Plays on the Passions (1802), Miscellaneous Plays (1804), Family Legend (1810) and three volumes of Dramas (1836).  Her dramatic works had been intended for the stage, and while Family Legend enjoyed a brief success in Edinburgh, her De Montfort (1809) was produced on the London stage with John Kemble and Sarah Siddons performing the main roles. Two other of her plays, Henriquez and The Seperation were received without enthusiasm. Despite this literary output, Joanna Baillie was better remembered for her Scottish songs such as Woo’d and Married an’a, of which there are many adaptations. She died at Hampstead, universally beloved for her sweet temperament and as the cornerstone of literary society in that part of London.

Baillie, Maud Louisa Emma Cavendish, Lady – (1896 – 1975)
British ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) controller
Lady Maud Cavendish was born (April 20, 1896), the eldest daughter of Victor Christian Cavendish, ninth Duke of Devonshire, sometime Governor-General of Canada, and his wife Lady Evelyn Fitzmaurice, the daughter of the Marquess of Lansdowne, who served as the Mistress of the Robes to Queen Mary, wife of George V. Lady Maud was married firstly to Captain Angus Mackintosh, who was killed in action (1918), and secondly (1923) to Brigadier George Evan Baillie, the son of Baroness Burton, who was killed in action during WW II (1941). She was the mother of Michael Baillie, who later succeeded his paternal grandmother as third Baron Burton (1962).
Lady Baillie served with the ATS (now the Women’s Royal Army Corps) during World War II for which she was awarded the CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1941). Formerly an honorary colonel of the 540 LAA Regiment of the Royal Air Force (Light anti-Aircraft), she also served as a Justice of the Peace for Derbyshire. Her private memoirs and recllections were reproduced in the official guide to Hardwick Hall, written by Mark Girouard. Lady Maud Baillie died (March 30, 1975) aged seventy-eight. 

Baillie-Hamilton, Caroline Bertie, Lady – (1788 – 1870)
British Victorian noblewoman
Lady Caroline Bertie was born (Oct 17, 1788) the only daughter of Willoughby Bertie (1740 – 1799), fourth Earl of Abingdon (1760 – 1799) and his wife Charlotte Warren. She was the younger sister of Montagu Bertie (1784 – 1854), fifth Earl of Abingdon who left descendants. Lady Caroline was descended from the Manners family, the Tudor earls of Rutland and through them she was a descendant of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) and Philippa of Hainault through their son Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence.
Lady Caroline was married (1821) to Charles John Baillie-Hamilton (1800 – 1865), Member of Parliament, twelve years her junior and became Lady Baillie-Hamilton (1821 – 1865). She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Baillie-Hamilton (1865 – 1870). Lady Baillie-Hamilton died (March 12, 1870) aged eighty-one. She left three children,

Bain, Margaret    see    Ewing, Margaret

Baines, Catherine – (fl. c1850 – 1860)
British painter
Catherine Baines was born in London, and produced studies from nature and enamel portraits in the popular and sentimental style made popular in Victorian England by Sir Edwin Landseer, which were exhibited at the Royal Academy (1857 – 1860).

Baird, Dorothea – (1875 – 1933) 
British actress
Dorothea Baird was the daughter-in-law of actor and theatrical manager Henry Irving. She was trained from an early age in Shakespearean roles, and spent time as a member of Ben Greet’s company. However, she achieved real recognition, and immense popularity in the title role of George Du Maurier’s Trilby (1895) opposite Herbert Beerbohm Tree at the Haymarket Theatre, the first season alone running for over two hundred and fifty performances.
Dorothea Baird appeared at the Lyceum Theatre with Henry Irving in 1898, performing in works such as The Medicine Man, The Merchant of Venice, The Lyons Mail, The Bells, and Louis XI. Dorothea married fellow actor Henry B. Irving, with whom she travelled on tour, performing in the roles of Francesca and Queen Henrietta Maria in Charles I. The couple toured Britain, Australia and America with great success before retiring (1911).

Baird, Edith Elina Helen – (1846 – 1924)
British chess player
Edith Wood was born at Hareston, near Paignton in south Devon, and was educated privately. She became the wife of the deputy inspector-general of the Royal Navy. From the age of five she solved puzzles at the Crystal Palace Exhibition (1851) in the prescence of numerous spectators. Her talent for chess was inherited from both parents, who were well known players. Baird invented the Twentieth Century Protractor (1902) and was the author of Seven Hundred Chess Problems; The Twentieth Century Retractor and Chess Novelties (1907). Edith Baird died (Feb 1, 1924) aged seventy-seven, at Hareston.

Baird, Margaret Cecilia – (1907 – 1996)
British pianist and educator
Margaret Cecilia Albu was born (March 13, 1907) in Johannesburg, South Africa, and studied music in London becoming a concert pianist. She met the Scottish electrical engineer John Logie Baird (1888 – 1946), who invented the first colour television in 1931 when she answered an advertisement for a pianist at the Savoy Hill broadcasting studios. They were married soon afterwards, and Margaret bore Baird two children. During WW II she worked for the British Red Cross, but was later evacuated to Cornwall with her children, whilst Baird remained in London. As a widow Margaret Baird returned to South Africa and taught music at the University of Durban (1946). She returned to Britian four decades afterwards (1986). Margaret Baird died aged eighty-nine.

Baird, May Deans Tennent, Lady – (1901 – 1983)
Scottish physician and reformer
May Tennent was born at Newton in Lanarkshire, the daughter of a grocer, Matthew Brown Tennent. She trained successfully as a physician and married (1928) Dugald Baird (1899 – 1986), who was knighted (1959). Lady Baird worked together with her husband, a professor of midwifery, in order to raise the standards of care available for pregnant women. She supported her husband’s sterilization program, and both were important in influencing the reform of the British abortion laws (1967). Later involved in local and national politics, Lady Baird was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1962) by Queen Elizabeth II, and she and Sir Dugald were both made Freemen of Aberdeen (1966). Lady Baird died (Aug 16, 1983) aged eighty-two.

Baiza Bai – (c1783 – 1862) 
Indian ruler
Baiza Bai was the wife (c1795) of the Mahratta prince Daulat Rao Scindia, Maharajah of Gwalior. With her husband’s death (1827), she ruled Gwalior as regent until 1833 for her adopted son Jankoji Rao.  Differences with the British government forced the queen mother was power in a palace revolution, and she was forced to flee from Gwalior (July, 1833), and she went to reside in Allahabad. She was believed by the British to have been actively involved with the Sepoy Rebellion (1857 – 1858).

Bajer, Matilde – (1840 – 1934)
Danish feminist
Matilde was married to Frederik Bajer, a member of parliament. Matilde became an early pioneer of the suffrage movement in her country, having been influenced by reading The Subjection of Women (1869) by John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873). Madame Bajer organized the Danish Women’s Association and then established a trade school for women in Copenhagen (1872), before founding the Danish Women’s Progress Association (1886).

Baker, Ann – (1761 – 1817)
British actress
Ann Baker was the daughter of Sarah Walkelin Baker, an actress. Ann acted with her mother’s famous provincial touring company for several years, and played such roles as Lady Macbeth and Little Pickle in The Romp.

Baker, Anne Elizabeth – (1786 – 1861) 
British philologist
Anne Baker was born at Northampton, the sister of George Baker (1781 – 1851) the topographer. She accompanied her brother on his many journeys, and acted as his personal secretary, especially concerning her self with natural and botanical history.  Baker was the author of Glossary of Nothamptonshire Words and Phrases, to which are added the customs of the county, published in two volumes in London (1854). She remained unmarried and died at her home in Northampton.

Baker, Augusta Braxston – (1911 – 1998)
American editor and children’s librarian
Augusta Braxston was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and studied library science at the State University of New York at Albany. Augusta was married twice and retained the surname of her first husband. Mrs Baker joined the New York Public Library as the children’s librarian and served as custodian of the children’s section at the New York Public Library (1937 – 1974), being named as coordinator of children’s services (1961 – 1974).
Augusta Baker was a reviewer of children’s books for The New York Times and compiled the bibliography entitled Books About Negro Life for Children (1946). With Ellin Greene Baker co-authored Storytelling: Art and Technique whilst the annual storytelling festival the ‘Augusta Baker Dozen’ was established at the University of South Carolina in her honour (1987) and she received the Distinguished Services Award (1993) from the Association of Library services to Children of the American Library Association. Augusta Baker died (Feb 23, 1998) aged eighty-six, in New York.

Baker, Caroline – (1807 – 1897)
Anglo-Indian diarist
Caroline Baker was the daughter of Sir Robert Baker, and married Captain Joseph Leggett of the 3rd Madras Native Infantry. Caroline accompanied her brother and his wife to Madras (1831) and her private journal covers the trip by sea (Sept, 1831 – Feb, 1832) and provides and interesting description of life aboard ship during one of these long voyages. She was married soon after her arrival in India, Caroline ahd eight children, five of her sons eventually entering the army. Captain Leggett died in Essex (1857). Caroline Baker survived him forty years, dying at the age of ninety.

Baker, Catherine (Kate) – (1861 – 1953) 
Irish-Australian educator and patron of Australian literature
Catherine Baker was born (April 23, 1861) in Cappoquin County, Waterford, the daughter of Francis Wilson Baker and his wife Catherine Sheffield. Catherine immigrated to Melbourne, Victoria with her parents as a child, and the family settled at Williamstown. Catherine worked as a schoolteacher (1881 – 1913) until prevented by encroaching deafness. She worked with author Joseph Furphy to co-author Such is Life (1903) and spent the rest of her life publicising his writing. Catherine Baker was awarded the OBE (Order of the Britsh Empire) in recognition of her servies to education. Catherine Baker died (Oct 7, 1953) aged ninety-two.

Baker, Christina Asquith – (1868 – 1960) 
Anglo-Australian painter and lithographer
Christina Asquith was born in London, England. She studied painting and technique at the National Gallery School under Phillips Fox and Fred McCubbin. She later travelled to France receiving further instruction at the Academie Julian in Paris, and then under the tuition of Charles Lazare (1905). Christina studied lithography in London (1914) and maintained herself solely from the income she made form her work. Still exhibiting in 1935, she remained unmarried. Apart from the Old Salon, Paris and the Royal Academy in London, Christina’s work was exhibited in Australia at the Melbourne Society of Women Painters and Sculptors and the Victorian Artists’ Society.

Baker, Consuelo – (1906 – 1981)
American minor actress
Baker was born (Oct 30, 1906) in California. She made her first screen appearance as a Goldwyn Girl in The Kid from Spain (1932) and appeared in only handful of films such as Let’s Fall in Love (1933), Coming-Out Party (1934) and Vagabond Lady (1935). She retired from films after her marriage. Consuelo Baker died (May 18, 1981) aged seventy-four, in Santa Monica.

Baker, Dorothy Dodds – (1907 – 1968) 
American author
Dorothy Dodds was born (April 21, 1907) in Missoula, Montana, the daughter of Raymond Branson Dodds, and his wife Alice Grady. Educated at the University of California in Los Angeles, she married (1930) Howard Baker and left two daughters. Her most famous work was Young Man With a Horn (1938) (later made into a film by Warner Brothers in 1950) for which she won a Houghton Mifflin literary fellowship in 1938. Other works included Trio (1943), Our Gifted Son (1948), and Cassandra at the Wedding (1962). Dorothy Baker also contributed short stories to magazines such as Harper’s and McCall’s. Dorothy Dodds Baker died (June 17, 1968) aged sixty-one, in Springville, California, and was buried at Porterfield.

Baker, Florence Barbara Maria Finnian von Sass, Lady – (1841 – 1916)
Hungarian-Anglo traveller and explorer
Florence von Sass was born into a noble Hungarian family, and was carried off into captivity by the Turks. She was purchased in a slave market (1859) by the British explorer, Sir Samuel White Baker (1821 – 1893), who married her as his second wife (1860). With her husband she searched for the sources of the great Nile River of Africa. They traced and traverses the Blue and White Nile rivers (1861), and named Lake Albert (Albert Nyanza) and the Murchison Falls (1864). When her husband was appointed as governor-general of the Sudan, Lady Baker devoted her energies to bring about the lessening of the flourishing slave trade. The couple retired to England, but the scandal concerning her initial relationship with Baker prevented her from ever being presented at court to Queen Victoria.

Baker, Frances – (fl. c1670 – 1677)
English actress
Frances Baker was performing with the King’s Company, the troupe of actors under the especial patronage of Charles II in the 1670’s. Her two known roles, Amasia in Wits Led by the Nose and Alfreda in King Edgar and Alfreda were both performed at Drury Lane Theatre (1677). The actress Katherine Baker (died 1729) may have been her daughter or niece.

Baker, Josephine (1) – (1873 – 1945)
American physician and public health reformer
Sara Josephine Baker came from a comfortable background, and had to defy her family in order to study to be a physician at the New York Infirmary Medical College. Baker served for over two decades as the assistant to the Commissioner for Public Health in New York. She founded the Bureau of Child Hygiene (1908) which successfully lowered the infant mortality rate in the notorious ‘Hell’s Kitchen.’
Josephine Baker organized free clinics for poor mothers and was reponsible for the registration of midwives. She also organized the first Federation of Children’s Agencies in New York and was a strong supporter of women’s suffrage, becoming a leader of the College Equal Suffrage League. Baker remained unmarried and published the memoir Fighting for Life (1939).

Baker, Josephine (2) – (1906 – 1975) 
Black-American dancer and vocalist
Josephine Baker was born in St Louis, Missouri (June 3, 1906), the daughter of a domestic servant and a brothel drummer. Leaving two failed marriages behind her before she established herself as a dancer at the Folies Bergere in Paris (1925), she became celebrated for her beauty, and her unusual and daring stage outfits, one of the more memorable being her girdle made completley of bananas. The artist Picasso referred to her as the ‘Nefertiti of now.’ At one time mistress to the famous novelist Georges Simenon (1903 – 1989) she later adopted a total of twelve children, who were brought up and educated at the Chateau de Les Milandes, in the Dordogne in south-western France. In protest against the vivid racial discrimination that was prevalent in America she became a French citizen (1937), and became a well known public advocate for racial tolerance and the rights of the black citizens. During World War II she served as an ambulance driver, intelligence agent, and an entertainer with the Free French Air Force in North Africa. In recognition of her service, the French government awarded her the Croix de Guerre and the Legion of Honour with the Rosette of Resistance. Josephine Baker died (April 12, 1975) aged sixty-eight, in Paris.

Baker, LaVern – (1929 – 1997)
Black American rhythmn and blues vocalist
Born Dolores Williams in Chicago, Illinois, she was the niece to the guitarist and blues vocalist Memphis Minnie. Williams began her vocal career singing in her local gospel choir before obtaining recording contracts with National records and Okeh as Bea Baker. In the 1950’s she joined King records and adopted the professional name of LaVern Baker. However, her career really began with the big hit Tweedle Dee (1954) which she recorded with Atlantic Records. Her later hits with Atlantic inlcuded I Cried a Tear and the gospel song Saved. Baker later went to live in the Philippines where she managed a nightclub, but later returned to the US where she contributed to the soundtrack of films like Shag and Dick Tracy. She made her Broadway debut in the production of Black and Blue, a musical tribute to the vocalist Bessie Smith. LaVern Baker died (March 11, 1997) aged sixty-seven, in New York.

Baker, Louisa Alice – (1858 – 1926)
New Zealand novelist
Born Louisa Dawson on the South Island, she was employed as a newswriter for local periodicals before she was married (1894), and went to Britain to reside, though she still contrived to submit articles to New Zealand publications. Baker wrote a collection of sixteen moral tales under the pseudonym of ‘Alien.’ Her novels included A Daughter of the King (1894), The Majesty of Man (1895) and A Double Blindness (1910).

Baker, Martha Susan – (1871 – 1911)
American artist
Martha Baker was born in Evansville, Indiana. She studied at the Chicago Art Institute, and painted miniatures and other subjects in oils and water colours. Baker also executed several mural paintings. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy, London (1908) and the Paris Salon (1909). She remained unmarried.

Baker, Mary (1) – (fl. 1834 – 1856)
British painter
Mary Baker was born in London and produced works for the Society of Arts. She exhibited miniatures and portraits at the Royal Academy over a fourteen year period (1842 – 1856). An example of her work, painted in oils, in preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

Baker, Mary (2) – (1791 – 1864)
British imposter
Mary Willocks was born at Witheridge in Devon, the daughter of a cobbler. Mary married a man named Baker and then disappeared sometime prior to 1817, when a confused and foreign sounding woman wearing a turban was discovered wandering around the town of Almonsdbury in Gloucestershire. She was sent to the home of the local magistrate Samuel Worrall and placed under the care of the kindly Mrs Worrall. They failed to understand the woman’s language apart from the fact that she was able to communicate that her name was ‘Caraboo.’
A Portugese sailor who visited the Worrall home claimed to be able to speak her language and revealed that she was a princess from Javasu in Indonesia. Thus vindicated ‘Princess Caraboo’ was feted by local society who made a great fuss of her. However the hoax came to end with a lady answered a newspaper advertisement and revealed that the ‘Princess’ was none other than Mary Baker from Witheridge in Devon, who had been formally employed as a domestic servant. The Portugese sailor had agreed to go along with Baker’s hoax for the fun of it. The British media had a field day and society was held to ridicule.
Mary Baker then travelled under the protection of the worralls to the USA where she took to the stage to earn a living from her deception. Her career proved short-lived and Baker later returned to England (1828). Her position declined and she made a livelihood selling leeches to the Bristol Infirmary Hospital. Mary Baker died (Dec 24, 1864) aged seventy-three, in Bristol and was buried there. Baker was portrayed by actress Phoebe Cates in the film Princess Caraboo (1994) with Australian actress Wendy Hughes as Mrs Worrall.

Baker, Norma Jean   see    Monroe, Marilyn

Baker, Sarah – (c1736 – 1816)
American theatre manager
Sarah Baker was born in Kent.She was married and produced three children, but with the death of her husband (1769), she took over the running of her mother’s theatre company. She established an acting troupe which toured throughout Kent. Her company’s repertoire included works by William Shakespeare and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and the famous actor Edmund Kean (1789 – 1833) was once employed in her troupe.

Bakewell, Louisa Eileen – (1907 – 1982) 
Australian civic activist
Louisa Deasy was born (May 14, 1907) the daughter of Rev. Dennis Murrell Deasy, and his wife Maud Williamson Watt. She was educated at the Hermitage Church of England Girls’ School (C.E.G.S.), Geelong and at Melbourne University, and was later married to Guy Bakewell. Louisa Bakewell was the founder of the Genealogy Society of Victoria (1941) which she later served as president (1961 – 1973), Louisa was also Chairwoman of the Women’s Sub-Committee for the Commonwealth Jubilee Celebrations (1950 – 1951) and served as chairwoman of the Victorian League (1946 – 1950) and president of the Heraldry Council of Australia (1970 – 1976). Bakewell was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) in recognition of her valuable service to the community. Louisa Bakewell died (May 10, 1982) aged seventy-four.

Bakurduktia – (fl. c410 – c430 AD)
Iberian princess
Bakurduktia was the daughter of King Bakarius, who held Imperial office in Rome before he ascended the throne of Iberia. She was married to Prince Bosmarius, the nephew of King Pharasamane of Iberia. Her son Nabarnugios, later known as Petrus the Iberian (c412 – 491 AD), was sent as a hostage to the court of Theodosius II in Constantinople (c424 AD). He later became a monk and was appointed as Bishop of Maiuma.

Balabanova, Angelika Isaakovna – (1878 – 1965)
Russian-Italian socialist
Angelika Balabanova was born in Chernigov, Russia, and was educated abroad in Europe, including at the Free University of Brussels. She ebcame a convert to the socialist movement, and worked with the future Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, during his exile in Switzerland. Balabanova returned to Russia (1917), where she became a Bolshevik, and worked at the Soviet Embassy in Switzerland. She left Russia in 1922, and worked for various Italian socialist oprganizations in Paris before she finally went to the USA (1935), where she resided for more than a decade. Balabanova published her autobiography My Life as a Rebel (1935).

Balagny, Diane de – (1570 – after 1615)
French courtier and memoirist
Diane d’Estrees was the daughter of Antoine IV d’Estrees, Marquis de Couevres and his wife Francoise Babou de la Tourdaisiere. She was raised at the Chateau de Coeuvres, near Soissons under the care of their maternal aunt Madame de Sourdis, and at the family’s Paris residence the Hotel d’Estrees. Diane became the second wife of the Marshal Louis de Balagny, Prince de Cambrai and attended her elder sister Gabrielle at the French court whilst she was the mistress of Henry IV. The importance of her family declined with Gabrielle’s death. Diane de Balagny published the memoir Gabrielle, Duchesse de Beaufort (1615) in Paris.

Balakian, Anna – (1915 – 1997) 
Armenian-American academic
Anna Balakian was born in Constantinople, Turkey, to Armenian parents. She lived in Germany and Switzerland before finally coming to the USA with her parents (1926).  She graduated from Hunter College (1936), and earned her master’s and Ph.D degrees at Columbia University in 1938 and 1943. She then taught French literature at Hunter College High School and Syracuse University. She married (1945) Stepan Nalbantian, the noted violinist. Proficient in the Armenian, French, German, and Spanish lanuages, Balakian was appointed became professor of Comparative Literature at New York University (1953) and later served as chairman of the department (1977 – 1985), whereupon she retired as a professor emeritus. She served as president of the American Comparative Literature Association (1977 – 1980). A world recognized specialist in the fields of Symbolism and Surrealism, Balakian was the author of The Literary Origins of Surrealism (1947) a study of modern French poetry, Surrealism: The Road to the Absolute (1959), which dealt with Surrealist art and literature, and The Snowflake on the Belfry: Dogma and Disquietude in the Critical Arena (1994), which discussed the factional crisis that she saw as enveloping contemporary literary criticism. Anna Balakian died (Aug 12, 1997) at Long Island, New York.

Balbi, Anne Jacobe Caumont de La Force, Comtesse de – (1758 – 1842)
French Bourbon courtier
Anne Caumont de La Force was born at the Chateau de La Force. She became the wife (1776) of Francois Marie Armand, Comte de Balbi and Marchese de Piovera. The comtesse served at court at Versailles prior to the Revolution as lady-in-waiting to the Comtesse de Provence, and was for sometime the mistress of the Comte de Provence (Louis XVIII). Madame de Balbi died (April 3, 1842) aged eighty-three, in Paris.

Balbi, Rosina – (fl. c1740 – 1760) 
Italian dancer
Rosina Balbi performed at the court of the margrave of Bayreuth (1748 – 1754), and then arrived in London to perform at Covent Garden, with her partner, the dancer Frantzel. Balbi and Frantzel appeared togther in the pantomime L’Hote du village. Madamoiselle Balbi also performed in such pieces as Pas de quatre, a Peasant Dance and a Comic Minuet. Her last recorded appearance was in Louvre and Minuet with Villeneuve. Still performing dances at the court of Bayreuth (1760), nothing is known of her later career.

Balbilla, Julia – (c80 – after 137 AD)
Roman poet
Julia Balbilla was a descendant of the kings of Commagene and had a Roman mother. She attended the court of the emperor Hadrian and his wife Sabina. Balbilla accompanied the Imperial party, including the emperor’s favourite, Antinuous, on a trip to Egypt (128 BC), which she commemorated in verse.

Balbina – (c110 – 130 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Balbina was the daughter of Marcus Quirinus, a Roman tribune, and his wife Exuperia. Pope Alexander, then sufferring imprisonment because of his faith, healed Balbina of scrofula, and she and her family converted to Christianity. During the purge against Christianity during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, Balbina and others were killed, by being placed aboard a ship which was then sunk in the harbour, and all were drowned. Balbina and her father were interred in the cemetery of Praetextatus, along the Via Appia, near Rome. Pope Mark later had a church erected there in her honour (336 AD). Balbina was regarded as the patron saint against scrofula (March 31). St Balbina is usually represented in religious art holding chains (those which had bound Pope Alexander during his imprisonment).

Balcarres, Anne Dalrymple, Countess of – (1727 – 1820)
Scottish society figure
Anne Dalrymple was the daughter if Sir Robert Dalrymple (c1683 – 1734), of Castleton, and his second wife Anne, the daughter of Sir William Cunnyngham, baronet of Caprington.
Anne became the wife of James Lindsay (1691 – 1768), fifth Earl of Balcarres, whom she survived over five decades as Dowager Countess of Balcarres (1768 – 1820).  She was the mother of two famous daughters,

Balch, Emily Greene – (1867 – 1961)
American social reformer, economist, and pacifist
Emily Balch was born in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, and was a member of the Quaker sect. Emily made a detailed study of the varying homelands from which many Americans originated, and was the author of Our Slavic Fellow Citizens (1910). A follower of the ideals of reformer Jane Addams, she was much involved with child welfare concerns, and from 1908 – 1909 she served as a member of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Relations. From 1913 – 1914 she served on the Massachusetts Commission on Immigration, and from 1914 – 1917 she served on the Boston City Planning Board. Later appointed delegate to the International Council of Women at The Hague, and at Geneva (1919 – 1922), she also served, firstly as secretary, and later as Honorary International President, of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Balch was joint winner of the Nobel Peace Prize (1946) with the social and religious reformer, John R. Mott. Emily Greene Balch was the author of Towards Human Unity (1952).

Balcon, Jill – (1925 – 2009)
British stage, film and television actress
Jill Angela Henriette Balcon was born (Jan 3, 1925) in London, the daughter of the noted movie producer Sir Michael Balcon (1896 – 1977). She studied at the Roedean School in London and became the wife (1951) of the poet Cecil Day-Lewis (1904 – 1972). Jill Balcon was the mother of the documentary producer Tamasin Day-Lewis (born 1953) and of the actor Daniel Day-Lewis (born 1957). Balcon made her film debut in Nicholas Nickleby (1947) and appeared in several films such as Good Time Girl (1948) and Highly Dangerous (1950). However, Balcon remained better known to the British public through the radio, being famous for her perfectly modulated voice, and through her television work. Four decades after her former career in films Balcon returned to the screen in such films as Edward II (1991), Wittgenstein (1993) and An Ideal Husband (1999). Jill Balcon died (July 18, 2009) aged eighty-four.

Balda – (c605 – c690)
Merovingian nun
Balda was a member of the Merovingian royal family and was the aunt to saints Theudichilde and Agilberta, who both served as abbess of the royal abbey of Jouarre, near Meaux. Balda never married and became a nun living piously for many years before being called upon to succeed Agilberta as abbess of Jouarre (680). She died at a great age and was revered for her religious sanctity. Balda was venerated as a saint (Dec 9) her feast being recorded in the Catalogus Sanctorum of Philippius Ferrarius.

Baldachi, Giovanna Bruna – (1886 – after 1910)
Italian composer
Giovanna Baldachi was born (Nov 19, 1886) in Pistoia, and studied the piano at the Istituto Musicale in Florence, and composition under Francesco Cilea. She became a successful concert pianist and performed in Switzerland. Her published works included the children’s chorus I meso dell ‘anno, and various piano pieces. She was awarded first prize by the Italian Lyceum for her traditional Madrigale (1910). Her later life remains unrecorded.

Baldelli, Maria Chiara – (c1744 – 1805)
Italian painter
Maria Chiara Baldelli was a nun at the convent of Santa Giuliano in Perugia, where she was recorded as the painter of two religious works.

Baldwin, Abigail Pollard – (1798 – 1876)
American clergyman’s wife, social figure, and journal writer
Abigail Pollard was a native of Vermont, whilst her husband served as a Presbyterian minister at Plymouth. Mrs Baldwin left a written account of a twenty-month residence in the state of Texas, which she despised, which was published posthumously one hunderd years afterwards as Selections from the Plymouth Diary of Abigail Baldwin, 1853 – 1854 (1972).

Baldwin, Anne – (fl. 1690 – 1713)
British bookseller and publisher
Her real first name was Abigail, but she was always called Anne. She was the wife of Richard Baldwin of Buckinghamshire, who became a freeman of the London Stationer’s Company (1675).
Anne played an important role in the running of her husband’s business interests, and with his death (1698), she took over his publishing business herself. Baldwin published mainly political or religious tracts, including works by Daniel Defoe, and a new edition of Plato Redivivus (1698), written by Henry Neville. Together with Mary Manley she co-published the women’s periodical The Ladies Tatler (1709 – 1710) ubtil the two women quarrelled, and that was the end of that working arrangement.

Baldwin, Faith – (1893 – 1978)
American poet, author, and editor
Faith Baldwin was born in New Rochelle, New York (Oct 1, 1893) and was married to Hugh Cuthrell. Baldwin wrote novels such as Adam’s Eden, Thursday’s Child, They Who Love (1948), Face Toward the Spring (1956), There is a Season (1966), and, The Velvet Hammer (1969), amongst many others, some of which were made into films. Baldwin published a collection of verse entitled Signposts (1924) and wrote her autobiography, Testament of Trust (1960). Faith Baldwin died (March 18, 1978) aged eighty-four, in Norwalk, Connecticut.

Baldwin, Louisa – (1845 – 1925)
British author and poet
Louisa Baldwin was born in Cambridge, and was the aunt of poet Rudyard Kipling. She achieved literary notoriety with her popular trio of novels, The Story of a Marriage (1880), Where Town and Country Meet (1885), and Richard Dare (1890) in late Victorian society. Her supernatural stories published in several magazines, were collected and reissued as The Shadow on the Blind (1895).

Baldwin, Lucy – (1869 – 1945)
British political wife and hostess
Lucy Ridsdale was the wife of the Conservative politician Stanley Baldwin (1867 – 1947) who served as three terms as Prime Minister. She became the Countess Baldwin of Bewdley when her husband was elevated to the peerage.

Bale, Alice Marian Ellen – (1875 – 1955)
Australian painter
Alice Bale was born in Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria and was educated at the Methodist Ladies’ College. She studied art under May Vale and Hugh Ramsay, and then at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. She was elected a member of the Victorian Artists’ Society (1894). Bale specialized in exhibiting still-lifes and interiors in oils, remaining an opponent of modernism. As such she was a member of the circle that surrounded the artist Max Meldrum, such as Clarice Beckett and Percy Leason. Her work received nine major prizes from the National Gallery School. Bale became secretary of the Twenty Melbourne Painters. Alice Bale died (Feb 14, 1955) aged seventy-nine, in Melbourne. She bequeathed her considerable estate to provide scholarships for promising traditionalist painters.

Balendukht – (fl. c500 – c530)
Iberian queen consort
Balendukht was the daughter of Hormisdas III, King of Persia, and became the wife of Vakhtang I Gorgasal (Gurgenes), King of Iberia. Queen Balendukht was the mother of King Dach’i of Iberia (c523 – c535) and grandmother of King Bakur II (c535 – c548).

Balfour, Betty – (1903 – 1979)
British silent film actress and comedienne
Betty Balfour was born (March 27, 1903) in London. She came from a theatrical family and appeared on stage from an early age (1914). She made her film debut in Nothing Else Matters (1920) and was particularly remembered for her popular appearances in such popular silent serials as Love Life and Laughter (1923) and Squibs. Balfour later appeared in sound movies also but her career declined. Her film credits included The Vagabond Queen (1930), Evergreen (1934), the sound remake of Squibs (1935) and 29 Acacia Avenue (1945).
Betty Balfour also appeared in international films such as the German silent productions Die sieben Tochter der Frau Gyurkovics (The Seven Daughters of Madame Gyrurkovics) (1927) and Die Regimentstochter (Daughter of the Regiment) (1928). She also made several French films including Monte Carlo (1925) and Le Diable au Coeur (The little Devil May Care) (1927).

Balfour, Clara Lucas – (1808 – 1878)
British temperance reformer and writer
Clara Lucas was raised in London by her widowed mother, where she became the wife (1827) of James Balfour, a civil servant, with whom she resided at Chelsea. The marriage remained childless. Mrs Balfour had become closely associated with the temperance reform movement, her belief strengthened by sincere religious conviction, and she devoted the rest of her life to the fight against alcohol and its attendant evils.
Clara Balfour became a lecturer at the Greenwich Literary Institution where she lectured for over three decades (1841 – 1877). She was elected as the president (1877 – 1878) of the British Women’s Temperance League. Mrs Balfour contributed articles to such periodicals as The Family Visitor and The British Workman, and her published works included A Whisper to a Newly Married from a Widowed Wife (1850) and Working Women of the Last Half Century (1856).

Balfour, Frances Campbell, Lady – (1858 – 1931)
Scottish suffragist and churchwoman
Lady Frances Campbell was born (Feb 22, 1858) at Argyll Lodge in Kensington in London, the daughter of George Douglas Campbell, Duke of Argyll, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower, daughter to the Duke of Sutherland. She was married (1879) to Colonel Eustace Balfour (1854 – 1911), younger brother of the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. Her portrait was painted by Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1880)
Lady Balfour took an active stance towards public life, especially as an advocater of the enfranchisement, and greater educational opportunities, and was a mistress of invective in the cause of women’s suffrage. She worked closely with Dame Millicent Fawcett, in the cause of women’s votes, and became an intimate friend of liberals and reformers such as William Gladstone, the Cecils, the Asquiths, of Randall Davidson, and of Cosmo Gordon Lang.
Lady Balfour ardently supported the Church of Scotland, and organized the rebuilding of Crown Street Church, London. Her work was recognized by honorary degrees which were granted her by the universities of Durham (1919) and Edinburgh (1921). Her written works included, The Life and Letters of the Reverend James MacGregor (1912), a memoir of her sister, Lady Victoria Campbell (1911), a memoir of Dr Elsie Inglis (1918), The Life of George, fourth earl of Aberdeen (2 vols, 1923), A Memoir of Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1925), and two volumes of reminiscences entitled Ne Obliviscaris (1930).
Her children included Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Balfour (1884 – 1965) who had a long and impressive career in the Foreign Service, and Lieutenant-Colonel Oswald Balfour (1894 – 1953), military secretary to the Governor-General, and later Commander-in-chief of Canada (1921 – 1923). Lady Balfour died in London (Feb 25, 1931), aged seventy-three, and was interred at Whittinghame, East Lothian.

Balin, Ina – (1937 – 1990)
American stage and film actress
Born Ina Rosenberg, Balin made her film debut in Compulsion (1958) and The Black Orchid (1958). This was followed by roles in such films as the famous life of Jesus Christ entitled The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), Run Like a Thief (1968), Charro (1969) and The Don is Dead (1973).

Balin, Mirieille – (1911 – 1968)
French model and actress
Balin was born (July 20, 1911) in Monte Carlo. She trained as a high fashion model, and when she began appearing films she became an international success. Balin’s film credits included the role of Dulcinea in the adaptation of Don Quixote (1933) by the German director George Wilhelm Pabst (1885 – 1967), with Russian actor Fyodor Chaliapin (1873 – 1938) in the title role, and the female lead in Pepe le Moko (1937) opposite Jean Gabin (1904 – 1976). This role was later played by Hedy Lamarr in the American remake entitled Algiers (1938).
Balins’other movie credits included Vive la Classe (1932), her first film, Marie des Angoisses (1935), Jeunes Filles de Paris (1936), Le Venus de l’Or (1938), Dernier Atout (1942) and Malaria (1943). Mirielle Balin retired from the screen after her appearance in La Derniere Chevauchee (1947).

Balk, Rabe’h Kaab    see   Quzdari, Rabi’ah

Ball, Frances(1794 – 1861)
Irish Catholic founder
Frances Ball was born in Dublin, the daughter of a wealthy silk manufacturer. She was educated by nuns at St Mary’s convent in York, taking vows as a nun with this order as Sister Mary Teresa (1816). She later established the first convent Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Dublin (1821) which came to be known as the Loreto Institute. Sister Mary Teresa founded several convents and schools in Ireland before traveling to India where she established the Loreto order in Calcutta (1841). Houses of the Loreto order were established all around the world including Mauritius (1845), Canada (1847), Australia (1875), East Africa (1926) and Peru in South America (1981).

Ball, Hannah(1733 – 1792)
British devotional author
Hannah Ball was prominent within her community and actively participated in local philanthropic activities and church functions. She remained unmarried. Hannah kept a private religious diary for a period of twenty-five years (1767 – 1792). It was published posthumously in London as the Memoirs of Miss Hannah Ball …. Extracted from Her Diary of Thirty Years Experience : in which the Devices of Satan are Laid Open, The Gracious Dealings of God With Her Soul, and all His Sufficient Grace, are Exemplified in her Useful Life and Happy Death (1839).

Ball, Jane – (1920 – 2005)
American actress
Jane Ball was born (Oct 4, 1923) in Kingston, New York. Attractive in a delicate manner, Ball made only a few films for 20th Century Fox studios, and retired after marrying. Her film credits included The Keys of the Kingdom (1944), Winged Victory (1944) and Forever Amber (1947) with Linda Darnell and Cornel Wilde, in which she played Lady Corinne Carlton opposite George Sanders as King Charles II. Jane Ball died (Dec 9, 2005) aged eighty-five, in Pennsylvania.

Ball, Lucille Desiree – (1911 – 1989)
American film and television actress, comedienne and television producer
Lucille Ball was born (Aug 6, 1911) at Celoron, near Jamestown in New York, the daughter of a telephone lineman. She studied drama in Manhattan and then worked at various minor jobs waiting for an opportunity to appear in films. Highly attractive, Lucy secured a job as the Chesterfield Cigarette Girl which led to her becoming a Goldwyn Girl, and gained her a bit part in Roman Scandals (1933) with Eddie Cantor. Ball appeared in dozens of films between her first film role in Broadway Thru a Keyhole (1933) such as Moulin Rouge (1933), Kid Millions (1934), The Three Musketeers (1935), Stage Door (1937), The Affairs of Annabel (1938), Five Came Back (1939), The Big Street (1942) which was her first serious role, Du Barry Was a Lady (1943), Without Love (1945), Her Husband’s Affairs (1947) and Sorrowful Jones (1949).
Though her comic talents were apparent in her work with such giants as Red Skelton and Bob Hope, true fame eluded her. Lucy became the wife of the Cuban dance band leader Desi Arnaz (1917 – 1986) to whom she bore two children, Lucie Arnaz (1951) and Desi Arnaz Jr (1953) with whom she later worked. With Desi she appeared in the film The Long Long Trailer (1954) and then established Desilu Studios and made lasting international fame in the ever popular comic series I Love Lucy (1951 – 1955), The Lucy Show (1962 – 1968) and Here’ s Lucy (1968 – 1973). Desilu Studios was also responsible for the production of other popular television series such as Mannix and The Untouchables. With her divorce (1960) Desi sold out his interest in the company to Lucy, who then became president of the company. Lucy sold Desilu to Paramount Pictures (1967) for an enormous profit.
Miss Ball later returned to movies to make appearances in such films as The Facts of Life (1960), Critic’s Choice (1963), Yours and Mine (1968), and in the title role of Mame (1974). Lucille Ball was portrayed by actress Frances Fisher in the television film Lucy and Desi: Before the Laughter (1991) whilst her autobiography was published posthumously as Love, Lucy (1996). She is generally regarded as the greatest American female comedienne.

Ball, Suzan – (1933 – 1955)
American actress
Ball was a minor leading lady of B-films during the 1950’s. Her film credits included such western movies as Untamed Frontier (1952), War Arrow (1954) and Chief Crazy Horse (1954). Her other films included East of Sumatra (1953), and City Beneath the Sea (1953). Her career was ended by her untimely death.

Ballard, Florence – (1943 – 1976)
Black American vocalist
Florence Ballard was born into a poor family in Detroit, Michigan. Ballard had certain musical training during her childhood, and later formed one of the popular group ‘The Primettes’ with Diana Ross and Mary Wilson, which then became ‘ The Supremes’ and became the most successful black female group of all time.  The group was best known for such hits as ‘Baby Love’ (1964) and ‘Stop! In the Name of Love’(1965). They later split (1970) when Ross wanted to embark on her own career, and the acrimony from this situation continued until Ballard’s death. Florence Ballard died aged thirty-two, in Detroit.

Ballard, Lucinda Davis – (1906 – 1993)
American costume designer
Lucinda Goldsborough was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the daughter of Richard Goldsborough, and his wife Anna Farrar. She was educated in New Orleans and the Art Students League in New York, before taking further studies abroad in France. She married firstly William Ballard (1930 – 1938) from whom she was divorced, and secondly (1951) Howard Dietz, the lyricist.
Ballard’s first theater credit was as the costume and scene designer of the production of William Shakepeare’s As You Like It at the Ritz Theater, New York (1937), and was also awarded the famous theatrical prize, the Donaldson Award, for the costumes she designed for I Remember Mama (1945). She was awarded her first Tony Award for costume design for the stage productions of Happy Birthday, Another Part of the Forest, Street Scene, John Loves Mary, and The Chocolate Soldier, all performed in 1947, and received a second Tony for her play, The Gay Life (1962).  Ballard retired in 1962, but later returned to work to design the costumes for the stage revival of the Tennessee Williams play, Night of the Iguana (1985). Lucinda Ballard died (Aug 19, 1993) in Manhattan, New York.

Ballard, Martha Moore – (1735 – 1812)
American midwife and memoirist
Martha Ballard was a colonist who settled in Augusta, Maine. During the last three decades of her life, Mrs Ballard kept a private domestic diary, which was later published in The History of Augusta, Maine, vol I (1904) by Charles Ellenton Nash.

Ballasko, Viktoria – (1909 – 1976) 
Austrian-German actress
Viktoria Ballasko was born in Vienna, Austria, and studied drama at the Academy of the Performing Arts there. She appeared on stage in theatres in Bern, Breslau, Munster in Westphalia, Stuttgart in Wurttemburg, and Berlin from 1929. One of her most notable roles was that of Luise in Johann Christoph Schiller’s Kabale und Liebe. She was then employed as a radio and dubbing actress before making her first film appearance in Luis Trenker’s Der Kaiser von Kalifornien (The Emperor of California) (1936). Notable for her portrayal of trustworthy, reliable women characters, she later appeared in Die Halbstarken (1956) directed by Georg Tressler. Viktoria Ballasko died (May 10, 1976) aged sixty-seven, in Berlin, Prussia.

Balleroy, Albertine Maignard de la Vaupalliere, Marquise de – (1770 – 1800)
French aristocrat and courtier of Louis XVI (1774 – 1792)
Albertine Maignard e la Vaupalliere was born (Feb 24, 1770) in Paris, the daughter of Charles Etienne Pierre Maignard, Marquis de la Vaupalliere, and his wife Diane Jacqueline de Clermont d’ Amboise, the widow of the Marquis de Matignon. Through her mother she was a descendant of Mary Queen of Scots. Albertine was married (1784) at the Palace of Versailles, to Philippe de la Cour (1763 – 1840), Marquis de Balleroy, to whom she bore an only child, Francois de la Cour (1796 – 1875), who succeeded his father as marquis de Balleroy, and left descendants. With the outbreak of the Revolution the marquise emigrated abroad for safety, and her son was born at Frauenfeld in Germany. With the fall of Robespierre’s regime she was able to return to France with her child. Madame de Balleroy died (Sept 15, 1800) aged thirty, in Paris.

Balleroy, Charlotte Madeleine Emilie Le Febvre de Caumartin, Marquise de – (c1676 – 1749)
French letter writer and salonniere
Charlotte Le Febvre de Caumartin was the wife of the first marquess de Balleroy, courtier ay Versailles to Louis XIV and Louis XV. Her letters and other correspondence, including that with the Baron de Breteuil, the Abbe Guitaut, and the Chevalier de Girardin, amongst other contemporary society figures, were later compiled by Edouard, Comte de Barthelemy, and were published in Paris in two volumes entitled, Les Correspondents de La Marquise de Balleroy (1883).

Ballesteros de Gaibrois, Mercedes – (1913 – 1995)
Spanish journalist and novelist
Mercedes was born in Madrid into an upper class family, being the daughter of Antonio Ballesteros-Beretta and his wife Mercedes Gaibrois. She was married to the writer Claudio de la Torre. She published articles in newspapers beginning this career during WW II. Her published work included, I See a Doctor (1941), That’s Life (1953), Eclipse de tierra (Eclipse of the Earth (1954), La cometa y el eco (The Kite and the Echo) (1956) which was perhaps her best known novel, Summer (1959), El chico (The Boy) (1967) and Passed Through Here (1985).

Balletti, Manon – (1740 – 1776)
French-Italian mistress
Manon Balletti was the daughter of an actress, Silvia Balletti, who became the mistress to the famous adventurer Giacomo Casanova (1750). She later broke off her own engagement to her clavichord instructor and succeedeed her mother as his mistress (1757 – 1760). Casanova installed her in a house in the Rue du Petit-Lion-St-Sauveur, but he was unable to remain faithful to her, despite offerring marriage. When he imprisoned in Paris for debt, Manon used her diamond earrings to obtain his release, but subsequently broke off their betrothal, returning his portrait and his letters. Manon was later married but died at the early age of thirty-six. Casanova in his, Memoirs, regretted his treatment of Manon, which he believed shortened her life.

Ball-Hennings, Emmy – (1885 – 1948) 
German author
Born Emmy Cordsen at Flensburg, she was the daughter of a sailor, and spent her early life working as a housemaid. Married young (1902), she then joined a travelling theatrical group, and finally seperated from her husband, obtaing employment tiruing Germany as a reciter. From 1914 she worked for the Simplicissimus periodical in Munich, Bavaria, where she met the Dadaist writer Hugo Ball. They immigrated to Switzerland (1915), before finally marrying (1920). In Zurich, Emmy founded the Galerie Dada and the Cabaret Voltaire, and eventually settled in Soregno, in Tessin Canton, where became associated with the novelist and poet Herman Hesse, with whom she conducted a correspondence of some length. These were published in 1956 as Briefe an Hermann Hesse. Apart from memoirs of her life with Hugo Ball, Ruf und Echo. Mein Leben mit Hugo Ball (1953), which was published posthumously, she also wrote fairy-tales and legends, and expressionist poetry including Die letzte Freude (1913), which was published by Franz Werfel. Emmy Ball-Hennings died (Aug 10, 1948) aged sixty-three, at Soregno.

Ballin, Ada S. – (c1844 – 1906)
British editor, journalist and author
Ada Ballin was born in London the daughter of Isaac Ballin, of French descent. She was married secondly (1901), to Oscar George Daniel Berry, but always retained her maiden name. Privately educated, Ada was an excellent scholar, and won the Heimann medal, amongst other scholarly distinctions. From 1887 – 1891 Ada was editor of the Health and Beauty department of the Lady’s Pictorial magazine, and she herself contributed articles to many other papaers and periodicals. Ada founded several magazines herself, notably, Baby: The Mother’s Magazine in 1887, Health and Beauty Culture (1898), and, Playtime, The Children’s Magazine (1900). Her numerous books included, The Science of Dress in History and Practice (1885), Personal Hygiene (1894), The Kindergarten System Explained (1896), and The Expectant Mother (1903).

Ballinger, Margaret – (1894 – 1980)
South African politician
Violet Margaret Livingstone Hodgson was born in Scotland and immigrated to South Africa with her family as a child. She attended the University College of Rhodes and then travelled to England to study at Somerville College in Oxford. Hodgson worked for seventeen years (1921 – 1938) as a lecturer in history at Witwaterstrand University, during which time she was married to fellow Scot William Ballinger, a trade unionist.
Mrs Ballinger became deeply involved with liberal politics and always fought against racial discrimination. With the passing of the Representation of the Natives Act (1936) Margaret Ballinger stood for the African National Congress, winning the seat of Eastern Cape and remained in the parliament for twenty-two years (1937 – 1959), being re-elected five times. She was a co-founder of the Liberal Party (1953) and served as the first national chairman. After her retirement Mrs Ballinger gave lectures at the Australian Institute of International Affairs, and published the historial work entitled From Union to Apartheid: a Trek to Isolation (1968).

Balliol, Clemence de – (fl. c1300 – 1306)
English abbess, litigant, and letter writer
Clemence de Balliol was abbess of the prestigious convent of Elstow, in Bedfordshire. The nearby monks of St Leonard’s hospital, south of Bedford, had applied to have an annoying highway near their abbey rerouted, maintaining that this alteration would bother no others locally. Abbess Clemence sent a letter of protest to William Hamilton, the chancellor of Edward I. She argued that her abbey was under royal patronage, and that the monks’ proposal would reduce the abbey’s income. An official enquiry upheld Clemence’s claims, but even though the case was taken to Westminster in London, it was settled in favour of the monks of St Leonard’s.

Balliol, Devorguilla de – (1222 – 1290) 
Scottish patron and letter writer
Devorguilla was the third daughter of Alan, earl of Galloway and his wife Margaret of Huntingdon. The great-great-granddaughter of David I, King of Scotland (1124 – 1153), she married John de Balliol (1212 – 1269), to whom she bore seven children, including John Balliol, sometime king of Scotland (1249 – 1315). Devorguilla eventually inherited the important lordship of Galloway which ultimately passed to her son John, and increased the original endowment made by her husband for the foundation of Oxford College and for the endowment of Balliol College, granting a charter for the support of sixteen scholars (1282). Devorguilla also founded the Cistercian abbey of Sweetheart, south of Dumfries, in memory of her late husband, whom she mourned for the rest of her life. Credited with the construction of a bridge over the River Nith in Dumfries, several of her letters survive. With her own death, Devorguilla was interred within Sweetheart Abbey together with the embalmed heart of her husband, which she had carried with her since his death. She was said to have curtseyed to the casket that held it every time she passed by, and before meals.

Balsac, Anne de    see   Malet de Graville, Anne

Balsamo, Lorenza     see    Cagliostro, Lorenza Feliciani, Contessa di

Balsan, Consuelo    see   Vanderbilt, Consuelo

Balthasar, Anna Christina Ehrenfried von – (1737 – 1808) 
German philosopher and orator
Anna von Balthasar was born at Greifswald, the daughter of the historian August von Balthasar (1701 – 1786). Anna was also niece to the noted Protestant theologian Jakob Heinrich von Balthasar (1690 – 1737). Having been provided with an intense academic education by her father, she gave two public speeches in 1751, on the occasion of the dedication of the university and library of Greifswald. These were published in 1752 as Rede bey ihrer aufnahme in died Konigliche Deutsche Gesellschaft zu Greifswald. A member of the German societies in Greifswald, Konigsberg, and Jena, she remained unmarried. Anna von Balthasar died (July 7, 1808) aged seventy-one, at Richtenberg.

Balthild (Bathilde) – (c630 – 678)
Merovingian queen consort and regent
Balthild was born in Anglo-Saxon Britain and was carried off by pirates (641), being sold as a slave to Erchinwald, Mayor of the Palace to Clovis II, King of Neustria (634 – 657). Clovis was captivated by her beauty and married her (649), their three sons all became kings, Clotaire III, Childeric II, and Theuderic III (Theirry). With her husband’s incapacity due to an attack of insanity, Balthild’s influence increased, and with her his early death (657), she was appointed to act as regent for their five-year-old son Clotaire III.
An intelligent ruler, she ably defended the weakening Merovingian royal power against the rising political influence of the Carolingian family. She supported the church, founded the monastery of St Peter, at Corbie, in Picardy, and restored the Abbey of St George, at Chelles, on the River Marne, near Paris, originally founded by St Coltilda, the wife of Clovis, which was rededicated to the Virgin Mary. The queen was protectress of the famous abbeys of Jumieges, Fontevelle, and Troyes, and was a lavish patron of Luxeuil and other Burgundian monasteries. She made edicts controlling the slave trade, and freed captured slaves whenever she could.
A palace revolution led by the aristocracy later forced Queen Balthild to quit the regency, and retire from court to her monastery at Chelles (665), where she spent the rest of her life. Periodically she revisited the court, mainly to ensure the continued royal protection for Chelles. Revered as a saint at her death (Jan 30, 678), the church venerated her memory (Jan 26).

Balzo, Eleanora Carlotta del – (1698 – 1726)
Italian heiress
Eleanora del Balzo was the only child and heiress of Giovanni del Balzo, Duca di Schiavi, and his wife Maria Ronelli. She was a direct descendant of Bianchino del Balzo who was a descendant of Bertrand de Baux (died 1181), Prince of Orange. With her father’s death (1722) she inherited the duchy of Schiavi as the last heiress of her family, her grandfather Vespasiano del Balzo (died 1703) having been the first Duke di Schiavi, having formerly held the rank of baron prior to his elevation to the ducal title. Eleanora was married in the same year, at Naples, to Francesco Muscotella, Prince di Leporano, who died in 1729.

Bambace, Angela – (1898 – 1975)
American Labour leader and organizer
Angela Bambace was born (Feb 14, 1898) in Santos, Brazil, to Italian parents. She immigrated with her family to New York (1901) where she attended a local secondary school, and was married to Aromolo Camponeschi, a fellow emigrant, to whom she bore two sons. With her sister Angela worked as an operator in a shirtwaist factory, and she participated in the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) organized strike (1919).
Bambace was later a prominent member of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (1927 – 1933) and during WW II she was appointed to oversee the important production of cotton garments in Virginia. Bambace was the first non-Jewish woman to serve (1947 – 1972) as vice-president of the ILGWU’s General Executive Board and President J.F. Kennedy named her to serve on his Commission on the Status of Women (1962). She remained unmarried. Angela Bambace died of cancer (April 3, 1975) aged seventy-seven, in Baltimore, Maryland.

Bambara, Toni Cade – (1939 – 1995)
Black-American writer and feminist
Miltona Mirkin Cade was born (March 25, 1939) in New York into a poor family. Toni attended the New York City College and was married. She was employed as a social worker before becoming an accredited college academic. Toni Bambara produced short stories, plays, novels, essays and screenplays. Her published works included The Black Woman (1970) which dealt with the views of Black American women and the civil rights movement, and Southern Black Utterances Today (1975). Her novels included The Salt Eaters (1980) and If Blessings Come (1987). Toni Cade Bambara died (Dec 9, 1995) aged fifty-six.

Bamfield, Veronica – (1908 – 2000)
British traveller and memoirist
Veronica Grissell was born in Norwich, Norfolk, and was the daughter of an army colonel. She studied at the Sorbonne in Paris, and was then married (1930) to Tich Bamfield, a British officer stationed in Baghdad, Iraq. They were intrepid travellers, and visited Kurdistan, Palestine, Persia, and the remoter regions of Iraq, becoming friends with the famous traveller, Dame Freya Stark. She resided in a local mud house near the Diyala River, in Kurdistan, dressing as a amle in areas where the presence of women was banned. Bamfield accompanied her husband to India (1938), and remained there with her children until 1942, when they returned to England to reside in Shrewsbury, Shropshire. These travels were the inspiration behind On the Strength (1974), her account of life as an army wife. Mrs Bamfield later produced Victory of the Vanquished (1990), a study of the involvement of women in the famous Vendee uprising (1793 – 1796) against the French revolutionary government, and wrote articles for the Assyrian Journal.

Bamme, Margaret     see    Stodeye, Margaret

Bampton, Rose – (1907 – 2007)
American soprano and operatic performer
Bampton was born (Nov 28, 1907) in Lakewood, Ohio, and trained as a professional mezzo soprano under Queena Mario, at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia and at Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa. She made her stage debut as Siebl in Theodore Gounod’s opera Faust (1929). She originally sang as a contralto with the Philadelphia Opera but became a mezzo soprano and then a soprano in order to sing other roles.
Rose made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York as Laura in La Gioconda (1932) and sang the role of the Wood Dove in Arnold Schoenberg’s Gurre-Lieder, produced by Leopold Stokowski. She performed internationally and sang the role of Leonore in the radio broadcast of Beethoven’s opera Fidelio which was conducted by Arturo Toscanini (1944). She became the second wife (1937) of the Canadian pianist and conductor Wilfred Pelletier (1896 – 1982) whose first wife had been her former teacher Queena Mario, and retired from the Metropolitan permanently in 1950. Rose Bampton died (Aug 21, 2007) aged ninety-nine.

Banbury, Elizabeth Howard, Countess of – (1586 – 1658)
English Stuart peeress and scandal figure
Lady Elizabeth Howard was baptized (Aug 11, 1586) at Saffron Walden in Essex, the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Howard, first Earl of Suffolk and his wife Catherine Knevet. Elizabeth was married (1605) to Sir William Knollys (1547 – 1632) as his second wife and became Lady Knollys (1605 – 1616). Their daughter died in infancy sometime prior to 1610. Due to the pre-eminence of her parents with King James I Lady Knollys was a prominent figure at the court. When her husband was ennobled as Lord Wallingford Lady Elizabeth became the Viscountess Wallingford (1616 – 1626). When Lord Suffolk finally fell from power (1618) Lady Wallingford openly attributed her family’s misfortunes to the malice of the Duke of Buckingham and her husband resigned his office as treasurer of the royal household (1619).
Lord Wallington was created first Earl of Banbury by King Charles I (1626) and Elizabeth became the Countess of Banbury (1626 – 1632). Lady Banbury gave birth to a son Edward (1627) at her husband’s house, whilst a second son Nicholas was born (1631) to her at Harrowden in Northamptonshire, the residence of Sir Edward Vaux (1588 – 1661), fourth Baron Vaux of Harrowden. The paternity of these two sons, almost certainly fathered by Lord Vaux, gave rise to much controversy. With the death of Lord Banbury Elizabeth became the Dowager Countess of Banbury (1632 – 1658). His will (1630) was proved by the countess to whom Banbury left almost all his possessions, but there was no mention of any children.
Within six weeks Lady Banbury had remarried to Lord Vaux and became the Baroness Vaux of Harrowden (1632 – 1658). She converted to Roman Catholicism and as a professed Catholic was viewed with constant suspicion by the Long Parliament. Lady Vaux was granted permission to visit France (1643) but in the House of Commons it was resolved that if she returned to England she would be seized and kept under restraint. However, despite this prohibition the countess had returned to England (1646) with her younger son, and Lord Vaux settled all his lands in Harrowden upon Elizabeth, with remainder to her son Nicholas who was styled Earl of Banbury in the deed. A decade later Lord and Lady Vaux, together with Nicholas and his wife Isabella, petitioned Oliver Cromwell to remove the sequestration upon the Vaux estates so they could sell some of the lands (1655).
Lady Vaux died (April 17, 1658) aged seventy-one, and was buried at Dorking in Surrey. Her elder son Edward Knollys (1627 – 1645) had been recognized as second Earl of Banbury (1632 – 1645) but died childless being killed in a roadside dispute. Her younger son Nicholas Knollys (1631 – 1674) married twice and left issue though he was formally denied recognition as third Earl of Banbury, though he was called by that title.
Between 1641 and 1813 the question of the legitimacy of Lady Banbury’s sons has been the topic of frequent discussions held in the House of Lords and the lawcourts. Whilst the judges had allowed the sons to be legitimate, the peers continually refused to acknowledge them so, maintaining Lord Banbury’s age at their births and his alleged ignorance of their existence at the time of his death. The inference was that the countess had been Lord Vaux’s mistress during the lifetime of her first husband and that he fathered her sons. Old family servants and retainers later interviewed by Parliament (1661) backed up this assertion.

Bancroft, Anne – (1931 – 2005)
American actress
Born Anna Maria Louise Italiano (Sept 17, 1931), she was best known for her roles in the classic films The Miracle Worker (1962), where she played Anne Sullivan Macy, the teacher and friend of Helen Keller, for which she won an Academy Award, and The Graduate (1967), where she played perhaps her most famous film role, as Mrs Robinson. She was married (1964) to actor and comedy producer, Mel Brooks (born 1926).
Other film credits include, The Pumpkin Eater (1964), The Slender Thread (1965), Young Winston (1972), where she played Lady Randolph Churchill, The Turning Point (1977), The Elephant Man (1980), Agnes of God (1985), 84 Charing Cross Road (1987), for which she was named Best Actress by the British Film Academy, and Great Expectations (1997) where she played Miss Havisham opposite Gwyneth Paltrow as Stella. Anne Bancroft received Oscar nominations for The Turning Point and Agnes of God. Bancroft also made the television film Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All (1994).

Bancroft, Elizabeth Davis – (1803 – 1886)
American diplomatic figure and letter writer
Elizabeth was the wife of the prominent statesman and historian George Bancroft. Her social diary was published posthumously as Letters from England, 1846 – 1849 (1904).

Bancroft, Jessie Hubbell – (1867 – 1952)
American physical education promoter and specialist
Jessie Hubbell Bancroft was born (Dec 20, 1867) in Winona, Minnesota, the daughter of a railway superintendant. She attended the Minneapolis School of Physical Education, and chose physical education as a career instead of teaching infants. After further study concerning physical education at Harvard, Bancroft served as director of physical training in the Brooklyn Public Schools (1893 – 1903) in New York.
Miss Bancroft was then appointed as assistant director of the New York City Schools, a position she held for over two decades (1904 – 1928). Bancroft remained unmarried and was the author of Games for the Playground, Home, School, and Gymnasium (1909), which was considered a benchmark. Bancroft was the first woman to be appointed a member of the American Academy of Physical Education, and was the first woman to receive an honorary degree from Springfield College (1926). After her retirement (1928) Bancroft travelled extensively throughout Europe. Jessie Bancroft died (Nov 13, 1952) aged eighty-four, at Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

Bancroft, Marie Effie Wilton, Lady – (1839 – 1921)
British actress and theatrical manager
Marie Wilton was born in Doncaster, the daughter of Robert Pleydell Wilton, a provincial actor who came from an old Gloucestershire family. Marie first appeared on the stage at Norwich at the age of six (1845), and made her debut at The Lyceum Theatre in London (1856) in the role of Henri in Charles Webb’s Belphegor. She also achieved popular acclaim for her performance of the title role in William Brough’s production of Perdita at the same time. She later achieved great popular success performing in burlesques at The Strand, under Ada Swanborough, at the Adelphi Theatre under Benjamin Nottingham Webster, and at The Haymarket under John Baldwin Buckstone.
Marie later became part manager with H.J. Byron at the Old Prince of Wales Theatre, where she produced, besides the comedies of T.W. Robertson such as Society (1865) and Ours (1866), in which she made her reputation as a comedienne, plays such as The School for Scandal, in which she played the role of Lady Teazle, The Merchant of Venice, Masks and Faces, in which she played the actress Peg Woffington, and London Assurance. Marie was married Squire Bancroft (1841 – 1926), a member of the company, who was later knighted (1897). From 1880 the couple began their joint-management of The Haymarket Theatre, with a revival of Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s Money, (1880), later followed by two Sardou plays, Odette and Fedora (both 1880), Pinero’s Lords and Commons (1883), and a revival of The Rivals and Diplomacy.
Retiring from management (1885), Marie appeared at The Garrick Theatre in revivals of Diplomacy (1893) and Money (1894). Lady Bancroft’s written works included three plays and a novel, A Riverside Story (1890), My Daughter (1892), A Dream (1903), and The Shadow of Neeme (1912). She produced memoirs in conjunction with her husband entitled, Mr and Mrs Bancroft on and off the Stage: Written by themselves (1888). Lady Bancroft died (May 22, 1921) at Folkestone, Kent.

Bandaranaike, Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias – (1916 – 2000) 
Sri Lankan Prime minister
Sirimavo Ratwatte was the daughter of a chief, and was married to Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (1899 – 1959) Prime Minister of Sri Lanka (1956 – 1959). Her husband was assassinated by a Buddhist monk in 1959, and during the confusion and emotional uncertainty which followed this act, Sirimavo was asked to form a government, even though she did not stand in 1960 general election, and had to be quickly granted a seat in the senate. She became the first woman in the history of the world to attain the office of prime minister.
Her period in office proved to be one of mounting financial difficulties, civic disruption caused mainly by the increasingly militant Tamil seperatists, and administrative malpractice and sheer chaos, little of which was actually in her power to control. She resigned in 1965 after being defeated at the elections, her rejection caused by her association with the Marxists in 1964. She remained the Leader of the Opposition until she was returned as prime minister in 1970, at the head of a Coalition government, retaining office for seven years before being again replaced.
In 1994 daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga (born 1945) was elected as President of Sri Lanka, and Sirmavo was returned as prime minister.

Bang, Maia – (1877 – 1940)
Norwegian violinist
Maia Bang was born (April, 1877) and studied at the Leipzig Conservatory in Saxony under the violin virtuoso Leopold Auer (1845 – 1930) and under Henri Marteau (1874 – 1934). She made her concert debut in Oslo (1900) where she established a school. Bang later taught at Auer’s Academy in New York. Maia Bang died (Oct, 1940) aged sixty-three, in New York.

Bang, Nina Henriette Wendeline – (1866 – 1928) 
Danish politician
Nina Bang was born in Copenhagen, where she attended university. She devoted herself almost exclusively to economic studies, being active in politics, and as a journalist as a Social Democrat, and married the Socialist politician Gustav Bang. Widowed in 1915, she was appointed to the landsting (Danish upper house) in 1918, and in 1924 was appointed minister for Education under the first Danish Social Democratic government led by Theodore Stauning. Thus she became the first female cabinet minister to be appointed throughout the world. She was the author and compiler of a work concerning the dues on the Sound, Tables of Shipping and Goods Transport on the Sound, 1497 – 1660 (1906 – 1922) published over a period of sixteen years. Nina Bang died in Copenhagen.

Bangalore Nagaratnammal – (c1880 – 1952) 
Indian vocalist and dancer
Bangalore was born in Mysore, the daughter of Subba Rao. Trained as a violinist by Munuswami Appa, she was appointed dancer to the royal court of Mysore. Linguistically talented, she was fluent in Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu, and Kannada. She received the honorary titles Vidysa Sundari and Gana Kala Visaradha. Bangalore established a religious shrine at Tyagaraja in 1925, and was the composer of Madya Paanam, a treatise on prohibition, and of Sata Namavali, which was composed in Sanskrit. Bangalore Nagaratnammal died (May 19, 1952) at Thiruvaiyaru.

Ban Jieyu – (c48 – c6 BC) 
Chinese poet
Ban Jieyu was concubine to the emperor Chengdi of the Han Dynasty. History records that she once refused the emperor’s request to be seated beside him in the Imperial chariot. This act of feminine modesty won for her the emeperor’s respect and affection. However, this period of favour did not last long, and Ban Jieyu was soon sent into retirement in the household of the empress dowager Wang, where she remained.
Ban Jieyu spent the remainder of her life writing poetry, which reflected her feelings of being rejected by love. Over a round fan she inscribed a poem Resentful Song, which complains that ‘winter’s chills’ soon cool the ‘ardours of summer.’ Thus the phrase ‘autumn fan’ passed into the Chinese language to denote a deserted wife. Her poetry achieved some celebrity in her own time, and she is mentioned in the Admonitions to Women by Ban Zhao.

Bankes, Mary Hawtrey, Lady – (c1610 – 1661)
English Stuart royalist
Mary Hawtrey became the wife of Sir John Bankes (1589 – 1644) to whom she bore several children. Her husband served King Charles I and with the outbreak of the Civil War Sir John and his family retired to Corfe Castle in Dorset. Together with only five soldiers and her serving women Lady Bankes heroically defended Corfe Castle (1643) against the Parliamentarian forces of Oliver Cromwell. They repelled the defenders throwing stones and projectiles and burning coals from the battlements.
With the death of her husband (1644) Lady Mary continued to support the royal cause and successfully defended her won estate from a Parliamentarian assault (1645 – 1646). However her cause was betrayed by one of her own soldiers and Lady Bankes was forced to sue for terms. She and her children were permitted to leave in safety before the Roundheads sacked and destroyed the estate.

Bankhead, Tallulah Brockman – (1903 – 1968) 
American stage and film actress
Tallulah Bankhead was born in Huntsville, Alabama to a notable local family. Educated in New York and Washington, she made her stage debut in 1918, and became famous in the 1920’s and 1930’s, both in New York, and even more so in London, for the almost hysterical adulation accorded her because of her husky, throaty voice, vibrant personality, and obvious sexual allure.
Her two most notable stage roles, for which she was accorded the Drama Critics award was as Regina Giddens in The Little Foxes (1939) by Lillian Hellman, and as Sabina in The Skin of our Teeth (1942) written by Thornton Wilder. One of the actresses considered for the role of Scarlett O’Hara in Gone With the Wind, she continued her career with success after WW II, and made several films, the most famous of which was Lifeboat (1944).

Banks, Isabella – (1821 – 1897) 
British novelist, poet, and reformer
Isabella Varley was the daughter of James Varley, of Manchester, Lancashire. As a young woman (1842) she became involved in the social issues of the day, and joined the Anti-Corn Law League. She was married (1846) to the poet and journalist George Linnaeus Banks (1821 – 1881). Isabella was the author of the poetic works, Ivy Leaves (1843) and Daisies in the Grass (1865), and, jointly with her husband, Ripples and Breakers (1878).
Mrs Banks had intended to edit a collection of her husband’s poems and memoirs, but towards the end of his life, being clouded in judgement, he destroyed these works. She herself wrote over a dozen novels, including, God’s Providence House (1865), Caleb Booth’s Clerk (1878), More than Coronets (1881), Miss Pringles’s Pearls (1890), and Bond Slaves (1893). Isabella Banks survived her husband sixteen years.

Banky, Vilma – (1898 – 1991) 
Hungarian-American silent film actress
Born Vilma Longit at Nagydorog, Hungary, she was the daughter of a stage performer. Her first films were made in Hungary, and later in Germany, France and Austria from 1920 – 1925, when producer Sam Goldwyn brough her to Hollywood to star in The Dark Angel (1925). Banky then appeared in The Eagle (1925) and famously in The Son of the Sheik (1926) with Rudolph Valentino, which established her in the role of the sexy vamp, and she became popularly known as ‘The Hungarian Rhapsody.’ In 1927 she starred with Ronald Colman in The Night of Love, and married fellow silent actor Rod La Rocque, with whom she appeared in the sound film This Is Heaven (1929), togther with Lucien Littlefield, and she toured America with Cherries Are Ripe. However, her stardom did not long continue after the advent of sound, and in 1932 she travelled to Germany with La Rocque, and there she made her last film, The Rebel (1933). She was to survive her early years of fame by five decades. Vilma Banky died (March 18, 1991) in Los Angeles, California.

Bannerman, Helen Brodie – (1862 – 1946)
Scottish children’s writer and educator
Helen Boog Watson was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of a clergyman. After her marriage with a physician attached to the Indian Civil Service Mrs Bannerman accompanied her husband to India. Her life there provided the inspiration for the famous children’s classic entitled Little Black Sambo (1899). Within seventy years however this popular children’s classic was viewed as racist and was condemned as demeaning to black people.

Bannerman, Margaret – (1896 – 1976)
Canadian film actress
Margaret Bannerman was born (Dec 15, 1896) at Toronto in Ontario. She first appeared in silent films and sometimes in leading roles, making her movie debut as Miss Cokeson in Justice (1917). Her credits included The Gay Lord Quex (1917), Mary Girl (1917) as the Countess Folkington, Goodbye (1918), the title role in Lady Audley’s Secret (1920) and The Grass Orphan (1922). Bannerman then retired from films after marrying in order to raise her children.
Miss Bannerman returned to the screen with the advent of sound but appeared only in monor roles. Her credits in this field included Two White Arms (1932), Over the Garden Wall (1934), I Give My Heart (1935) and The Homestretch (1947). She made brief appearances in minor television roles during the 1960’s. Margaret Bannerman died (April 25, 1976) aged seventy-nine, at Englewood in New Jersey.

Banning, Margaret Frances Culkin (1891 – 1982)
American novelist and writer
Margaret Banning was born (March 18, 1891) in Buffalo, Minnesota, the daughter of Senator William Culkin. She married and was the author of over thirty works such as This Marrying (1920), Money of Her Own (1928), The Third Son (1933), Letters to Susan (1936) and Letters from England (1942). Her later works included The Vine and the Olive (1964) and I Took My Love to the Country (1966). Margaret Culkin Banning died (Jan 4, 1982) aged ninety, at Tryon in North Carolina. She became the first woman to be admitted to the Duluth Hall of Fame.

Bannon, Laura – (c1895 – 1963)
American artist, teacher and book illustrator
Bannon attended the Western mivhigan State College and then the School of Art Institute in Chicago. She taught art in the public school system, and her paintings were exhibited at the international Water Colour Show and at the Chicago Artists’ Show and various galleries. Laura Bannon illustrated various children’s books such as Manuela’s Birthday (1939) Gregorio and the White Llama (1944) for which she received the Chicago Society of Topographic Artists’ Award, The Wonderful Fashion Doll (1950), Nemo Meets the Emperor (1957) and Hop-High the Goat (1960) for which she received the Friends of American Writers Award. She also published the work for parents entitled Mind Your Child’s Art (1952). Laura Bannon remained unmarried and died (Dec 14, 1965).

Banti, Brigitta – (1759 – 1806)
Italian soprano
Brigida Giorgi was born at Monticelli d’Ongina. She began her career as a café singer and made her debut with the Paris Opera (1776) after attracting the attention of the director. She studied singing under Antonio Sacchini (1730 – 1786), and then performed in London where she succeeded Lucrezia Agujari as the principal solist at the Pantheon concerts. Brigida refused to learn to read music, but her European audiences in Vienna, Venice, Warsaw and Madrid, were enchanted with her performances, and she became international success.
Brigida was married to the dancer Zaccaria Banti. The composer Giovanni Paisiello (1740 – 1816) wrote his opera Giuochi di Agrigento especially for Madame Banti who performed in the premiere in Venice (1792). Madame Banti then performed as the principal soloist at the King’s Theatre in London (1794) where she appeared in Bianchi’s Semiramide. Hadyn composed his opera Scena di Berenice (1795) for Madame Banti She then retired (1802) and died (Feb 18, 1806) at Bologna, where her husband caused a monument to be erected to her memory.

Bantry, Rosamond Catherine Petre, Countess of – (1857 – 1942)
British volunteer activist
Rosamond Petre was born (Aug 25, 1857), the only daughter of the Hon. (Honourable) Edmund George Petre (1829 – 1889) and his wife Mary Anne Kerr, and was the paternal granddaughter of William henry Francis Petre (1793 – 1850), the eleventh Baron Petre. She was married firstly (1886) to William Henry Hare Hedges-White (1854 – 1891), the fourth Earl of Bantry and became the Countess of Bantry (1886 – 1891). This marriage remained childless.
Lady Rosamond survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Bantry (1891 – 1897) and was remarried secondly (1897) to William Hill-Trevor (1852 – 1923) of Brynninalt, the second Baron Trevor, as his second wife and became the Baroness Trevor (1897 – 1923). Their only child the Hon. Mary Rosamond Hill-Trevor (1899 – 1904) died during early childhood. During WW I Lady Trevor was involved in voluntary work for the war effort and was appointed MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1918). She survived her second husband as the Dowager Baroness Trevor (1923 – 1942) and died (Feb 5, 1942) aged aged eighty-four.

Banuqa – (c767 – c783)
Abbasid princess
Banuqa was the daughter of Al-Mahdi, Caliph of Baghdad and his wife Al-Khaizuran, and the sister of Harun-Al-Rashid. Her father’s favourite daughter, Banuqa had her own villa within the grounds of the royal palace in Baghdad. Beautiful and elegant, the Caliph allowed her to ride in his own retinue, disguised in male attire, and carrying a sword. She died tragically young and contemporary poets produced many elegiac works to honour her memory.

Ban Zhao – (c48 – 115 AD) 
Chinese historian of the Later Han Dynasty
Widowed in her youth, Ban Zhao was part of the court, where she had the reputation of a scholar. Respected as such, the emperor commissioned Ban Zhao to complete the Han Shu, records of the Han Dynasty from 206 – 223 AD, which her brother Ban Gu had left unfinished at his death. She did this with some assistance, completing tables and a treatise on astronomy. Ban Zhao also wrote verse, but is best remembered for her Admonitions to Women, written in 106 AD, which has seven chapters and about 1600 characters. This is the earliest known manual of education for women, though it accepts the concept of women’s natural inferiority.

Bar, Catherine of Navarre, Duchesse de    see    Catherine de Bourbon

Bar, Jeanne d’Angouleme, Comtesse de    see    Angouleme, Jeanne d’

Bara, Nina – (1925 – 1990)
Argentinian film actress
Nina Bara best remembered for her appearance in Missile to the Moon (1958). Her main claim to fame was as a television actress in the Pacific kingdom of Tonga under Queen Salote Tupou III, where she appeared in the popular series for children entitled Space Patrol (1951 – 1952).

Bara, Theda – (1885 – 1955)
American silent film star and first sex goddess
Born Theodosia Goodman (July 20, 1885) in Cincinnati, Ohio, she was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish tailor, formerly from Poland. She attended the University of Cincinnati (1903 – 1905) and then worked as a film extra for several years. Her first stage role was in Molnar’s play The Devil (1908) which was produced on Broadway, and she used the professional name of Theodosia de Coppet. She was first projected to public notice by her adoption of the ‘vamp’ style, which led to her appearance in A Fool There Was (1915) which had the classic sub-title, ‘Kiss me, my fool !.’ She legally adopted the name of ‘Theda Bara’ (1917) and was married (1921) to the British film director Charles Brabin (1883 – 1957).
Other film credits included The Clemenceau Case (1915), Lady Audley’s Secret (1915), Cleopatra (1917), Madame Du Barry (1917), and Salome (1918), in which she portrayed the title characters, When a Woman Sins (1918), and Kathleen Mavourneen (1919). As her popularity waned Bara forsook films in Hollywood and worked on the stage in Broadway, New York (1919 – 1925). She then returned to the screen and appeared in several minor films such as The Unchastened Women (1925) and Madame Mystery (1926) with limited success, before retiring permanently. Bara continued to entertain as a hostess, but otherwise eschewed public life thereafter. Theda Bara died of cancer (April 7, 1955) aged sixty-nine, in Los Angeles, California.

Barabanova, Mariya – (1911 – 1993)
Russian actress
Mariya Barbanova was born in St Petersburg, and appeared in over thirty films including Novaya Moskva (1938), Doktor Kalyuzhnyy (1939), Russikiy vopros (The Russian Question) (1964), and Solovey (The Nightingale) (1979). She appeared in television as well, and ler last film role was in, My yedem v Ameriku (We Are Going to America) (1992). Mariya Barbanova died (March 16, 1993) aged eighty-one, in Moscow.

Baranamtara – (c2440 – c2375 BC)
Sumerian queen consort
Queen Baranamtara has been identified by a surviving seal from the period as the wife of Lugalanda, King of Lugash. The queen was also an official chief priestess, probably attached to the royal cult, with important ritual functions and duties. Baranamtara survived her husband and died during the reign of his successor, King Uruinimgina (Urukagina) who was responsible for the lavish funeral rites accorded to this queen, which involved several hundred people. It remains unknown what family relationship existed between Baranamtara and Uruinimgina, but surviving economic records reveal the social importance of this royal widow.

Baranovskaya, Vera – (1885 – 1935)
Russian actress
Baranovskaya was best known for her appearance in the film, Takovy je Zivot (Such Is Life) (1939), which was not released until after her death. Vera Baranovskaya died (Dec 7, 1935) aged fifty, in Paris.

Baraqani, Fatimah   see    Tahirah

Barat, Madeleine Sophie – (1779 – 1865)
French nun and saint
Madeleine Barat was born at Joigny in Burgundy, and received an intensely religious education. She was dissuaded from her original desire to become a Carmelite nun by the Abbe Joseph Varin and was appointed to head the newly formed Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (1800) which saought to promote education amongst all classes. She was then appointed as mother superior of the first established convent of the Sacred Heart at Amiens (1802) which she ruled for over six decades until her death. St Madeleine Barat was canonized (1925) by Pope Pius XI (1922 – 1939) and her feast observed (May 25).

Barbantane, Charlotte Francoise Elisabeth Catherine Du Mesnildot de Vierville, Marquise de – (fl. 1753 – after 1789)  
French letter writer and courtier
Charlotte Du Mesnildot de Vierville was married (1753) to Joseph Pierre Balthasar Hilaire de Puget (1725 – c1800), Marquis de Barbantane, who was French envoy to the court of Tuscany for almost two decades (1766 – 1784).  The marquise was a friend of Mme Du Deffand, Sir Horace Walpole, and Sir Horace Mann, with whom she corresponded. Active in court politics, Madame de Barbantane was said to have been involved with the fall of the Duke de Choiseul in 1770. Later, the marquise was appointed lady-in-waiting to the Duchess d’Orleans. However, the youthful Philippe Egalite became attratced to the older, vivacious marquise, and she was dismissed from royal service. She was the mother of Hilarion Paul Francois Bienvenu de Puget (1754 – 1828), Marquis de Barbantane, and of Aglae de Puget de Barbantane, the wife of Philippe Antoine, Count d’ Hunolstein, and mistress of the Marquis de Lafayette.

Barbara (1) – (fl. c500 – 510)
Roman scholar
Barbara was a cultivated lady of literary tastes and ability. The poet Bishop Ennodius of Ticinum sent Barbara two letters, preserved in his Epistulae and the Paraenesis Didascalia. Ennodius asked that his epitaph, written for Cynegia, the wife of Faustus Niger, should be shown to her. Ennodius cited Barbara as an example of literary learning and wrote to congratulate her (510) when she was invited to accept a position at the Imperial court, perhaps as tutor to the Princess Amalasuntha, the daughter of Theodoric the Great.

Barbara (2) – (1930 – 1997) 
French popular vocalist
Born Monique Serf in Paris (June 9, 1930), of Jewish parents, she studied classical music at the Paris Conservatoire. Her career began with an operatic role in 1949, but she became established from 1952 as a popular singer. From 1957 – 1963 she performed at the popular cabaret, L’Escluse, and this was the period which confirmed her later popular style, and her trademark black outfits when performing. Her favourite themes were those of loss and longing, and by 1959 she had begun composing her own repertoire, which included songs by Charles Aznavour, MacOrlan, Moustaki, and others. Her first recording, considered one of her finest, was Barbara chante Barbara. After a European tour (1967) she retired briefly, but returned to make several films, including Franz with Jacques Brel. Remembered as one of the few talented French singers whose career encompassed the music of two generations of fans, her most famous song, Ma plus belle histoire d’amour c’est vous was written by her. She directed the musical Lily Passion (1986) which starred Gerard Depardieu, and became increasingly involved in work for those afflicted with AIDS. She retired in 1994 but released one final album entitled simply ‘Barbara’ (1996). Barbara died (Nov 25, 1997) aged sixty-seven, in Paris.

Barbara, Agatha – (1923 – 2002)
Maltese politician and president (1982 – 1987)
Agatha Barbara was born (March 11, 1923), at Zabbar in Malta, and attended school at Valletta. Duirng WW II she volunterred as an air raid warden, and was then trained as a schoolteacher. Barbara became greatly interested in politics, and became the first woman to be elected to the Maltese parliament (1947 – 1981). During her time as Labour education minister (1955 – 1958) she introduced compulsory full-time education for children, and spent over a month in prison because of her participation in a national strike (1958). Barbara again served as education minister under a Labour government (1971 – 1974) and was eventually appointed as deputy prime minister. Barbara became the third president of the Republic of Malta, in succession to the acting president, Albert Hyzler, the only woman ever to be elected to this office. Her portrait was depicted on Maltese banknotes. Agatha Barbara died (Feb 4, 2002) aged seventy-eight, in Zabbar.

Barbara Komnena – (c1081 – 1125)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Barbara Komnena was closely related to the Emperor Johannes II Komnenus (1118 – 1143), being probably the daughter of Isaac Komnenus, Duke of Antioch and his wife Irene, the daughter of Dmitri Giorgishvili, King of Georgia. Princess Barbara was married (c1103) to Svyatopolk II Izyslavitch (1050 – 1113), Grand Prince of Kiev as his second wife and became Grand Princess consort of Kiev (c1103 – 1113). Barbara survived him over a decade as Dowager Grand Princess of Kiev (1113 – 1125). Princess Barbara died (Feb 28, 1125) aged about forty-three.
Her daughter Anna Svyatopolkovna became the wife of Svyatoslav Davidovitch, Prince of Tschernigov.

Barbara of Austria – (1539 – 1572)
Duchess of Modena and philanthropist
Archduchess Barbara was born at Innsbruck, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, and his wife Anna Jagiella, daughter and heiress of Wladyslaw II, King of Hungary and Bohemia. She was educated at Innsbruck with her four sisters. Though not at all regarded a beauty, she did receive several marriage proposals before she finally married (1565), at the age of twenty-five, to Alfonso II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena (1533 – 1597) as his second wife. Despite Barbara’s lack of looks, the marriage, which had been celebrated with Imperial splendour, was apparently a contented one, though it remained childless.
The Italian poet Torquato Tasso dedicated sonnets to her. When the region suffered severe earthquakes (1570 – 1571), Barbara used her own personal income to establish the Conservatore delle orfane di Santa Barbara, which provided financial support for young girls left orphaned by the disaster. A deeply religious woman, she favoured the Jesuits, but also maintained a deep and lasting relationship with her Protestant mother-in-law, Renee d’Orleans, daughter of Louis XII of France. The duchess died of tuberculosis (Sept 19, 1572), at Ferrara.

Barbara of Bavaria – (1454 – 1474)
German princess and nun
Princess Barbara was born (June 9, 1454), the third daughter of Albert III, Duke of Bavaria and his second wife Anna, the daughter of Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg. From early childhood (1459) the princess was raised in the convent of St Clara in Munich. With her mother’s death (1473) and before she took final vows, ambassadors from Louis IX of France sought her as a wife for his son, the Dauphin Charles (VIII), then aged three. Her brother Duke Albert IV gave her the final choice, but Barbara preferred to embrace the religious life and her brother placed guards around the convent lest the French should attempt to carry her off. Princess Barbara died (July 24, 1474) aged twenty. She had attained a reputation for religious sanctity, and the church honoured her as a saint (Sept 1).

Barbara of Cilly – (1390 – 1451)
Holy Roman empress (1433 – 1437)
Barbara was the daughter of Herman I, Count of Cilly and Ban of Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia, and his wife Catherine, the sister of Stephen Tvrtko, King of Bosnia. She became the second wife (1408) of Sigismund I of Luxemburg, King of Hungary and Germany (1368 – 1437) who was later elected emperor (1433).
A supporter of the Hussite movement, Catholic historians regarded Barbara’s influence as malign. With her husband’s death the empress became immersed in negotiations with King Ladislas III of Poland to join the two crowns of Hungary and Poland by their own marriage, but these negotiations failed, and that ended Barbara’s ambitions. Her only child Elisabeth (1409 – 1442), the rightful heiress, became the wife of Albert II of Austria, who inherited the late emperor’s titles (1437). With his seizure of power, the Empress Dowager, regarded as politically dangerous, was sent into exile with an Imperial pension. Barbara was much interested in alchemy, and had schemed to gain control of the rich Hungarian gold mines in order to augment her own income. Talented in the means of deceiving gold and silversmiths, the empress set up an alchemical laboratory at her castle of Melnik. Her fame became such that contemporary alchemists travelled to Melnik to view her procedures. Johann van Laaz visited the empress (1437), and left a written account of her devious and highly questionable procedures, which fooled many rich merchants.  Empress Barbara died (July 11, 1451) aged sixty-one, at Melnik castle.

Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg – (1405 – 1465)
Electress consort of Brandenburg (1440 – 1464)
Princess Barbara was the daughter of Rudolf III of Saxe-Wittenberg, Elector of Saxony (1388 – 1419) and his second wife Barbara of Silesia-Leignitz, the daughter of Rupert I, Duke of Silesia-Leignitz and his wife Hedwig of Silesia-Glogau, Queen Dowager of Poland. She became the wife (1412) of Johann, the electoral prince of Brandenburg (1406 – 1464) who later succeeded as Elector Johann the Alchemist of Brandenburg (1440). Her three brothers died young and with her father’s death Barbara and her elder half-sister Scholastica, Duchess of Silesia-Sagan vecame the coheiresses of his private estates. She survived him briefly as the Dowager Electress of Brandenburg (1464 – 1465) and died (Oct 10, 1465) aged sixty. Her children were,

Barbara of Silesia-Leignitz – (1372 – 1436)
Electress consort of Saxony (1396 – 1419)
Princess Barbara was the daughter of Rupert I, Duke of Silesia-Leignitz and his wife Hedwig of Silesia-Glogau, the widow of Kasimierz III, King of Poland. Barbara became the second wife (1396) of Rudolf III (c1369 – 1419), elector of Saxony, whom she survived as Electress Dowager (1419 – 1436). Her three sons, Rudolf, Wenzel (Wenceslas), and Sigismund, all predeceased their father, and her only surviving child was Barbara of Saxony (1405 – 1465), who was married to Johann the Alchemist (1406 – 1464), elector of Brandenburg and left descendants. Electress Barbara died (May 9, 1436).

Barbara of Syria – (c287 – c306 AD)
Greek Christian martyr
Barbara was supposedly killed at Hierapolis in Egypt, though Metaphrastes and Mambretius place her martyrdom in 235 AD. Her unreliable legend calls her the daughter of a Greek named Dioscorus. Because of her great beauty, her father caused her to be kept in a high tower. Refusing all offers of marriage, she was baptized as a Christian during her father’s absence. Dioscorus sent her to prison, but she refused to abjure her faith, despite being tortured, and eventually her father killed her himself. Regarded as a martyr, the early church celebrated her feast (Dec 4).
From the ninth century her cult was widespread throughout Europe and the east. Considered one of the four great patronesses of the Eastern Church, Barbara was the particular patron saint of gunners and miners, and was also invoked against lightning. In Britain Barbara is regarded as the patron of artillery companies and her emblem in religious art is a tower.

Barbara of Teschen – (1451 – before 1507)
Polish princess of Silesia
Princess Barbara was the younger daughter of Boleslav II, Duke of Teschen (1431 – 1452) and his wife Anna Ivanovna Bielskaia, the daughter of Prince Ivan Bielski of Lithuania. She was married firstly (1469) to Balthasar (c1410 – 1472), Duke of Sagan, as his second wife but left no children. The duchess remarried secondly (c1475) to her second cousin Duke Hanus V of Zator (c1454 – 1513) but his union also remained childless. Duchess Barbara was living (1494) but predeceased Duke Hanus dying (before May 12, 1507).

Barbara Radziwill – (1520 – 1551)
Queen consort of Poland (1548 – 1551)
Barbara Radziwill was the daughter of Prince Jerzey Radziwill, Captain of Lithuania. An accomplished and attractive young woman, she was proficient in several foreign languages.
Barbara was married firstly (1537) to Stanislas Gaszfold, Palatine of Troki, but remained childless. With his death (1542) she returned to the household of her parents in Vilna, where she met the future King Sigismund II Augustus, who fell in love with her. With the death of his unloved first wife, Elisabeth of Austria, Sigismund secretly married Barbara (1547). With his accession to the throne the king announced their marriage to the astonishment of the noblility and of his mother, the Queen mother Bona Sforza. The marriage created much disturbance in Poland, and led to open hostitlities between several prominent Polish families and relatives of the new queen. The Polish senate demanded the marriage be annulled by the king indignantly refused. Despite great opposition Barbara was crowned queen at Vavel cathedral (Dec 7, 1550). The king granted her the revenues of the castles and towns of Kaunes and Alytus for her upkeep, as well as other Lithuanian properties. Her health had begun to deteriorate from 1549, and she died childless not without the suspicion of poison, being interred at Vilna. Tradition of her great beauty is borne out by her portrait which remains in the Radziwill family’s private gallery.

Barbara Zapolya – (1495 – 1515)
Queen consort of Poland (1512 – 1515)
Barbara was the daughter of Stephen Zapolya. She became the first wife (1512) of Sigismund I (1467 – 1548), King of Poland. Her daughter Princess Jadwiga (Hedwig) Jagiella (1513 – 1573) became the wife of Joachim II (1505 – 1571), Elector of Brandenburg. Queen Barbara died (Oct 2, 1515) aged twenty.

Barbara Irene Adelaide Victoria Elisabeth Bathildis – (1920 – 1994)
Hohenzollern princess of Prussia
Princess Barbara was born (Aug 2, 1920) at Hemmelmark, near Eckenforde, Schleswig-Holstein, the only daughter of Prince Sigismund of Prussia and his wife Charlotte Agnes, the elder daughter of Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, and was the great-niece of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918). Princess Barbara was adopted as her heir by her grandmother, Princess Heinrich of Prussia (Irene of Hesse, the granddaughter of Queen Victoria) (1952) and was married (1954) at Glucksburg Castle, to her cousin Duke Christian Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1912 – 1996), and bore him two children. Barbara von Hohenzollern represented the former Imperial Hohenzollern family during the legal proceedings which resulted from the claim of Anna Anderson (Franziska Schanzkowska) to the Romanov grand duchess Anastasia, daughter of Tsat Nicholas II. The case remained unresolved and was later abandoned. Princess Barbara died (May 31, 1994) at Hemmelmark, aged seventy-three. Her two daughters were,

Barbara Sophia of Brandenburg – (1584 – 1636)
German princess and ruler
Margravine Barbara Sophia of Brandenburg was born (Nov 16, 1584) at Halle an der Saale, the third daughter of Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (1598 – 1608) and his first wife Margravine Catherine of Brandenburg-Kustrin. She became the wife (1609) at Stuttgart of Duke Johann Friedrich of Wurttemburg (1582 – 1628) and became his duchess consort (1628 – 1636). With her husband’s death the duchess ruled for several years as regent for her eldest son Eberhard Ludwig III. Barbara Sophia handed over the administration of the duchy to her son when he came of age (1632) and remained the Duchess Dowager of Wurttemburg until her death (Feb 13, 1636) aged fifty-one at Strasbourg in Alsace. Apart from one son Friedrich (1612) who died in infancy she left seven children,

Barbarina, La   see   Campanini, Barbarina

Barbauld, Anna Laetitia – (1743 – 1825) 
British poet and author
Anna Laetitia Aikin was born at Kibworth-Harcourt, Leicestershire, the daughter of John Aikin, a presbyterian minister and schoolmaster. Taught Latin and Greek at home by her father, in 1758 the family moved to Warrington, and in 1773 she successfully published her first volume Poems, and assisted her brother John Aikin with his Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose. She married Rochemont Barbauld, from an old French Huguenot family that had settled in England. The couple established and ran a boarding school at Palgrave, Suffolk. Her famous Hymns in Prose (1781) were written especially for her pupils. From 1785 – 1787 the couple travelled in Europe, and they resided firstly at Hampstead until 1802, when they removed to Stoke Newington, in London. Her husband died insane in 1808. She collaborated again with her brother John Aikin in his Evenings at Home, and she published an edition of Mark Akenside’s Pleasures of the Imagination (1795) to which she appended a critical essay. In 1804 she published a selection from the correspondence of Samuel Richardson, together with a biographical notice, and in 1810 a vast collection of the British novelists in fifty volumes. Her longest poetic work, Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, was a particularly gloomy prognosis on the current state and the future history of Britain.

Barbea – (c90 – c130 AD)
Syrian Christian martyr and saint
Barbea perished at Edessa, during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Hadrian, together with her brother Sarbelius, a converted pagan priest. Both endured horrific tortures before they were finally killed. The church honoured Barbea as a saint (Jan 29) and her feast is recorded in the Roman Martyrology. The Slavonian calendar honoured Barbea and Sarbelius together (Sept 5).

Barbella, Maria – (1868 – after 1917)
Italian-American rape victim and murderess
Maria was born in New York to immigrant Italian parents. She was raped and then jilted by her lover Domenico Cataldo, after which she walked into a bar in New York and slit Cataldo’s throat with a razor. She was apprehended on the spot and quickly condemned for murder. Barbella would have been the first woman to died in the electric hair, but her cause was taken up by female journalists and civic leaders who dubbed her the ‘Tomb-Angel’ and secured for her a second trial which acquitted her.

Barber, Elizabeth Bowker – (fl. 1818 – 1899)
British Victorian painter
Mrs Barber specialized in painting flowers, plants, birds, animals and insects. An exhibition of her work was held at Grahamstown (1870) and examples of her work were preserved in The Berbers of the Peak (1934) and Pictorial Art in South Africa (1952) by A. Gordon Brown.

Barber, Margaret Fairless    see    Fairless, Michael

Barber, Mary (1) – (1690 – 1757)
British Hanoverian poet
Mary was born in Ireland and became the wife of a businessman. Mrs Barber wrote verse from childhood but became known in literary circles after she became the friend of Jonathan Swift who gave her the literary epithet of ‘Sapphira’ (1724). At the urging of Swift, Mrs Barber came to England where she resided permanently, and published Poems on Several Occasions (1734). Weighed down by illness and legal wranglings with her printer, Swift saved Barber from destitution by permitting her to sell part of his own work A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation in order to recoup her finances. Her original verses were later republished and appeared in Poems by Eminent Ladies (1755).

Barber, Mary (2) – (1911 – 1965)
British bacteriologist
Mary Barber was born in Derby (April 3, 1911). She was the author of Antibiotic and Chemotherapy (1963). Mary Barber died (Sept 11, 1965) aged fifty-four.

Barbezieux, Elisabeth Turpin de Vauvredon, Marquise de – (1607 – 1698)
French peeress and courtier
Elisabeth Turpin de Vauvredon was married in Paris (Feb 12, 1629) to Michel Le Tellier (1603 – 1685), Marquis de Barbezieux, and chancellor to Louis XIV. Madame de Barbezieux attended the courts of both Louis XIII and that of Louis XIV at Versailles. Widowed in 1685, she became the Dowager Marquise de Barbezieux (1685 – 1698), and died in Paris, aged eighty-one (Nov 28, 1698). Her children were,

Barbi, Alice – (1862 – 1948)
Italian mezzo soprano
Alice Barbi was born at Brodena. She studied singing under Zamboni and Vannucceni, and made her concert debut in Milan in Lombardy (1882). Alice made several successful tours of Europe, and was also known for her talents as a violinist and a poet. Alice Barbi was married firstly to the German Baron von Wolff-Stomersee, and secondly to the Marchesa della Torretta who served as the Italian ambassador to London after WW I (1920).

Barbia Orbiana, Gnaea Seia Herennia Sallustia – (fl. c220 – 228 AD)
Roman Augusta (225 – 227 AD)
Barbia Orbiana was the daughter of Seius Sallustius, the Imperial praetorian guardleader, and became the first wife (225 AD) of the emperor Alexander Severus (208 – 235 AD). Officially accorded the rank of Augusta, the marriage remained childless. She did not get on with her mother-in-law, the empress Julia Mamaea, who finally had her divorced, stripped of her Imperial rank, and exiled to Africa (227 AD) after her father was put to death for having been involved in a conspiracy against his Imperial son-in-law. Coins survive and a statue of the empress representing the deity Venus Felix is preserved within the Cortile Belvedere of the Vatican Museum. This statue had been dedicated to the empress by two of her freed slaves.

Barbier, Adele Euphrasie – (1829 – 1893)
French nun and founder
Adele Barbier was born (Jan 4, 1829) at Caen in Normandy. She became a Catholic nun and founded the Congregation of Our Lady of the Missions in New Zealand and later retired to England. Sister Barbier died (Jan 18, 1893) aged sixty-four, at Westbere in Kent.

Barbieri, Clelia – (1847 – 1870)
Italian saint
Clelia Barbieri was a native of Emilia, near Bologna. Clelia desired to form a group of women devoted to the contemplative and apostolic life. To further this ambition, she formed the Minims of Our Lady of Sorrows, becoming the youngest religious founder in church history. She died young.

Barbieri, Fedora – (1920 – 2003)
Italian mezzo soprano
Barbieri was born (June 4, 1920) at Trieste and made her operatic debut in Florence (1940) and then at the Teatro alla Scala (1942) where she performed in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. After marrying she retired briefly but returned to the stage after the war. She appeared in the role of the Princess of Eboli in Giuseppe Verdi’s Don Carlo at the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1950). Her other admired roles was as Ulrica in Un Ballo in Maschera and Azucena in Il Trovatore. She was best known for her association with the Greek Maria Callas and some of their work such as La Gioconda (1952) has been recorded. Fedora Barbieri died (March 4, 2003) aged eighty-two.

Barbirolli, Evelyn Rothwell, Lady    see     Rothwell, Evelyn

Barbo, Polissena – (c1395 – 1467)
Italian papal matriarch
Polissena Condulmer was the daughter of Angelo Condulmer, a Venetian patrician, and his wife Bariola Cornaro (Corner). She was niece to Pope Gregory XII (1336 – 1415), sister to Pope Eugenius IV (1383 – 1447), and married Niccolo Barbo by whom she became the mother of Pope Paul II (1417 – 1471). Polissena Barbo was the grandmother of Cardinal Marco Barbo, Cardinal Zeno, and Cardinal Giovanni Micheli, papal legate in 1485, all important churchmen of the period.

Barbosa, Madalena – (1942 – 2008)
Portugese activist and feminist
Barbosa founded the Movimento de Libertacao das Mulheres (Movement for the Liberation of Women) (1974) and was then appointed to serve (1980) on the Commission on the Staus of Women, Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality. She later served as a political candidate for the Movimento Cidadaos por Lisboa (Citizens Movement for Lisbon) (2007). Maddalena Barbosa died (Feb 21, 2008) aged sixty-five.

Barbour, Martha Isabella Hopkins – (1824 – 1888)
American military wife and diarist
Her husband, Major Barbour, was killed in battle in Mexico. During her husband’s absence in the war Martha resided with relatives in Texas. Her private journal was later edited and published posthumously as Journals of the Late Brevet Major Philip Norbourne Barbour, Captain in the 3rd Regiment, United States Infantry, and his wife, Martha Isabella Hopkins Barbour, written During the War with Mexico, 1846 (1936).

Barclay, Caroline – (fl. c1780 – 1794) 
British actress
Caroline Barclay was the daughter of a clergyman. Trained for the musical stage by Thomas Linley, Caroline made her debut in London (1792) in the role of Anna in Dido, Queen of Carthage, before joining the Haymarket Theatre in the same year. Her roles ther included Charlotte in Two to One, a comic farce, Laura in The Agreeable Surprise, as well as vocal roles in The Surrender of Calais. After her marriage to a gentleman named Whalley, Caroline retired from the stage. De Wilde’s portrait of Caroline as Olivia in She Stoops to Conquer was engraved by Leney. Nothing is recorded of her later life.

Barclay, Florence – (1862 – 1920)
British novelist
Florence Barclay was the wife of Reverend Charles W. Barclay, by whom she had eight children. She resided with her family at Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford-Heath, and at The Corner House, in Overstand, Norfolk. Florence wrote over a dozen popular novels inlcuding, The Wheels of Time (1908), The Mistress of Shenstone (1910), Through the Postern Gate (1912), The White Ladies of Worcester (1917), and her last work, Returned Empty (1920).

Barclay, Margaret de – (c1362 – c1403)
Scottish mediaeval heiress
Margaret was the daughter of Sir David de Barclay, Lord of Brechin and his wife Janet Keith, the daughter of Sir Edward Keith of Synton. Her stepfather was Sir Thomas Erskine of Dun and Alloa. She was thus half-sister to Sir Robert Erskine, thirteenth Earl of Mar. Margaret inherited the lordship of Brechin from her father and was married (1378) into the royal family, becoming the wife of Prince Walter Stuart (1358 – 1437), Earl of Atholl and Caithness, the second son of King Robert II and his second wife Euphemia Ross. Countess Margaret bore Walter two sons, David Stuart (c1380 – 1434), Master of Atholl, and Alan Stuart (c1383 – 1431), third Earl of Caithness. She had died shortly before 1404.

Barclay-Smith, Phyllis – (c1895 – 1980)
British ornithologist, author and editor
Ida Phyllis Barclay-Smith attended school at Worthing and Blackheath before going on to study at King’s College in London. She was appointed as the assistant secretary and then secretary (1946 – 1978) of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and was then the vice-president of the International Council for Bird Preservation. Phyllis Barclay-Smith was the president of the British Ornithologists’s Union (1957 – 1960) and was concerned with the degradation to natural environments caused by oil spillage.
Barclay-Smith was the editor of The Avicultural Magazine for over three decades (1939 – 1973), and was the author of several works on ornithology such as British Birds on Lake, River, and Stream (1939), Garden Birds (1945) and A Book of Ducks (1951).

Bardolet-i-Puig, Antonia – (1877 – 1956)
Spanish traveller and lecturer
Antonia was born at Vic, near Barcelona in Aragon. She learnt to speak and write in both French and English, but with the death of her mother she was forced to leave school in order to assist the family at home. Her poems and short stories were published in the local magazines Gazeta montanyesa and Feminal. She studied astronomy and sent notes concerning Halley’s Comet (1910) to the Astronomy Society of Barcelona. Antonia travelled extensively throughout England and Europe and gave lectures concerning her trips. Antonia Bardolet-i-Puig died at Borreda, near Girona.

Bardoneche, Adelaide de Villeneuve-Vence, Comtesse de – (1753 – 1840)
French aristocrat
Born Alexandrine Charlotte Adelaide de Villeneuve-Vence (Jan 12, 1753) at Surgeres, Charente-Maritime, the eldest daughter of Alexandre de Villeneuve-Vence, marquis de Vence, and his wife Angelique Louise de La Rochefoucauld, the daughter of Alexandre Nicolas de La Rochefoucauld, Comte de Surgeres. Through her father she was a descendant of the famous letter writer and salonniere, Madame de Sevigne. Adelaide lived as a canoness of the noble chapter of St Louis at Metz in Lorraine prior to her marriage (1773) at Vence, in Alpes-Maritime, to Cesar Antoine Rene Nicolas, Comte de Bardoneche and Vicomte de Triers (1745 – 1820), to whom she bore an only child and heiress. Madame de Bardoneche and her immediate family survived the horrors of the Revolution, and the comtesse later inherited the estates (1808) of her childless sister Sophie Roseline, Marquise du Perrier. Adelaide survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Comtesse de Bardoneche (1820 – 1840). Her daughter and heiress, Antoinette de Bardoneche (1782 – 1872) was married to her cousin, Ferdinand de Bardoneche de Champiney (1782 – 1820), Comte de Bardoneche, and left descendants. Madame de Bardoneche died (Nov 14, 1840) aged eighty-seven, at Villeneuve-de-Berg.

Bardua, Caroline – (fl. 1822 – 1840)
German painter
Caroline Bardua studied under Meyer and Gerhard von Kugelgen, and became the companion and assistant to the portraitist Caroline Luise Seidler. Bardua exhibited her work for nearly two decades, and produced portraits of the poet Goethe and his wife, and of the painter Caspar David Friedrich, which is preserved in the Berlin National Gallery, Prussia.

Barff, Jane Foss – (1864 – 1937)
Australian teacher, feminist, and civic leader
Jane Russell was born in Sydney, the daughter of Henry Chamberlain Russell, and the sister of the prominent lawyer and businessman Henry Ambrose Russell (1865 – 1929). She married (1899) Sydney Henry Barff. Prior to marrying Jane had graduated from Sydney University with honours (1886 and 1889) and had taught mathematics and English at the Ascham School before being appointed tutor to women students at Sydney University (1892). She resigned after her marriage.
In 1916 Jane became president of the NSW League of Honour, and from 1915 – 1924 she was the president of the University Women’s Settlement, as well as a member of the National Council of Women. She also served as councillor of St Catherine’s Church of England School for Girls.

Barfield, Velma – (1932 – 1984)
American murderess
Margie Velma Bullard was born (Oct 23, 1932) in South Carolina, and was raised near Fayetteville in North Carolina. She left an unhappy home to marry (1949) Thomas Burke and bore two children. Ill-health caused her to become addicted to drugs. Burke died in a fire after Mrs Burke and the children had left the house (1965) and she received the insurance money. Velma Burke remarried (1970) to Jennings Barfield, a widower who died a year later.
Mrs Barfield then worked as a carer for the elderly and was responsible for the deaths of Montgomery Edwards and his wife Dollie (1976). Another victim Stuart Taylor, her own lover and a relative of Dollie Edwards was murdered by Barfield (1978) who feared that he had discovered she had been forging chques on his bank account. When an autopsy discovered arsenic in Taylor’s body Velma Barfield was arrested and charged with murder. The remains of her husband Jennings were exhumed and traces of arsenic found but Barfield denied complicity in his death, though she did confess to poisoning her mother-in-law Lillian Barfield (1974). She was found guilty and sentenced to death. During her time in prison she became a born again Christian but when an appeal to the Federal Court failed she ordered her appeal to the Supreme Court to be abandoned.
Velma Barfield was executed (Nov 2, 1984) aged fifty-two, being the first woman in the USA to be executed after the resumption of capital punishment (1977) and the first woman to die by lethal injection.

Barham, Diana Middleton, Lady    see   Middleton, Diana

Bari, Judy – (1949 – 1997)
American environmental activist
Bari was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and attended Baltimore University, where she was involved in protests against the Vietnam War. She became a labour organizer in New York, and organized a successful workers trike at the United States Postal Service in Washington. She became involved in the cause of protecting the famous California redwood forests from destruction at the hands of developers, and with the radical environmental group Earth First she organized constant anti-logging campaigns in northern California (1990).
Soon afterwards she was permanently injured after a bomb exploded in her car (May, 1990), though police chose to believe that Bari and her traveling companion Robert Cherney were responsible and arrested them. They were later released and sued for false arrest. The case remained pending at the time of Miss Bari’s death. Judy Bari died (March 2, 1997) of cancer, aged forty-seven, in California.

Baring, Rose Gwendolen Louisa McDonnell, Lady – (1909 – 1993)
British courtier
Lady Rose McDonnell was the elder daughter of Randal Mark Kerr McDonnell, seventh earl of Antrim and his wife Margaret Isabel Talbot. Her paternal grandmother was Louisa Grey, Countess of Antrim, lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra. She was married (1933) to Francis Anthony Baring to whim she bore three children. Baring was killed in action during WW II (1940), but Lady Rose never remarried. Lady Baring was a prominent figure at the court of Queen Elizabeth II, serving the queen as woman of the bedchamber for twenty years (1953 – 1973) for which service she was made a CVO (Commander of the Victorian Order) (1964) and a DCVO (Dame Commander of the Victorian Order) (1972). From 1973 she served as an extra woman of the bedchamber.

Baring, Venetia Marjorie Mabel – (1890 – 1937)
British courtier
The Hon. (Honourable) Miss Baring was the daughter of Lord Ashburton. She was a famous Edwardian beauty and served at court as maid-of-honour to Queen Mary, the wife of George V (1910 – 1935). Venetia remained unmarried..

Barker, Jane – (c1652 – 1727)
English poet and writer
Jane was born into a royalist family and was raised at Wilsthorp, near Stamford in Lincolnshire. She never married and and published the collection entitled Poetical Recreations (1688). With the fall soon afterwards of King James II, Jane Barker fled to the Jacobite court in France. She later resided in London and carried on a correspondence with the exiled Jacobite peer the Duke of Ormonde. Her published works included the prose romance Exilius; or, The Banish’d Roman (1715) and Loves Intrigues: or, The History of the Amours of Bosvil and Galesia (1719). These were followed by the anthologies A Patch-Work Screen for the Ladies (1723) and The Lining For the Patch-Work Screen (1726).

Barker, Dame Lilian Charlotte – (1874 – 1955)
British prison officer and reformer
Barker was born in London, the daughter of a tobacconist. She trained as a teacher at Whitelands College in Chelsea, and was appointed as principal of the London County Council Women’s Institute in Marylebone. During WW I Barker worked to train army cooks before she became involved with the organization tens of thousands of women for the war effort and was appointed as the Lady Superintendent at the Woolwich Arsenal (1915).
After the war Barker was offered the governorship of the Borstal Institute for Girls at Aylesbury (1923 – 1935) where she instituted a more liberal and improved policy towards the inmates which bore successful results. Lilian Barker was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) in recognition of her valuable work. Her last appointment was as the first female assistant commissioner for Prisons (1935 – 1943). Barker remained unmarried and retired in 1943. Dame Lilian Barker died (May 21, 1955) at Hallsands, near Devon in Cornwall.

Barker, Ma – (1873 – 1935)
American criminal gang leader and murderess
Arizona Donnie Clark was born (Oct 8, 1873) at Ash Grove, near Springfield in Missouri. She became the wife (1892) of George Elias Barker to whom she bore four sons. Mrs Barker later became the leader and mastermind of the infamous gang which included her sons Dock (Arthur), Fred, Lloyd and Herman Barker. Mrs Baker encouraged her sons in their lives of petty crime, which quickly developed into a crime spree of murder, kidnapping and robbery. The Hamm (1933) and Bremer (1934) kidnappings netted the gang around three hundred thousand dollars, and they went on to commit many bank robberies. Her elderly lover Arthur Dunlop was later murdered by her son Freddie at her behest.
Well able to handle herself with a gun Ma Barker and her sons Lloyd and Herman were all killed in a final dramatic shoot out with FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) agents and local police at Lake Weir in Florida, where the gang had holed up in a cottage (Jan 16, 1935). Dock and Freddie were apprenhended and later died, Dock being killed whilst attempting to escape the infamous island prison of Alcatraz (1939). Ma Barker was portrayed by actress Lurene Tuttle in the film Ma Barker’s Killer Brood (1960) by actress Theresa Russell in the film Public Enemies (1996) which was directed by Mark L. Lester. Her career was also the subject of the movie Bloody Mama (1970). She was also the subject of the song ‘Ma Baker’ (1977) by the popular group Bony M, though the surname was slightly altered to fit the lyrics.

Barker, Margaret – (1908 – 1992)
American stage actress and director
Margaret Barker was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a prominent physician. She attended Bryb Mawr College with Katharine Hepburn, and began her career on the stage as Alice Fordyce in, The Age of Innocence (1928), with Katharine Cornell. Successive stage roles included that of Henrietta in The Barretts of Wimpole Street, also with Katharine Cornell, and The House of Connelly, Men in White and Till the Day I Die by Clifford Odet.
Barker performed with the Williamstown Summer Theater in Massachusetts for ten years and was also a member of the Circle Repertory Company in New York. Barker made appearances in Autumn Garden by Lilliam Hellman and in Member of the Wedding by Carson McCullers. Margaret Barker died of cancer (April 3, 1992) in Manhattan, New York.

Barker, Mary Cornelia – (1879 – 1963)
Southern American educator and labour leader
Mary Cornelia Barker was born (Jan 20, 1879) in Atlanta, Georgia, the daughter of schoolteachers, and granddaughter of a plantation owner. She received most of her education at Decatur and was trained as a schoolteacher. Barker worked for over two decades in the public school system in Atlanta, firstly as principal of the Ivy Street School (1922 – 1923) and then of the John B. Gordon School (1923 – 1944).
Mary Barker was a founding member of the Atlanta Public School Teachers’ Association (APSTA) (1905) which was affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Long concerned with the wages, hours and conditions endured by southern women factory workers, Barker joined the organizing committee of the Southern Summer School for Women Workers of Industry (1926) and later acted as chairwoman of school’s central committee (1927 – 1944). Mary retired in 1944. Mary Barker died (Sept 15, 1963) aged eighty-four, in Atlanta.

Barker, Sally – (c1887 – 1974) 
Australian feminist
Sally Barker was born in Durham, England. She was very early involved with anti-conscription campaigns after her arrival in Queensland from England. Barker then went to Melbourne where, until the 1930’s she was the leader of the Militant Women’s Group. She was a supporter of the British Seaman’s strike (1925), leading the public demonstration to Trades Hall, and later joined the Communist Party. Publicly active during the Timber Worker’s strike (1929) she spent a term in prison. Sally Barker remained unmarried.

Barkly, Fanny – (fl. 1879 – 1897)
British traveller and author
Frances Barkly was the daughter of the British bishop of Mauritius, and was married into a prominent diplomatic family. Mrs Barkly accompanied her husband on his postings throughout the empire. She managed to escape from the siege of Mafeteng (1879) by stowing herself away in a wagon bound for South Africa, and survived by eating locusts. She was with her family on Mahe, in the Seychelles Islands when the place was cut off by a smallpox epidemic. Fanny and her family were reduced to cooking and eating the children’s pet tortoise in order to survive.
Mrs Barkly then accompanied her husband to Heligoland for a year before it was ceded to Germany (1888). Fanny Barkly published two accounts of her travels and experiences Among Boers and Basutos: The Story of our Life on the Frontier (1893) and From the Tropics to the North Sea, including Sketches of Colonial Life; Five Years in the Seychelles … an Interlude at the Falklands … Followed by Promotion to Heligoland, the Gem of the North Sea (1897).

Barlow, Hannah Bolton – (1851 – 1916)
British ceramicist and decorator
Hannah Barlow was born (Nov 2, 1851) at Little Hadham in Hertfordshire, the daughter of a bank manager. She studied at the Lambeth School of Art and Design in London (1868 – 1870) and then worked with the pottery firm established by Henry Doulton, being the first female artist that he employed. Barlow became known for specialized drawings of wildlife on raw clay, and exhibited terracotta reliefs at the Royal Academy (1881 – 1890). Her work was also exhibited at the Society of British Artists.

Barlow, Jane – (1857 – 1917) 
Irish novelist
Jane Barlow was born in Clontarf in Dublin, the eldest daughter of J.W. Barlow. Educated at home, Jane never married, and resided for most of her life at Raheny, Dublin. She devoted herlife to writing novels, all set with authentic Irish backgrounds. Because of her contribution to Irish culture she was awarded an honorary doctorate in Literature from the University of Dublin. Her works included Bogland Studies (1892), The Battle of Frogs and Mice (1894), Creel of Irish Stories (1897), From the Land of the Shamrock (1900), The Mockers’ (1908), and Doings and Dealings (1913), amongst others.

Barlow, Mary Kate – (1865 – 1934)
Australian editor and civic activist
Mary Kate McDonagh was born in Limerick, Ireland, the daughter of John McDonagh and was educated at the convent at Laurel Hill. She immigrated to Sydney in Australia (1884) where she was married to the architect John Bede Barlow (1887). All her life Barlow worked tirelessly for the Roman Catholic Church becoming involved in a variety of civic projects and was editor of the Catholic Women’s Review (1930 – 1934). Mary Kate Barlow died (May 27, 1934) aged sixty-nine, in Sydney.

Barlow, Nora Darwin, Lady – (1885 – 1989)
British editor and publisher
Emma Nora Darwin was the daughter of Sir Horace Barlow, a civil engineer and his wife Emma, the daughter of Thomas Henry Farrer, first Baron Farrer (1819 – 1899). She was the granddaughter of the famous naturalist Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882). Nora Darwin was married (1911) to Sir Alan Barlow (1881 – 1968), second Baronet (1945 – 1968), to whom she bore six children including Sir Thomas Erasmus Barlow (1914 – 2003), third Baronet (1968 – 2003), an important naval officer. She was grandmother of the poet Ruth Padel.
Lady Barlow edited and published The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809 – 1882 (1958) and also the correspondence of Charles Darwin and John Stevens Henslow as, Darwin and Henslow: The Growth of an Idea.Letters, 1831 – 1860 (1967). Her other works included the editing of Charles Darwin’s Diary of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (1933), and Darwin’s Ornithological Notes (1963).

Barnacle, Nora – (1884 – 1951)
Irish literary muse
Nora Barnacle was born in Dublin and was originally employed as a chambermaid. She met the novelist James Joyce (1882 – 1941) when she was twenty, and remained his mistress for over twenty-five years (1904 – 1929). The couple resided at Trieste in Italy, and in Zurich in Switzerland, and Barnacle bore Joyce two children. They eventually married (1931) and he immortalized her as Molly Bloom in his famous novel, Ulysses (1922).

Barnard, Anne Lindsay, Lady – (1750 – 1825)
Scottish lyricist
Lady Anne Lindsay was the eldest daughter of James Lindsay, Earl of Balcarres, and his wife Anne, the daughter of Sir Robert Dalrymple, of Castleton.  Introduced to Samuel Johnson in Edinburgh (1773), she later resided with her sister, Lady Margaret Fordyce, in London, and eventually married (1793) Andrew Barnard, son of the Bishop of Limerick, who became colonial secretary at the Cape of Good Hope, in South Africa. The couple arrived there in March, 1797, and remained until Jan, 1802.
Her Journals and Notes, which she illustrated with drawings and sketches whilst at the Cape, were reproduced in Lives of the Lindsays. A series of letters written by Lady Anne to Henry Dundas, then secretary for war and the colonies, were published under the title, South Africa a Century Ago (1901).  Widowed in 1807, Lady Barnard returned to England, and kept a fashinable salon at her home in Berkeley Square, London. There, the Prince of Wales, Richard Sheridan, and Edmund Burke were amongst her guests, and she achieved fame as the author (1772) of the Scottish ballad ‘Auld Robin Gray’ which was set to music by Rev. William Leeves. Lady Anne Barnard died (May 6, 1825) aged seventy-three.

Barnard, Marjorie Faith – (1897 – 1987)
Australian novelist, librarian and reformer
Barnard was born (Aug 16, 1897) at Ashfield in Sydney, New South Wales. She attended Sydney University and then became a librarian at the Sydney Technical College. Using the pseudonym ‘M. Barnard Eldershaw’ she published several works with Flora Eldershaw including A House is Built (1929) and the novel Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1947).
Barnard published the highly regarded A History of Australia (1962) and produced biographies of such famous early Australian figures as the convict architect Francis Greenway, and of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. She produced the biographical memoir Miles Franklin (1965) and was the recipient of the Patrick White Literary Award (1983). Marjorie Barnard died (May 8, 1987) aged eighty-nine, at Point Clare in NSW.

Barnato, Diana    see   Walker, Diana Barnato

Barnes, Binnie – (1903 – 1998) 
Anglo-American actress
Born Gertrude Maude Barnes in London, she was the daughter of a policeman. After having briefly performed in vaudeville, she made her stage debut in 1929 with Charles Laughton in Silver Tassie. Her film debut was in Night in Montmartre (1931) with Heather Angel. Favouring feisty character roles, she played Queen Catharine Howard in Alexander Korda’s The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933) opposite Charles Laughton, and she played opposite Douglas Fairbanks in The Private Life of Don Juan.  In 1934 she travelled to Hollywood, and appeared in over seventy-five films, including There’s Always Tomorrow, The Adventures of Marco Polo, The Three Musketeers, The Last of the Mohicans (1939), The Spanish Main (1945), and The Pirates of Capri (1949). Binnie made several films in Italy and appeared in The Trouble With Angels (1966), with Rosalind Russell. In her last film, Forty Carats (1972) she starred with Gene Kelly and Liv Ullmann. She was married (1940) to Mike Frankovich (died 1992) a Columbia studio executive. Binnie Barnes died aged ninety-five, died in Beverly Hills, California.

Barnes, Carol Lesley – (1944 – 2008)
British educator, journalist and broadcaster
Carol Barnes was born (Sept 13, 1944) in London, the daughter of an insurance broker. She was educated in London before attending Sheffield University. She trained as a teacher at Birmingham University, and was employed as such at Mitcham in Surrey. After working public relations Barnes became managing editor of the Time Out magazine and was then a scriptwriter for the IRN (Independent Radio News). She then worked as a newsreader at BBC Radio 4 before joining the ITV network as newsreader for News At Ten (1992 – 1999). Her populariy was such that Barnes was voted as Newscaster of the year (1994). Carol Barnes died (March 8, 2008) at Brighton, London, aged sixty-three, after suffering a stroke.

Barnes, Charlotte – (1818 – 1863)
American dramatist and actress
Charlotte Barnes was born into a theatrical family, appearing on the stage from childhood in New York and Boston. Charlotte achieved fame with her play, Octavia Bragaldi, or, The Confession (1837), set in the Deep South, and concerning a tragic love triangle, which was based upon a real life situation. It was presented in various adaptations throughout the world. Charlotte appeared on stage at the Arch Street Theater in Philadelphia, after her marriage (1846) to the manager.

Barnes, Djuana – (1892 – 1982)
American writer, journalist, dramatist, artist and illustrator
Born in New York, Barnes worked as a magazine journalist and illustrator before embarking upon her own literary career, producing short stories and plays, and articles for a variety of magazines. Her best known works were the exceptional novel Nightwood (1936) and the play The Antiphon (1958) and she was highly regarded by T.S. Eliot.

Barnes, Florence Lowe (Pancho) – (1901 – 1975) 
American aviatrix
Born at Pasadena, in California, her family was partly ruined by the Depression. She later bought an alfalfa ranch in Antelope Valley (1933). Florence was a stunt pilot in the 1929 version of Howard Hughes’s film Hell’s Angels, and she participated in the 1929 air race between Santa Monica, California, and Cleveland, Ohio. Leading in the second stage of the flight, she had to withdraw altogether after her plane sufferred a collison with a car in Pecos, Texas. The other contestants in the race voted against Florence continuing in another plane. Notwithstanding this setback, her 1930 speed record (196.19 m.p.h.) in Los Angeles, exceeded that established by Amelia Earhart in 1929. Chairman of the 1931 transcontinental race for women, Barnes devoted her energy to organizing a group of female pilot whose services could be used in times of national disaster. Florence Barnes was found dead at her home in Boron, California.

Barnes, Isabella – (fl. 1890 – 1910)
British painter
Isabella Barnes specialized in producing miniatures and had her own studio in Westminster, London. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy over a period of two decades.

Barnes, Dame Josephine – (1912 – 1999)
British obstetrician and gynaecologist
Alice Josephine Mary Taylor Barnes was born (Aug 12, 1912) at Shorlingham in Norfolk, and studied physiology at Lady Margaret Hall at Oxford. She completed her clinical training at the University College Hospital in London. After holding various junior medical appointments Barnes was appointed as the deputy head of the Obstetric Unit at the University College Hospital (1947 – 1952). She also served for two decades (1947 – 1967) as the resident surgeon at the Marie Curie Hospital.
Dr Barnes served as the first female president of the British Medical Association (1979 – 1980) and was closely associated with the National Association of Family Planning Doctors. She also served on various committees including the Royal Commission on Medical Education (1965 – 1968), the Committee on the Working of the Abortion Act (1971 – 1973) and the Advertising Standards Authority (1980 – 1993). She was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1974) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her contributions to medicine. Her marriage with Sir Harold Brian Seymour Warren produced three children before they were divorced (1964). Dame Josephine Barnes, sometimes known as Dame Josephine Warren, died (Dec 28, 1999) aged eighty-seven.

Barnes, Julyan     see    Berners, Juliana

Barnes, Margaret Campbell – (1891 – 1962)
British historical novelist
Barnes was raised in Sussex, and was educated in London prior to finishing her education in Paris. She was married to a furniture salesman and bore him two sons. Barnes published several novels such as Windsor and Quiver before turning her hand to historical romances, for which she was best remembered. She produced ten such novels all of which were translated into many foreign languages and sold over two million copies. These included My Lady of Cleves (1947), perhaps one of her best known, which dealt with the life of Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of Henry VIII, With All My Heart, which dealt with the marriage of Charles II and Catharine of Braganza, Lady on the Coin, which dealt with the love of the same King Charles for Frances Teresa Stuart, Within the Hollow Crown, The Tudor Rose, and King’s Fool (1959) which dealt with the relationship of the royal fool Will Somers, to King Henry and all of his six wives.

Barnet, Emily Mercy Margaret – (c1866 – 1925)
Australian civic leader
Emily Barnet was born in Goolwa, South Australia, the daughter of William Barnet. An accomplished musician and accompanist, Emily never married, and organized the Gawler branch of the District Trained Nursing Society, of which foundation she served as honorary secretary (1895 – 1920). She worked for the Presbyterian Inland Mission, and was a foundation member of Gawler Hospital, being successful in the promotion of St John Ambulance classes for women.

Barnet, Maria Teresa    see    Venet i Real, Maria Teresa

Barnett, Catherine – (fl. 1786 – 1800)
British actress and vocalist
Catherine Barnett was married (1800) to Richard Phillips. Catherine began her career singing in the Vauxhall Gardens, and performed a minor role at Drury Lane theatre (1790) in the lyric presentation of Douglas. Catherine performed in Edinburgh (1794 – 1795) and at York (1796 – 1797). Her most important role was that of Rosetta in Love in a Village (1793). The singer Henry Phillips was her son.

Barnett, Dame Henrietta Octavia Weston – (1851 – 1936)
British philanthropist and social reformer
Henrietta Octavia Weston Rowland was born (May 4, 1851) at Clapham in London. She worked with Octavia Hill in Bryanston Square in London, observing her ideas on public housing prior to her marriage with Canon A. Barnett (1873). There were no children. Possessed of a dominant personality and boundless energy, Mrs Barnett became the first woman to be appointed as a guardian and manager of the Forest Gate district school (1875 – 1897).
Mrs Barnett served on the committee looking into the conditions of children affected by the Poor Laws which led to the establishment of the State Children’s Association (1896) of which organization Henrietta Barnett served as secretary. She later served as the honorary secretary of the Whitechapel branch of the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants (1876 – 1898) and founded the London Pupil Teachers’ Association (1884) of which she served as president (1891 – 1907).
With her husband she was closely associated with the work of Toynbee hall which advocated the settlement ideals in the USA and led to Mrs Barnett, an Englishwoman, being appointed as the honorary president of the American Federation of Settlements. Henrietta Barnett formed the Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust (1903) and raised the finances necessary to build houses for all classes in one suburb.
Henrietta Barnett was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1924) by King George V in recognition of her valuable public service, and she founded the Dame Henrietta Barnett School at Hampstead. She published the memoir of her husband entitled Canon Barnett: His Life, Work and Friends (1918) and the personal memoir Matters that Matter (1930). Dame Henrietta Barnett died (June 10, 1936) aged eighty-five, at Hampstead.

Barnett, Isobel Morag – (1918 – 1980)
British radio broadcaster
Isobel Morag Marshall was the daughter of a physician, Robert McNab Marshall, and attended secondary school in York before going on to study medicine at Glasgow University in Scotland. Isobel became the wife (1941) of the solicitor Geoffrey Morris Barnett (born 1902), to whom she bore a son. When Barnett served as Lord Mayor of London (1952 – 1953) Isobel was Lady Mayoress and carried out her official duties. When Georffrey was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1953) she became Lady Barnett (1953 – 1980).
Lady Barnett became nationally famous due to her radio and television work, particularly the popular BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) panel program What’s My Line ? Her other television credits included appearances in Petticoat Line and Any Questions ? She published the autobiography My Life Line (1956).

Barney, Natalie Clifford – (1876 – 1972)
American literary figure, salon hostess, and writer
Natalie Clifford Barney was born (Oct 31, 1876) at Dayton, Ohio, into a rich railroad family. She attended school in New York and in France and studied art at the boarding school Les Ruches in Fontainbleau, near Paris. Witty, bilingual, and a talented amateur violinist, she was attracted only to members of her own sex, and became the most outspoken and well known lesbian figure of her era. She published a volume of French love poems, Quelques portraits-sonnets des femmes (1900), which was illustrated by her mother.
Barney was said to have indulged in a romantic liasion with the famous courtesan Liane de Pougy, which was said to jave formed the basis of Pougy’s novel Idylle saphique (1901). The elderly writer Remy de Gourmont, made Barney world famous by addressing her in his work, Lettres a l’Amazone (1912 – 1913). Barney’s international literary fame also lay with her long presidence of her own salon in the rue Jacob in Paris, which she established in 1909, and which was most prominent during the postwar period of the 1920’s.
Barney left three volumes of memoirs, Aventures de l’esprit (1929), Souvenirs indiscrets (1960), and Traits en portraits (1963). She became estranged from her longtime companion, the novelist Romaine Brooks after a relationship of five decades (1969). Natalie Barney died (Feb 2, 1972) aged ninety-five, in Paris.

Barney, Nora Stanton Blatch     see     Blatch, Nora Stanton

Barnham, Alice – (1592 – 1650)
English Stuart heiress and peeress
Alice was the second daughter of Alderman Barnham of London who was also a Member of Parliament. He died in 1598 leaving each of his daughters six thousand pounds and three hundred pounds annually in land rents. She was married to the Tudor philosopher and statesman Sir Francis Bacon (1606), thirty years her senior, as a source of financial income. The writer Carleton described Lady Bacon as ‘a handsome maiden, to my liking.’ When Bacon was raised to the peerage by James I she became Baroness Verulam (1618 – 1626) and then Viscountess St Albans (1621 – 1626).
Due also to Bacon’s predilection for young male company the marriage remained unhappy. Alice sought and found congenial consolation in the arms of her steward and gentleman usher John Underhill (c1590 – 1679). Bacon does not appear to have resented Lady Alice’s conduct until he wrote the last part of his will (Dec, 1625) and revoked all previous bequests to his wife ‘for just and great causes.’ Lady Verulam remarried to Underhill (April, 1626) only eleven days after her first husband’s death. He was later knighted and the couple resided at Gorhambury and London. Lady Alice later separated from Underhill (1639) and spent the remainder of her life mainly with her mother who had married four times. Alice Barnham died (June 29, 1650) and was buried at Eyworth in Bedfordshire.

Barnitz, Jennie Platt (1841 – 1927)
American military wife and diarist
Her husband, Albert Barnitz, was a member of General Custer’s cavalry troop. Her private journal was later edited and published posthumously as Life in Custer’s Cavalry: Diaries and Letters of Albert and Jennie Barnitz, 1867 – 1868 (1977).

Barns-Graham, Wilhelmina – (1912 – 2004)
Scottish painter
Barns-Graham was born (June 8, 1912) at St Andrews in Fifeshire, and studied at the Edinburgh College of Art until 1936. With the advent of WW II she then travelled to England and settled in Cornwall (1940), where she became closely associated with the Penwith Society of Arts. Wilhelmina worked with Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, and Roger Ives. She became the wife (1949) of the writer David Lewis. Her abstract work was characterized by the re-use of her favoured square motif, but she also produced brilliantly vibrant watercolours works. Wilhelmina Barns-Graham died (Jan 26, 2004) aged ninety-one.

Barolo, Julia Victoria Colbert de Maulevrier, Marchesa di – (1785 – 1864)
French-Italian philanthropist
Julia Colbert de Maulevrier was the daughter Edouard Colbert, Marquis de Maulevrier and his wife Comtesse Anna Maria Quengo de Cremolle. Her mother perished during the revolution, and the family fled into exile in Germany and Holland before returning to France where she married (1808) and Italian nobleman Tancredi Falletti, Marchese di Barolo, the union having been arranged by the emperor Napoleon.

The marchesa devoted herself to the cause of social reform, most notably to improving the conditions of prisoners. She joined the Confraternity of Mercy who distributed clothes and food to prisoners, and also set up classes and schools to educate them. At her insistence spirits were prohited, and she called for aid from the Sisters of St Joseph, which order she herself had been instrumental in introducing to Piedmont. She established the orphanages for girls popularly known as the ‘Giuliette,’ and paid for the contruction of the Church of St Giulia in Turin.

Barondess, Sue Kaufman – (1926 – 1977)
American writer and poet
Sue Kaufman was born in Long Island, New York (Aug 7, 1926), the daughter of Marcus Kaufman, and was educated at Vassar College. She worked as assistant fiction editor with Mademoiselle Magazine in New York (1947 – 1949). She was married (1953) to Jeremiah Barondess, to whom she bore one son. For the last three decades of her life Barondess worked as a freelance fiction writer.
Barondess wrote articles and short stories for several prominent magazines and was the author of several fiction works all published under her maiden name including, The Happy Summer Days (1959), Green Holly (1962), The Headshrinker’s Test (1969), Life with Prudence, A Chilling Tale (1974), and Falling Bodies (1974). Her best known work was the immensely popular Diary of a Mad Housewife (1967) which was made into a film with the same title by Universal Studios (1970). Sue Barondess died (June 25, 1977) aged fifty, in New York.

Barot, Madeleine – (1909 – 1995)
French war heroine and churchwoman
Barot was born (July 4, 1909) at Chateauroux, and became closely associated with the French Reformed Church. Madeleine was a leader at the First World Conference of Christian Youth (1939). With the eruption of WW II Madeleine Barot was closely involved in relugee relief work and was appointed as the general secretary (1940) of CIMADE (Comite Inter-Mouvement aupres des Evacuees).
Madeleine became involved with the work of the French Resistance in providing means to provide for Jewish people to reach safety in Spain and Switzerland. After the war Barot was a member of the World Council of Churches meetings, and then served as the director of the Department on the Co-operation of Men and Women in Church and Society (1953 – 1966). Madeleine Barot died (Dec 28, 1995) aged eighty-six, in Paris.

Baroun, Elena – (fl. 1292 – 1313)
English alewife
A resident and tradeswoman of the village of Wistow, she was mentioned many times in the local records for various types of civil infractions such as adultery, brewing irregularities and offences concerning the butchering of meat. When her behaviour no longer became tolerable Elena was banished from Wistow. One Ivo de Hirst was later charged in the village court at Warboys for harbouring Elena in his house (1313). Her subsequent fate remains unknown.

Barr, Amelia Edith Huddleston – (1831 – 1919) 
Anglo-American novelist
Amelia Huddleston was born in Ulverston, Lancashire, England, the daughter of William Henry Huddleston, and was married (1850) to Robert Barr, with whom she settled in Austin, Texas (1854) before the couple made another home in Galveston. The deaths of her husband and three sons to yellow fever, caused Amelia to take her surviving daughters to New York, where she supported them by teaching, before she began her career writing articles for various magazines and newspapers, as well as poetry. Her first novel was Romance and Reality (1872) which would ultimately be followed by more than sixty others, mmost of which were characterized by historical settings. The most famous of her works was Jan Vedder’s Wife (1885). Other novels included, The Bow of Orange Ribbon (1886), Friend Olivia (1890), The Maid of Maiden Lane (1900) and, The House on Cherry Street. She also wrote her autobiography, All the Days of My life (1913). In all, Amelia Barr produced over eighty written works. Amelia Barr died (March 11, 1919) at Richmond Hill, Long Island, New York, USA.

Barrable, Amelia – (fl. 1847 – 1880)
British Victorian painter
Mrs I.J. Barrable specialized in the production of miniatures. Her work was exhibited with the Royal Academy for over three decades. One of her surviving miniatures was of Catherine Gladstone, the wife of the Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone.

Barradas, Carmen (1888 – 1963)
Uruguayan composer and teacher
Carmen Barradas was born in Montevideo and studied music under Antinio Frank, Aurora Pablo, and others at the Musical Conservatory of La Liria in Montevideo. She later settled in Spain (1914) but returned to Uruguay where she established herself as a teacher (1928). Barradas composed many songs for children as well as the pieces Fabricacion (1924), Taller Mecanico (1926), and Estudios Tonales (1930) for the piano, amongst other works. Carmen Barradas died (May 10, 1963) aged seventy-five, in Montevideo.

Barraine, Elsa – (1910 – 1999)
French composer
Elsa Barraine was born (Feb 13, 1910) in Paris, and studied music and composition at the Conservatoire National Superier de Musique under Paul Dukas. She was then associated with the Orchestre National de France, as choirmistress and then in charge of sound. Elsa Barraine served for two decades (1953 – 1974) as the Professor of musical Analysis at the Paris Conservatoire. Barraine produced symphonies, as well as works for the organ and saxophone.
Known for her unusual use of instrumentals her compositions included Chiens de paille (1966) and Musique Rituelle (1968), which was written for the combination of organ, tam-tam and xylophone. Elsa Barraine died (March 20, 1999) aged eighty-nine, at Strasbourg in Alsace.

Barrell, Sarah Sayward – (1759 – 1855) 
American novelist
Sarah Barrell was born in York, Maine, and married firstly Richard Keating, and secondly Abiel Wood. She was famous for being the earliest known novelist from the state of Maine, and produced works under the pseudonym of, ‘A Lady of Massachusetts.’ Her works included Julia and the Illuminated Baron (1800), Dorval; or The Speculator (1801), Amelia; or The Influence of Virtue (1802), and, Ferdinand and Elmira (1804). Under the later pen-name of ‘A Lady of Maine, ‘ Sarah Barrell wrote the novel, Tales of the Night (1827). Sarah Sayward Barrell died aged ninety-five.

Barrett, Elizabeth    see   Browning, Elizabeth Barrett

Barrett, Majel – (1932 – 2008)
American film and television actress and producer
Born Majel Leigh Hudec (Feb 23, 1932) in Cleveland, Ohio, and attended the University of Miami in Florida. Having had acting lessons during childhood, she obtained roles in such television programs as, Bonanza, The Lucy Show, and Leave it to Beaver. She appeared in the classic television series Stark Trek, created by the producer and writer Gene Roddenberry (1921 – 1991), whom she married as his second wife (1969).
Her participation in various roles in the popular series, suchas the nurse and doctor, led to her being popularly referred too as, ‘The First Lady of Star Trek.’ She appeared in the film Stark Trek:  The Next Generation as the ambassador Lwaxana Troi, a character occasionally continued when she amorously pursued the captain of the Enterprise, Jean Luc Picard (Patrick Stewart). She played a psychic Centauri empress in an episode of, Babylon 5, and was the voice of the computers aboard the various Federation starships, as well as playing the voice of Stewie Griffin’s ship computer in a famous episode of Family Guy.
After her husband’s death she became the executive producer of Earth: Final Conflict, in which she appeared as the doctor. Barrett appeared as the schoolteacher Mrs Withers in the horror classic Mommy (1995), in which she becomes one of the early victims of the homicidal Patty McCormack. Majel Barrett died (Dec 18, 2008) aged seventy-six, at Bel-Air, Los Angeles, California.

Barrett, Nancy Vorhees     see   Vorhees, Nancy van

Barringer, Emily Dunning – (1876 – 1961)
American physician
Emily Dunning was born in Scarsdale, New York. She attended Cornell University before going on to study at the Women’s Medical College in New York. She was refused a position at the Mount Sinai Hospital despite her brilliant academic record, because of her sex. She later worked as an ambulance surgeon in the East Side of New York (1903 – 1905). She later married fellow physician Benjamin Barringer.

Barringer, Ethel – (1884 – 1925)
Australian etcher and enameller
Ethel Barringer studied under the German artist Hans Heysen. She went to London for further study and with her return to Australia she taught etching at the School of Arst and Crafts in Adelaide, South Australia.

Barringer, Gwendoline L’Avance – (1883 – 1960)
Australian painter
Gwendoline Adamson was born in Adelaide, South Australia, the daughter of Adam Adamson. She studied art and technique at the South Australia School of Design under Archibald Collins and H.P. Gill, and later studied under Hans Heysen, working particlularly with still-life and watercolours. She was married firstly to James Kentish, and secondly (1910) to Herbert Barringer.
Eventually becoming an art teacher, Gwendoline was associated with, and a patron of, the Royal South Australian Society of Arts for over thirty years. At her death she bequeathed the the Society the three prizes awarded for the best flower painting in water colour at their spring exhibition. Her last exhibition (1953) took place when she was seventy. She illustrated The Mystery of the bush (1916) by Roy Barringer.

Barrington, Caroline Grey, Lady – (1805 – 1875)
British courtier
Lady Caroline Grey was the daughter of Sir Charles Grey (1764 – 1845), second Earl Grey and his wife the Hon. (Honourable) Mary Elizabeth Ponsonby, the daughter of William Ponsonby (1744 – 1806), first Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly. She became the wife (1827) of Captain Hon. George Barrington (1794 – 1835), a younger son of the the fifth Baron Barrington and became Lady Barrington (1827 – 1835).
Lady Barrington bore her husband two children, Charles George Barrington (1827 – 1911) who was secretary to Lord Palmerston, to Lord John Russell, and was appointed as Secretary of the Treasury, and Mary Barrington, the wife of Sir Algernon Edward West (died 1921). Her husband became insane before his early death and Lady Caroline survived her him for forty years as the Dowager Lady Barrington (1835 – 1875). She served at court as a widow as lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria. In recognition of her loyal service she was appointed VA (Royal Order of Victoria and Albert). Lady Caroline Barrington died (April 28, 1875).

Barrington, Joan Cromwell, Lady – (c1559 – 1641)
English letter writer
Joan Cromwell was the daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchinbrook, Huntingdon, and paternal aunt of the future Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. Joan was married to Sir Francis Barrington (d. 1628), to whom she bore four sons, including Sir Thimas Barrington (c1580 – 1654), and five daughters, of whom Elizabeth married firstly Sir James Altham and secondly Sir William Masham, Winifred married Sir William Mewes, and Ruth who became the wife of Sir George Lamplugh. The correspondence which took place between Lady Barrington and several other ladies of her family, and others of their social circle, were edited by Arthur Searle and published in London, 1983 by the London University College, in a work entitled, Barrington Family Letters (1628 – 1632).

Barron, Gladys Caroline – (c1898 – 1967)
Scottish sculptor
Gladys Barrob the daughter of Maxwell B. Logan, she studied under Gilbert Bayes and at the St John’s Wood Art school, and married (1923) the author Evan Macleod Barron. She was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy and at the Royal Scottish Academy, establishing a reputation for herself as a leading portrait artist. Barron also produced memorial plaques to Sir Edward McColl, at Pitlochry Power Station, and to George Balfour, at the Tummel Power Station. Famous sitters included the nineteenth Earl of Moray, Sir William Calder, Sir Alexander MacEwen, Sir Thomas Taylor, Nell Gunn, and the anonymous A Man of the Polish Resistance, as well as many portraits of children. Gladys Barron died (Jan 17, 1967) at Nairn, in Scotland.

Barron, Jennie Loitman – (1891 – 1969)
American judge, lawyer, suffrage campaigner and civic leader
Jennie Loitman was born (Oct 12, 1891) in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Jewish immigrants. She studied law at the Boston University and became active within the women’s suffrage movement.With her husband Samuel Barron she established a law firm in Boston, Barron and Barron, and they remained in practice togther until 1937. She worked with the League of Women Voters (LWV) and served as assistant attorney general for Massachusetts (1934 – 1937).
Mrs Barron was the first woman to become a full time judge with the Boston Municipal Court, and the only woman (until 1977) to serve on the nine-member court. Barron served on the first board of then Brandeis University National Women’s Committee (1949 – 1955) and was the first president of the New England Women’s Division of the American Jewish Congress. Widowed in 1968, Jennie survived her husband barely a year, dying (March 28, 1969) in Boston, aged seventy-six.

Barron, Joanna – (1865 – 1948)
Irish-Australian Catholic nun
Joanna Barron was born at Knockeen, near Waterford, the daughter of Thomas Barron and his wife Mary Power. Educated at the Brigidine convent at Abbeyleix, Queen’s County, Joanna entered that order as a nun (1882) becoming Sister Paul. She was sent to Australia, arriving in Melbourne, Victoria (1888) and opened a school at Ararat. Sister Paul was later appointed Mother Provincial of the Brigidine Order in Victoria (1908 – 1920). Sister Paul died (Oct 15, 1948) aged eighty-three.

Barrow, Dame Ruth Nita – (1916 – 1995)
Barbados Governor-general
Nita Barrow was born (Nov 15, 1916) and was sister to Errol Barrow, Prime Minister of Barbados, who led the country to independence from Great Britain (1966). Barrow was educated at St Michael’s School in Barbados and never married. Barrow had trained as a midwife nurse in Toronto, Canada and in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was later employed as a public health specialist. She was a tutor at the Kingston School of Nursing in Jamaica, and was appointed as principal nursing officer for Jamaica (1952 – 1954). Barrow was later appointed as president of the World YWCA, being created a DBE (Dame of the British Empire) (1980) and served as the official representative of Barbados at the United Nations from 1986. She was appointed as governor-general by Queen Elizabeth II (1990). Dame Nita Barrow died (Dec 19, 1995) aged seventy-nine, at Bridgetown.

Barry, Anne – (1734 – 1801)
British actress
Anne Barry was born in Bath, and was married very early in her career (1754) to the actor William Dancer, who had introduced her to the stage. Her first recorded stage performance was in Dublin where she played Cordelia in Shakespeare’s King Lear, opposite Spranger Barry, who later became her second husband (1768). The couple worked togther at Covent Garden and Drury Lane theatres in London, where she provided some serious threat to the stage supremacy of David Garrick. With the death of Suannah Cibber in 1766, Barry took on the famous tragic roles such as Desdemona, Belvidera, and Jane Shore, with unrivalled success. With the death of her second husband (1777) her career declined. She later remarried a third time to the younger actor, Thomas Crawford. Anne Barry continued to perform on the stage until 1798 in both London and Dublin, but she never regained her former pre-eminence.

Barry, Lady Caroline     see    Melfort, Caroline Barry, Comtesse de

Barry, Comtesse du       see     Du Barry, Comtesse

Barry, Elizabeth – (1658 – 1713) 
British actress
Elizabeth Barry was placed in childhood under the guidance of the manager of the Drury Lane Theatre, William d’ Avenant, but her early attempts at acting as a career remained unremarkable. She became the mistress of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, who provided her with training for the stage. Her earliest role was in Alcibiades (1675) by Thomas Otway, and she received admiring notices for her performance in the role of Monimia in The Orphan (1680). However, her best known performance was as Queen Isabella of Hungary in Lord Orrery’s play Mustapha, which much impressed Charles II and the Duke of York. Later, when the duke became king (1685 – 1688) Queen Mary Beatrice gave Mrs Barry her own coronation robes in which to appear in the role of Elizabeth I. Elizabeth Barry is credited with the creation of over one hundred comic roles for the stage, and many roles were written specifically for her by playwright William Congreve. She retired in 1709, having joined the United Company troupe of Thomas Betterton in 1695, and become a co-founder of an acting company at the Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre. Elizabeth Barry is remembered as the first great British actress, being particularly admired in tragic roles.

Barry, Florence – (1885 – 1965)
British Catholic suffragist
Florence Barry was born in England, the child of mixed Austrian-Persian background she was raised as Catholic, and educated by nuns in Belgium. Returning to England Florence studied at the School of Social Science at Liverpool University. She became the secretary (1912) of the Catholic suffrage group St Joan’s Alliance and retained this post for five decades. Miss Barry was the pivotal figure behind the foundation of the St Joan’s International Alliance organization to which which she also served as secretary. She remained unmarried and received the medal Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice (1951) by Pope Pius XII.

Barry, Iris – (1895 – 1969)
British film historian and actress
Iris Barry was born (March, 1895) in Birmingham, Lancashire, and was educated at the Ursuline convent at Verviers, in Belgium. She was married firstly (1923) to the author F. Alan Porter, and was employed by the Daily Mail as a film critic (1925 – 1930). Her first marriage ended in divorce, and Iris was remarried (1934) to John E. Abbott. Both unions remained childless. After a three year stint as Librarian of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, she served as director of the Film Library, at the Museum of Modern Art from 1935 – 1951. The French government appointed her a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (1949). She was the author of Splashing into Society (1923), Let’s Go to the Pictures (1928), Portrait of Lady Mary Montagu (1928), and, D.W. Griffith: American Film Master (1940). Iris Barry died (Dec 22, 1960) aged sixty-five.

Barry, James – (1795 – 1865)
Scottish surgeon
Born Miranda Stuart, she studied medicine successfully at Edinburgh University, disguising herself as a man a guise she adopted successfully for the rest of her impressive career, her sex only being discovered after her death. Barry entered the army as a hospital assistant, but quickly rose to assistant surgeon (1815) and later Surgeon-Major (1827). She served as deputy inspector general of the Army Medical Department (1851 – 1859) and then as Inspector-General (1858 – 1859).

Barry, Leonora Kearney – (1849 – 1923)
Irish-American labour leader and social reformer
Born Marie Kearney in County Cork, Ireland, she immigrated to the USA with her family as a child (1852). She became a factory worker and a member of the Women’s Knights of Labour, who campaigned to improve pay and conditions for poor working women. She was appointed as the General Investigator for the women’s department of the Knights of Labour (1886 – 1890) and was also a supporter of the temperance movement.

Barry, Mary Ann – (1855 – 1874)
British murderess
An alcoholic and petty thief who resided within the environs of London, Mary Ann and her common law husband Edwin Bailey murdered their infant child whom both desired to be rid of. They were arrested, condemned and hanged together.

Barry, Mary Gonzaga – (1834 – 1915)
Irish-Australian Catholic nun
Mary Barry was born in Wexford town, the daughter of John Barry and his wife Elizabeth Cowan. Convent educated in Dublin, she took vows as a Loreto nun (1853) and was later chosen as superior (1867). In 1875 she arrived in Melbourne, Australia with six nuns, and established the Loreto Abbey at Ballarat, as well as a training college for Roman Catholic teachers there. Mary Barry also pioneered the foundation of the kindergarten, opening schools at Ballarat and in Melbourne. Mary Barry died (March 5, 1915) aged eighty, at Ballarat.

Barry, Robertine – (1863 – 1910)
Canadian journalist
Robertine Barry was born in Quebec and worked as a journalist using the pseudonym ‘Francoise’ having a weekly column in the La Patrie publication (1891 – 1895). Her first work was the collection of short stories entitled Fleurs champtres (1895) which dealt with the lives of rural Canadian women. Barry later published Le Journal de Francaise (1902 – 1909) which promoted the rights of women in the fields of education and employment.

Barrymore, Amelia Stanhope, Countess of – (1749 – 1780)
British Hanoverian peeress (1767 – 1773)
Lady Amelia Stanhope was born (May 24, 1749) the third daughter of William Stanhope, second Earl of Harrington and his wife Lady Caroline Fitzroy, daughter of Charles Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton. Through her mother she was a descendant of Charles II (1660 – 1685) and his mistress Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine. She was married (1767) at St Martins-in-the-Field in London to the Irish peer Richard Barry (1745 – 1773), ninth Earl of Barrymore. She bore him four children including Lady Caroline Barry, the wife of the Comte de Melfort, and Richard Barry (1769 – 1793) who succeeded his father as tenth Earl of Barrymore and died childless. Her husband died of fever at Dromana in Ireland and was buried at Castle Lyons. Lady Amelia survived him as the Dowager Countess of Barrymore (1773 – 1780).
Lady Barrymore inherited some of her mother’s noted eccentricity, and when her eldest son Richard Barry began to show signs of his future uproarious nature she placed him with a tutor, Reverend Tickell, in the country town of Wargrove in Berkshire, in a vain attempt to curb this trait. The countess visited the French court and was received by Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles, and was mentioned in the Memoires of the Duc de Lauzun. With her early death in France (Sept 5, 1780) at the age ot thirty-one, her widowed mother-in-law, Margaret Davys, Dowager Countess of Barrymore took over the care and upbringing of her children.

Barrymore, Charlotte Goulding, Countess of – (1775 – 1832)
British peeress
Charlotte was the daughter of a sedan chairman by his wife Phillis Smith, the sister of Letitia, the wife of Sir John Lade. Her stepfather was William Chapman. She was married secretly at Gretna Green, when only sixteen (1792), to the equally young Richard Barry (1769 – 1793), tenth Earl of Barrymore but his early death (1793) left her a childless widow at seventeen, though Barrymore left her the generous dower of one thousand pounds per annum for life, which estate was administered by her uncle. There remains some doubt as to the validity or even reality of Lady Barrymore’s first marriage. Though styled ‘Lady Barrymore’ Charlotte may actually have only been his mistress. Lady Barrymore remarried (1794) to Captain Robert Williams of the 3rd Regiment Foot Guards. Her later years were spent amidst alcoholism and poverty. Lady Charlotte Barrymore died (Oct 30, 1832) in Drury Lane, London.

Barrymore, Elizabeth Savage, Countess of – (c1679 – 1731)
English heiress
Lady Elizabeth Savage was the daughter and only legitimate child of Richard Savage, fourth Earl of Rivers, and his first wife, Penelope Downes. She became the wife of James Barry, fourth Earl of Barrymore. At her father’s death (1712), Elizabeth inherited the family estate of Rock Savage in Cheshire, where she resided in grand style and state for the remainder of her life. At her death the property descended to her daughter Lady Penelope Barry, who became the wife of Colonel George Cholmondeley. With Penelope’s death (1786) the former grand estate was allowed to fall into ruinous decay.

Barrymore, Ethel – (1879 – 1959) 
Anglo-American stage and film actress
Ethel Barrymore was the daughter of British actor Herbert Blythe Barrymore (Maurice Barrymore), and his wife, the American actress Georgina Drew, and sister to famous actors, and Lionel (1878 – 1954) and John Barrymore (1882 – 1942). Perhaps the most talented of the trio, in 1928 Ethel opened a theatre in New York which bears her name. Best remembered for her roles in the film None But the Lonely Heart (1944), and her stage roles in dramas by Henrik Ibsen and George Bernard Shaw, and in the stage production of Emlyn Williams’ work The Corn is Green (1942 – 1944). Ethel Barrymore died (June 18, 1959) aged seventy-nine, in Hollywood, California.

Barschau, Countess von    see   Campanini, Barbarina

Barsine – (364 – 311 BC)
Persian princess
Barsine was the daughter of Artabazus, satrap of Baktria, and was married firstly to her uncle, Mentor, and then, to his next brother, the Greek mercenary soldier Memnon. By Memnon she was the mother of a son, another Memnon (living 327 BC as a child), and two daughters, Artonis, wife of Alexander’s secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, and Barsine, who became the wife of Nearchus, one of Alexander’s officers, and is often confused with her mother by historians. Barsine was captured by the forces of Alexander the Great of Macedonia at Damascus, in Syria (333 BC), and, on the advice of his general Parmenion, the king made her his mistress. Barsine remained Alexander’s mistress for several years, but eventually he left her at Susa (329 BC), before the birth of their son Herakles (328 BC), and she never saw him again until 324, when he broke with her completely. With the death’s of Alexander’s widow, Roxana, and her son Alexander IV (311 BC), Polyperchon brought forward Herakles as a claimant to the Macedonian throne, but then caused mother and son to be put to death (310 BC).

Bartelme, Mary Margaret – (1866 – 1954)
American lawyer, judge, and juvenile reformer
Margaret Bartelme was born (July 24, 1866) in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of a building tradesman. She was trained as a schoolteacher and then graduated from the Northwestern Univerity Law School (1894), being the only female in her class. Bartelme was appointed as public guardian of Cook County (1897) and remained in this office until 1913, concentrating her energies on the placement of orphaned children. In conjunction with the Chicago Women’s Club Bartelme established the Chicago juvenile court (1899). She was later appointed as circuit judge for Cook County (1923) and retained this position until her retirement (1933), when she retired to Carmel in California. Margaret Bartelme died there (July 25, 1954) aged eighty-eight.

Bartet, Jeanne Julia – (1854 – 1941)
French actress
Jeanne Bartet was born in Paris and trained for the stage at the Conservatoire there. Her very successful career at the Vaudeville Theatre lasted from 1872 – 1879, when she joined the company at the Comedie Francaise. Possessed of a grand acting style and a talent for comic and tragedy roles, her career eclipsed that of many actresses who were her junior. She travelled to London for a successful season in 1908, and retired from the stage in 1919 at the age of sixty-five. Jeanne died in Paris.

Barthelemon, Cecilia Maria – (1770 – after 1827) 
British soprano and musician
Cecilia Barthelomn was the daughter of Francois Hippolyte Barthelemon and his wife Mary (Polly) Young, the violinist and composer. Having travelled to Paris with her parents in 1776 – 1777, Cecilia made her debut at the Haymarket Theatre, London in 1779 singing duets with her mother, and played the piano, with her father accompanying her on the viola. She married W.H. Henslowe. In 1791 she was the legatee of the estate of her aunt Isabella Young (Hon. Mrs Scott) and performed with her parents for charitable causes at Brighton (1795). Cecilia Barthelemon was living in 1827 when she wrote a brief memoir of her father, as a preface to an edition of the oratorio Sefte in Masfa, which had been written by him.

Bartholomew, Anne Charlotte – (1800 – 1862) 
British painter, dramatist and poet
Born Anne Charlotte Fayermann, in Lodden, Norfolk (March 28, 1800), she was married firstly (1827) the composer Walter Turnbull, and secondly (1840) the flower painter Valentine Bartholomew.Her comic farce, It’s Only My Aunt, appeared in 1825 whilst her collection of verse, Songs of Azreal, were published in 1840. She also painted miniatures, figures and flowers, and her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy. The painter Anna Maria Charretie was her pupil. Anne Bartholomew died (Aug 18, 1862) aged sixty-two, in London.

Bartlett, Elizabeth – (1924 – 2008)
British poet
Born at Deal in Kent, she left school at an early age in order to become a factory worker and help support her family. She later worked as a secretary and a tutor and was married and raised a family. Some early verse appeared in Poetry London (1943) and she continued to write poetry, but Mrs Bartlett’s work was not published again until aged in her mid-fifties. Her collections of verse included A Lifetime of Dying: Poems 1942 – 1979 (1979), The Czar is Dead (1986), Instead of a Mass (1991) and Two Women Dancing: New & Selected Poems (1995) which collection was recommended by the Poetry Book Society. Her later publications included Appetites of Love (2001) and Mrs Perkins and Oedipus (2004). Elizabeth Bartlett died in Burgess Hill, West Sussex, aged eighty-four.

Bartlett, Patricia – (1928 – 2000)
New Zealand Catholic censorship activist
Born in Napier, she became a teacher and then entered the Sisters of Mercy convent in Wellington (1950). Bartlett later left the convent to become more closely involved in social issues, and founded the Society for Promotion of Community Standards (SPCS) (1970). She actively campaigned for theatre censorship, the most notable example being against the production of the controversial stage show Hair in Wellington (1972) and the publishing of explicit sex education books for children.
Her organization actively campaigned to ban viewings of Stanley Kubrick’s films A Clockwork Orange and Last Tango in Paris (1972). The public influence of SPCS declined considerably by the mid 1980’s, and continued ill-health forced Bartlett’s final retirement from the organisation (1996). Patricia Bartlett died (Nov 8, 2000) aged seventy-two.

Barto, Anna Sowyer    see   Walker, Nancy

Bartok, Eva – (1926 – 1998)
Hungarian actress
Born Eva Ivanovna Sjoke in Kecsemet, Hungary, she was imprisoned in a concentration camp during her teenage years her forced marriage to a Nazi was later annulled on the grounds of coercion. After her second marriage with the Hungarian producer, Alex Paal, she came to Britain (1948) and worked under the direction of Alexander Korda, adopting the surname of Bartok. After a liasion of some duration with the Marquess of Milford Haven, cousin to Queen Elizabeth II, she went to Europe and married (1955) the German actor Curt Jurgens (1912 – 1982) as her fourth husband. After their divorce, she claimed to have had a child by actor and singer Frank Sinatra (1957), but he denied that he was the father.
Eva Bartok returned to England in the 1980’s, having taught philosophy for a while in a school she had founded in Honolulu, in Hawaii, but died alone and forgotten in London (Aug 1, 1998).
She produced an early autobiography Worth Living For (1959). Eva Bartok had over forty film credits including A Tale of Five Cities (1951), Venetian Bird (1952) with Richard Todd, The Crimson Pirate (1952), perhaps her most famous film role opposite Burt Lancaster, Front Page Story (1954), Ten Thousand Bedrooms (1957) with Dean Martin, Operation Amsterdam (1959) with Peter Finch, and Blood and Black Lace (1964) amongst others.

Barton, Clara Harlowe (Clarissa) – (1821 – 1912) 
American Red Cross founder and organizer
Originally a schoolteacher, she founded one of the first American public schools at Bordentown, New Jersey (1852). However when a male was placed over her, she resigned and went ot Washington where she became a clerk in the Patent Office, becoming the first widely recognized female civil servant. Closely involved with various charitable work and social welfare reform, she served as a field nurse during the American Civil War, and the Franco-Prussian Wars. She saw the necessity for maintaining an efficient relief service, and maintained complete independence from official channels.
In 1877 she founded the American National Committee which later evolved into the American Red Cross, of which organization she served as president from 1882 – 1904. Barton was famous for the prescence of herself, and her relief organization after the disastrous Johnstown Flood (1889), and for bringing aid to Cuban civilians and American soldiers during the Spanish American War. She was the author of History of the Red Cross (1882) and of the memoirs The Story of My Childhood (1907).

Barton, Dora – (1884 – 1966)
British actress
Born Dora Brockbank in London, she embarked upon a successful stage career adopting the name of ‘Dora Barton’ and also appeared in several silent films such as The Green Orchard (1916), The Answer (1916) in which she appeared as the lost magdalen, and The House Opposite (1917). After this stint Barton returned to the theatre for a decade before making several more film appearances, playing the title role in Maria Marten (1928), the subject of the infamous ‘Murder in the Red Barn,’The Price of a Song (1935), where she performed the role of Letty Grierson, and The Cardinal (1936) in which she played the duenna. Dora Barton died (Sept 13, 1966) aged eighty-two, in London.

Barton, Elizabeth    see  also  Francisco, Betty

Barton, Elizabeth – (1506 – 1534) 
English prophet
Elizabeth Barton was born at Aldington, Kent, and was originally employed at Aldington as a domestic servant. After suffering an illness in 1525, she began to experience trances, and began producing prophetic utterances against the authorities. Consequently Archbishop Warham sent to monks to examine her (1526), one of whom, Edward Bocking, became convinced of her genuine calling that he became her personal confessor at the priory of St Sepulchre, Canterbury. There she attracted many pilgrims, who believed her to be in direct communication with the Virgin Mary herself.
Popularly known as, ‘the Maid of Kent,’ Elizabeth denounced the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon, and his remarriage to Anne Boleyn, and her ‘prophecies’ incited an already angry public against the king. Despite the fact that notable men such as Sir Thomas More, and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester corresponded with her, she was arrested and imprisoned, she was charged with treason, confessed before Thomas Cranmer, and was hanged at Tyburn, London (April 20, 1534) along with Edward Bocking and four others.

Barton, Evelyn    see   Francisco, Evelyn

Barton Smith, Kathleen Kavanagh – (1878 – 1970) 
British painter
Kathleen Hayes was born (Sept 5, 1878) the daughter of Colonel Frederick Hutchinson Hayes of the 21st Hussars. Privately educated, she began to paint as an amusement, producing impressive miniatures and landscapes. Later she painted scenes from life and photographs. Failing eyesight eventually forced her to retire, and in her last years she resided with her daughter at Harrogate, London.

Bartrum, Katherine Mary – (1834 – 1866)
Anglo-Indian diarist
Katherine was the daughter of a Bath silversmith, and the wife of Robert Bartrum. Husband and wife were residing at the station of Gonda, where Robert was the resident English physician, from October, 1856 until the outbreak of the Sepoy rebellion (May, 1857). Mrs Bartrum and her infant son Robert (born 1856) were sent away by elephant, and managed to reach Lucknow in safety. Mother and child remained in the British Residency there throughout the siege, until it was relieved by the forces of General Sir Henry Havelock in Sept, 1857, during whose march from Kanpur, her husband had been killed. In Feb, 1858, Mrs Bartrum boarded the ship Himalaya at Calcutta to return to England, though her son died the day before she was due to sail.

Katherine Bartrum later remarried in England, and bore three more children, but died of pulmonary tuberculosis (March, 1866). Her memoirs, A Widow’s Reminiscences of Lucknow, were published in London (1858).

Barwick, Valerie Maud Skelton, Lady – (1915 – 1989)
British colonial society figure
Valerie Skelton was the only daughter of Robert Jeremiah Skelton, of Nairobi, Kenya. She was married firstly (1940) to Lieutenant-Colonel Roderick John Ward (April 13, 1902 – Oct 2, 1952) as his first wife, and secondly (1948) Sir Richard Llewellyn Barwick (Nov 4, 1916 – June 17, 1979), third Baronet from 1953. Her first husband, to whom she bore a son, divorced her (1947), and her second marriage, which produced three daughters, ended in divorce two decades later (1968). A longtime resident of Kenya and part of the British colony there, Lady Barwick became a member of the Aga Khan Club for influential Indians, and wore native dress on occasion. This provoked the disapproval amongst some members of the British colony there.

Bascom, Ruth Henshaw – (1772 – 1848)
American primitivist artist and portrait painter
Her private diary was published in the twentieth century as A New England Woman’s Perspective on Norfolk, Virginia, 1801 – 1802: Excerpts from the Diary of Ruth Henshaw Bascom (1979). Extracts used from her working journal during the latter part of her career (1830 – 1837) dealt mainly with work projects that occupied Bascom’s time during that period, and were posthumously published as Some American Primitives: A Study of New England Faces and Folk Portraits (1941).

Bash, Bertha Runkle    see    Runkle, Bertha

Bashkirtseff, Marie (1858 – 1884)
Russian-French artist and diarist
Born Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva (Nov 24, 1858) into an aristocratic family in Pulowa in the Ukraine, she travelled in Germany with her mother as a child before settling in Paris. Marie wrote her diary (1873 – 1884) entitled The Journal of a Young Artist (1889) with the intention of full publication. It was published posthumously and is considered a classic in the journal genre.

Basina of Neustria – (c559 – after 594)
Merovingian princess
Basina was the daughter of Chilperic I, King of Neustria (569 – 584) and his first wife Audovera. Her stepmother was Fredegonde and she was the elder half-sister to Clotaire II, King of Neustria (584 – 629). With her mother’s divorce (567), Basina accompanied her from the court with her younger sister Childechinde to the abbey of Le Mans. When Queen Audovera was later put to death through the intrigues of Fredegonde (580), the historian Gregory of Tours recorded in his Historia Francorum that Basina was sent to the abbey of Sainte-Croix (Holy Cross) in Poitiers, the nunnery founded by Queen Radegonde, who was then abbess. There she was tricked by servants of her stepmother into becoming a nun. Basina later refused to leave her nunnery when her brother was considering an alliance with the Visigothic royal family of Spain. She became one of the leaders of a revolt against the abbess Leubovera (589 – 590). The princess was excommunicated for her involvement in this uprising. When she made public repentance she was re-admitted to the convent community. Princess Basina was living when Gregory of Tours wrote his chronicle (594).

Basina of Thuringia – (c437 – c480 AD)
Merovingian queen consort
Basina was perhaps the daughter of Chlodwig, the chief of the Franks at Cologne (Koln). She was originally the wife of King Bertharius of Thuringia. Basina abandoned her husband and his court (464 AD) in order to become the wife of Childeric I (c435 – 481 AD), king of the Salian Franks (465 – 481 AD). Queen Basina appears to have predeceased her husband, who was buried at Tournai. Her children were Clovis I (466 AD – 511) who succeeded his father as King of the Franks, and espoused Christianity after his second marriage to Clotilda of Burgundy.
Her three daughters were Albofledis, who died unmarried, Audofleda, the wife of Theodoric I, the Ostrogothic King of Italy (493 AD – 526), and Lantechilde, the wife of the nobleman Sigivaldus, who was appointed dux of the Auvergne region by her nephew, Theuderic I, king of Austrasia (511 – 534). Through Clovis Basina was ancestress of many of the royal and aristocratic families of England and Europe.

Baskerville, Margaret Francis Ellen – (1861 – 1930)
Australian sculptor
Margaret Baskerville was born in Melbourne, Victoria, and studied art at the National Gallery School there under George Follingsby and Oswald Campbell. She was married to fellow sculptor and teacher Charles Douglas Richardson (1853 – 1932) with whom she sometimes jointly exhibited work. Baskerville began her career as a painter but gradually switched to sculpture, and was a foundation member of the Yarra Sculptors’ Society (1898) and studied at the Royal College of Art in London (1904) under Edouard Lanteri.
Her work was exhibited with the Greater Britain Exhibition in London and she won prizes for her work at the Women’s Work Exhibition (1907). Particularly noted for her busts of children, she was also commissioned to produce a bronze memorial to the notorious Victorian politician Sir Thomas Bent (1838 – 1909) at Brighton, and made two statues to commemorate the Britsh war heroine Edith Cavell, one of which is in St Paul’s Cathedral in Melbourne. Margaret Baskerville died (July 6, 1930) aged sixty-eight, in Melbourne.

Baskin, Inez – (1916 – 2007)
Black American journalist and civil rights campaigner
Baskin was born (June 18, 1916) in Florala, Alabama and trained as a social worker and teacher at the Alabama State University. She worked as a church pianist and trained clergymen. Baskin made her career as a writer attached to The Montgomery Advertiser, where apart from covering cross-burnings and other Southern issues, she rode in front of Martin Luther King during the Montgomery bus boycott, when he sat in the area reserved for white passengers (1956). Baskin was later employed with the Associated Negro Press and produced the newsletter, The Monitor.  Inez Baskin died (June 28, 2007) aged ninety-one, in Montgomery.

Bass, Charlotta Spears – (1880 – 1969)
Black Southern American newspaper editor and civil rights activist
Charlotta Spears was born (Oct, 1880), in Sumter, South Carolina, the daughter of Hiram Spears. She worked as an office assistant for a local newspaper before moving intestate to reside in California (1910) where she was married (1912) to Joseph Bass. Charlotta Bass remained there until her death, and was the editor for more than four decades (1910 – 1952) of The California Eagle, the oldest black newspaper on the west coast of the USA.
Bass was also the first black jury member for the Los Angeles County Court (1943). With her husband’s death (1934) she managed the newspaper herself, and became a prominent figure in local civic affairs. Bass was the author of memoirs entitled, Forty Years: Memoirs from the Pages of a Newspaper (1960). Charlotta Spears Bass died (April 12, 1969) aged eighty-eight, in Los Angeles.

Bass, Elizabeth – (1876 – 1956)
American physician
Mary Elizabeth Bass was born (April 5, 1876) at Carley, in Marion County, Mississippi, the daughter of a dry goods merchant. She attended secondary schools and was trained as a schoolteacher. Bass and a friend became the first women faculty members of the School of Medicine at Tulane University (1911) and later became an instructor in the laboroatiry of clinical medicine. She campaigned for women’s suffrage and worked to improve labour laws for children.
Bass served as vice-president (1919 – 1925) and then president (1925 – 1927) of the Women Physicians of the Southern Medical Association, and travelled extensively in Europe to attend various medical conferences. Her work was recognized when she received the Alumni Achievement Award (1952) from theWoman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, and the American Medical Women’s Association presented her with the Elizabeth Blackwell Centennial Medal Award (1953). Elizabeth Bass died of cancer (Jan 26, 1956) aged seventy-nine, in New Orleans, Lousiana.

Bassa – (fl. 54 – 68 AD)
Graeco-Roman civic leader
Bassa was a native of the city of Eumeneia in Phrygia, Asia Minor. Both her husband and father were named Kleon. Bassa and her husband both held religious and civic office in the city, holding the title of archiereia, and issue joint coins in the name of the emperor and his mother. Bassa appeared on those which bore the bust of Agrippina, and her husband was portrayed on those of Nero.

Bassa de Llorens, Maria Gracia – (1883 – 1961)
Spanish author and poet
Bassa de Llorens was born at Llofriu in Girona, and was educated at the Escola d’Institutrius i Altres Carreres per la Dona in Barcelona. Her work was influenced by her study under the noted Catalan folklorist, Rossend Serra i Pages, and by the work of the Uruguayan poet, Delmira Agustini. With other notable female Catalan authors, Bassa was a member of the Centre Excursionista de Catalunya, and worked as a schoolteacher. Several of her poetic works were published by the periodical Feminal in Barcelona (1907 – 1917). After her marriage to Joan Llorens i Carreres, the couple moved to South America, and she resided in Argentina for the rest of her life. She published the collection of verses Branca florida (Flowery branch) (1933). Maria Gracia Bassa de Llorens died in Buenos Aires.

Bassanville, Anais Lebrun, Comtesse de – (1803 – 1884)
French salonniere
Madame de Bassanville published her reminiscences entitled Les salons d’autrefois.Souvenirs intimes par Madame la Comtesse de Bassanville (1868) in four volumes in Paris.

Bassaraba de Brancovan, Princesse    see    Brancovan, Princesse Bassaraba de

Basseporte, Francoise – (1701 – 1780)
French painter
Madeleine Francoise Basseporte was born in Paris and received instruction from Claude Aubriet. With Aubriet’s death (1743) Francoise became the landscape painter to King Louis XV, and taught flower painting to his daughters the Mesdames. She received instruction in natural history and botany from Jussieu and produced a collection of plant paintings on vellum which had been collected by Gaston d’Orleans, the brother of Louis XIII. Francoise Basseporte died in Paris.

Basset, Anne – (1520 – 1557)
English Tudor courtier
Anne Basset was the fourth child of Sir John Basset and his wife Honor Grenville. Her father when she was a child and Lady Basset remarried to Sir Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, the illegitimate son of Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and maternal uncle to King Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). She was raised mainly in Calais where lord Lisle served as governor. She later came to the court as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Jane Seymour and was attractive enough to excite gossip that King Henry was interested in her.
With his fourth marriage to Anne of Cleves Anne Basset served in her household (1540). After the subsequent divorce and disbandment of her household, Anne retained her rooms at court due to illness. Court gossip again linked Anne’s name with the king’s after the execution of Queen Catharine Howard, but the fall of her father soon afterwards prevented this affair developing any further. She later became the wife of Sir Walter Hungerford (1533 – 1596) over a decade her junior. Her surviving family letters were compiled and published by Muriel St Clair Byrne in The Lisle Letters (1981). Anne Basset appears as a minor character in the historical novel The Boleyn Inheritance (2007) by Philippa Gregory.

Basset, Elizabeth Legge, Lady – (1908 – 2000)
British courtier and author
Lady Elizabeth Legge was born (March 5, 1908) the second daughter of William Legge (1881 – 1958), seventh Earl of Dartmouth and his wife Lady Ruperta Wynn-Carrington, the daughter of Charles Carrington, the first and last Marquess of Lincolnshire the lifelong friend of King Edward VII. She received an extremely poor education and was married (1931) to Ronald Lambart Basset. She was a particular friend to the poet Ted Hughes (1930 – 1988).
She served at court as an Extra Woman of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother the widow of George VI from 1959. For this service she was appointed DCVO (Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. She published several collections such as Love is My Meaning (1973) and Beyond the Blue Mountains. Her son Bryan Ronald Basset (born 1932) was appointed as Chairman of the Royal Ordnance under Queen Elizabeth II (1985). Lady Elizabeth Basset died (Nov 30, 2000) aged ninety-two.

Basset, Frances     see also    Plantagenet, Frances

Basset, Frances – (1781 – 1855)
British Hanoverian heiress and peeress
Frances Basset was born (April 30, 1781), the only child of Sir Francis, Baron de Dunstanville and first Baron Basset of Stratton, and his first wife Frances Susanna, the daughter of John Hippisley Coxe, of Somerset. With her father’s death (1835) she succeeded as second Baron Basset of Stratton, though the barony of Dunstanville became extinct. At the time her father had been invested as Baron Basset (1796), the title had been granted with remainder to Frances and her male issue (1797). She also inherited the family estate of Tehidy. Lady Frances remained unmarried. Lady Basset died (Jan 22, 1855) aged seventy-three.

Basset, Joan de Bretagne, Lady    see   Joan of Brittany

Basset, Mary – (1522 – 1598)
English Tudor letter writer
Mary Basset was the fifth child of Sir John Basset and his wife Honor Grenville. She was the younger sister to Anne Basset, and their stepfather was Sir Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, the illegitimate son of King Edward IV (1461 – 1483). She was contracted to marry a French nobleman Gabriel de Montmorency, Seigneur de Bours, but this marriage never eventuated. She was married late in the reign of Queen Mary (1557) to John Wollacombe of Overcombe, Devon, by whom she left issue. Her surviving letters were edited and published in the twentieth century by the historian Muriel St Clair Byrne in The Lisle Letters (1981).

Basset, Philippa – (c1203 – 1265)
English Plantagenet heiress
Philippa Basset was the daughter and coheir of Thomas Basset, of Headington, Oxon. She was married firstly (1220) to Henry de Beaumont, fifth Earl of Warwick (c1194 – 1229) and secondly (1229) Sir Richard Siward. Her second marriage brought her second husband, formerly a soldier of fortune, control of her share of the Basset esrates in Oxfordshire and her dower settlement from Lord Warwick. When her kinsman Gilbert Basset fell into royal disfavour with Henry III (1233), Siward was accused of marrying Philippa without the required royal license. She later divorced Siward (1242), whose career had continured to spiral downwards. Philippa Basset died aged over sixty (before Nov 29, 1265). She was buried in Bicester Abbey.

Bassett, Adelaide Florence   see   Samuels, Adelaide Florence

Bassett, Marnie – (1889 – 1980)
Australian historian and author
Flora Marjorie Masson was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of chemist and university academic, Sir David Orme Masson (1858 – 1937). She was educated privately apart from a brief stint at the Melbourne Girls’ Grammar School. Despite parental objections, she attended history lectures at Melbourne University and was later employed as a secretary. She never married and produced several historical works, most notably, The Governor’s Lady (1940), a history of the first white settlers in Victoria, The Hentys (1954), and Realms and Islands (1962). In recognition of her literary works, Bassett received honorary doctorates from the universities of Monash (1968) and Melbourne (1974). Marnie Bassett died (Feb 3, 1980) aged ninety, at Armadale in Melbourne.

Bassewitz, Ina Marie Helene Adele Elise von – (1888 – 1973)
Prussian countess and morganatic wife
Countess Ina von Bassewitz was the younger daughter of Count Karl Heinrich Ludwig von Bassewitz-Levetzow. She was created countess von Ruppin (1914) four days before her marriage with Prince Oskar (1888 – 1958), the fifth son of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The marriage was contracted morganatically and the couple’s children, though legitimate, would bear their mother’s rank and style. Twenty-five years afterwards, just prior to his death, the Kaiser recognized his daughter-in-law officially as HRH Princess Ina of Prussia (1940), which rank she held for the rest of her life. With her elevation her children became fully legitimate members of the Hohenzollern dynasty, with princely titles. With Oskar’s death (1958) Ina was Dowager Princess (1958 – 1973).
Princess Ina died (Sept 17, 1973) aged eighty-five. Her two children were,

Bassi, Laura Maria Catarina – (1711 – 1778)
Italian scholar
Laura Bassi was born and educated in Bologna, studying anatomy, natural history, physics, engineering, and classical languages by Gaetano Tacconi, a professor at the college of medicine.
Bassi was then appointed a professor at the University of Bologna (1732) at the age of only twenty-one, the first woman to be so honoured, and wrote papers concerning Cartesian and Newtonian physics. Two of her Latin dissertations on hydraulics and mechanics were published in the Commentaries of the Bologna Institute. Laura later married (1748) and became the mother of a large family of twelve children. Despite this enormous domestic responsibility however, Laura continued to lecture at the university until her death.

Bastelica, Vannina de – (c1530 – c1565) 
Corsican heiress
Vannina di Raimondacci was the daughter of Francesco di Raimondacci, Seigneur d’Ornano. At her father’s death, her uncle Bernardino and his son Orlando III appropriated Ornano until being successfully expelled by Vannina’s husband, Sampiero de Bastelica. Her marriage was not successful and she plotted with the Genoses on behalf of their son to the detriment of his father. The Genoese promised restoration of Ornano to Vannina and her son Alfonso de Bastelica. However, whilst travelling from Marseilles to Genoa, her husband captued and killed her, retaining control of Ornano till his own assassination (1567), when control of the fief finally passed to the Genoese.

Bastemburg, Gisela de – (fl. c1000 – c1040)
Norman heiress
Gisela was the daughter and heiress of the castellan Thurstan of Bastemburg (living c1020). She was married (c1012) to Giroie (c990 – c1033), Seigneur of Montreuil-l’Argille, and brought the fiefs of Eschauffour and Verneuces as her dowry. Apart from four sons who died in infancy, Gisela left seven children,

Baster, Eleanor – (fl. 1799 – 1809)
British Hanoverian actress and vocalist
Eleanor Green was the daughter of a gentleman, and was educated abroad in a French convent. She then returned to England and was married to a sailor named John Baster. Mrs Baster had performed in various London theatres as a singer before appearing in ‘breech’ role of Edmund in The Purse under James Winston at Richmond (1799). This was followed by the role of Don Carlos in The Duenna (1800) at Covent Garden Theatre.
Inclined to be overweight, Eleanor Baster possessed a beautiful singing voice, and made appearances in towns such as Yarmouth and Norwich, and her husband managed her affairs for her. Though she remained at Covent Garden her career declined, and she later worked in Glasgow under the direction of Thomas Beaumont (1808 – 1809). She later gave music and singing lessons in order to augment her income.

Batailles, Marion – (c1737 – 1824)
French portraitist and historical painter
Born Marie de Batailles, she was the elder sister of the miniaturist Therese de Batailles (1745 – 1835).

Batchelor, Joy – (1914 – 1991)
British animation specialist
Batchelor was born at Watford and originally worked as a fashion artist for Harper’s Bazaar magazine. She produced the animated film Robin Hood (1935) but later collaborated with her husband the producer John Halas, with whom Joy jointly produced animated cartoons, the best known being The Owl and the Pussycat (1952). During WW II Batchelor worked for the ministry of Information after which she produced the full-length cartoon entitled Handling Ships (1945). Batchelor later produced the animation for the adaptation of the George Orwell story Animal Farm (1954) and for the television series The Tales of Hoffnung (1965).

Batchelor, Ruth – (1933 – 1992)
American film critic, lyricist and journalist
Batchelor established the Los Angeles Film Critics Association (1975) of which served as president and executive director. She was an entertainment reporter for ABC (American Broadcasting Company) Television’s ‘Good Morning America’ program, and was employed as a film critic for National Public Radio. She wrote the musical Tom Jones for CBS television and released an album of feminist songs entitled Reviving a Dream (1971) through Femme Records. Ruth Batchelor died (July 23, 1992) aged fifty-eight, at Miami in Florida.

Bate, Dame Zara Violet – (1909 – 1989)
Australian political wife and author
Zara Dickins was born (March 10, 1909) in Kew, Victoria, the daughter of Sidney Herbert Dickens. She attended Toorak College. She established her own dressmaking business and fashion salon. Her first marriage (1935) with Colonel James Fell ended in divorce (1947). They had three sons. When she remarried (1946) to the politician Sir Harold Holt (1908 – 1967) he adopted her sons who then assumed his surname. Lady Holt became a figure of contemporary fashionable society and received the Coronation Medal (1953) and was the winner of the Australian Gown of the Year Award (1961).
Her husband succeeded Sir Robert Menzies as Prime Minister of Australia (1966) and Zara Holt became the Australian first lady. She received an honorary doctorate from the Ewha Women’s University in Seoul in Korea (1967). Due to the sad circumstances of Prime Minister Holt’s death by drowning at Cheviot Beach at Portsea, Lady Holt was created DBE (Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1968). Dame Zara remarried thirdly (1969) to Jeff Bate (Henry Jefferson Percival Bate), the agriculturalist and Liberal politician and was then known as Dame Zara Bate. She was the author of the memoir entitled My Life and Harry: An Autobiography (1968). Dame Zara Bate died (June 14, 1989) aged eighty, in Queensland.

Bateia – (fl. c1400 BC)
Semi-legendary Greek queen
Bateia was the daughter or aunt of Teucer, King of Samothrace. She became the wife of Dardanus, the founder and first king of Dardania, a city on the lower slopes of Mt Ida in Asia Minor. Teucer had received Dardanus in his kingdom with hospitality, and after he aided the king in subduing some troublesome neighbouring tribespeople, he gave Dardanus a share of the kingdom of Samothrace, and cemented this alliance by giving his relative Bateia in marriage to him.
With the death of Teucer Dardanus succeeded to the entire kingdom which was then renamed Dardania after him. Legend stated that Dardanus’ city would remain invincible only as long as Bateia’s dowry remained under the protection of the goddess Athena. By Dardanus Queen Bateia was the mother of ericthionius who accumulated great wealth and was the father of Tros, King of Troy. Her daughter Idaia was the second wife of Phineus, King of Thrace. This lady is not to be confused with the mythical Naiad named Batia who bore a son to Oebalus, King of Sparta.

Bateman, Hester – (1709 – 1794)
British silversmith
With the death of her husband, Hester Bateman and her three sons carried on the family silversmith business. Hester registered her mark (1774) and produced household silverware in the Neo-classical style such as spoons, teaspoons and cream jugs. Examples of her work survive.

Bateman, Kate Josephine – (1842 – 1917) 
American actress
Kate Bateman was the daughter of theatrical manager Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman, and was born in Baltimore, Maryland. Inculcated into the theatre from early childhood, she toured America and then London (1863) where she achieved fame in Leah the Forsaken. Her later career included Shakespearean roles in which she performed excellently. She was the maternal aunt of actress Fay Compton.

Bates, Anna Hanen Swan – (1846 – 1888)
Canadian giantess
Anna Swan was born in Nova Scotia. She grew to the height of 227 centimetres (7 ft, 5 and a half inches), and was married, at the Church of St Martin-in-the-Field in London, England (1871) to Martin van Buren Bates, of Whitesburg, Letcher County, Kentucky (1845 – 1919). He was eight centimetres shorter than Anna, but together they remain the tallest married couple on record.

Bates, Daisy – (1915 – 1999)
Black American civil rights leader
Daisy Bates was remembered for spearheading and organizing the successful campaign to admit nine black students to a Little Rock high school, against great popular local opposition, and despite the new laws of race equality. Daisy Bates died (Nov 4, 1999) aged eighty-four, in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Bates, Daisy May – (1859 – 1951) 
Australian anthropologist and author
Daisy Bates was born (Oct 16, 1859) in Tipperary, Ireland of a poor Catholic family, and originally trained as a governess. She immigrated to Australia in 1884 and married firstly Edwin Henry ‘Breaker’ Morant, whom she left to marry secondly, and bigamously, Jack Bates, to whom she bore a son. Daisy spent five years 1894 – 1899 absent from her family, earning a living as a journalist in London. There she was commissioned by The Times to investigate claims of maltreatment concerning the native Aboriginal population in Australia upon her return in 1899.
Having by this time seperated from Bates, Daisy was appointed (1904) by the Western Australian government to research the aboriginal tribes of that state and she became part of the anthropological expedition of Alfred Radcliffe-Brown. Her voraciously detailed notes concerning the Aboriginal culture led her to criticize attempts to Anglicize them, and she sold her own property in 1912 to finance her work amongst them in the Great Australian Bight region. Her work, The Passing of the Aborigines, appeared in 1938. The aboriginals named her ‘Kabbarli’ (grandmother), and she continued to live amongst them and document their way of life until continued ill-health and old age compelled her to return to Adelaide in 1945. Appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1933), her papers were given to the public archives in Canberra. Daisy Bates died (April 18, 1951) aged ninety-one.

Bates, Elizabeth Loudon – (1890 – 1931)
Australian child educator
Elizabeth Loudon Moffat was born in Sydney, New South Wales. Miss Moffat was an ardent and energetic worker for the Freee Kindergarten Movement, and was appointed as the directress of the Golden Fleece Kindergarten. She also served as the honorary secretary and vice president of the Moore Park Free Kindergarten in Sydney. Miss Moffat was married (1929) in Sydney to John Colin Bates. Mrs Elizabeth Bates died eighteen months later (March 1, 1921) aged forty, in Sydney.

Bates, Sophia Ann – (1817 – 1899) 
New Zealand educator
Sophia Bates was born in Westminster, London, the daughter of an army corporal, and immigrated to New Zealand with her parents, arriving in Auckland aboard the Ramillies (1847).
Appointed headmistress of the local parish school of St Peter’s at Onehunga in Auckland, she was recommended for the position of sub-deputy postmistress (1849), her main task being to supervise the delivery of the twice weekly mail from Auckland to Onehunga.
Bates retained both positions until 1855, when she resigned both to accompany her father elsewhere. However, she had returned to Onehunga by 1857, when she was again teaching at St Peter’s. Highly regarded as a teacher, Bates never married, and a decade or son later she retired from teaching in order to care for her elderly parents. Sophia Bates died (Nov 28, 1899) in Onehunga.

Bateson, Mary – (1865 – 1906) 
British medieval sociologist
Mary Bateson was born at Robin Hood’s Bay, near Whitby, North Riding, the daughter of Reverend W.H. Bateson, the master of St John’s College, Cambridge. Educated at Newnham College, Cambridge, Mary became an expert of English medieval social history, contributing to the Dictionary of National Biography, the Cambridge Modern History, Traill’s Social England, and the English Historical Review. She herself produced the works Records of the Borough of Leicester, Medieval England, and Borough Customs. Mary Bateson remained unmarried.

Bath, Anna Maria Gumley, Countess of – (1694 – 1758)
British Hanoverian peeress and literary patron
Anna Maria Gumley was the daughter of John Gumley of Isleworth, Middlesex, and his wife Susan White. She inherited Gumley House in Isleworth and became the wife of William Pulteney (1684 – 1764), the first Earl of Bath and became the Countess of Bath. Lady Bath was celebrated in verse by Alexander Pope though Lord Hervey considered her to be extremely common and coarse. Lady Bath died (Sept 14, 1758) in Piccadilly, London, and was interred in the Church of St Martins-in-the-Field. She was the mother of William, Viscount Pulteney (c1720 – 1763) who served as Lord of the Bedchamber to George III from 1760.

Bath, Eleanor Manners, Countess of – (c1510 – 1547)
English Tudor peeress and courtier
Eleanor Manners was the second surviving daughter of Sir Geoffrey Manners, twefth Baron De Ros of Hamlake (1508 – 1513) and his wife Anne St Leger, the niece of the kings Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485). Eleanor and her brother Sir Thomas Manners, first Earl of Rutland, an important courtier and diplomat at the court of Henry VIII, were descendants of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) and Queen Philippa, through their second son Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence. Eleanor became the second wife (c1527) of John Bourchier (1499 – 1560), Lord Fitzwarin, the son and heir of the first Earl of Bath becoming the Baroness Fitwarin. When her husband succeeded his father in the earldom Lady Eleanor became the Countess of Bath (1539 – 1547). Countess Eleanor died aged about thirty-seven. Her children were,

Bathe, Emilie Charlotte Le Breton, Lady    see    Langtry, Lillie

Bathiat, Arlette Leonie     see   Arletty

Bathilde    see    Balthild

Bathilde d’Orleans – (1750 – 1822)
French princess
Princesse Louise Marie Therese Bathilde d’Orleans was born (July 9, 1750) at the Palace of St Cloud, the daughter of Louis Philippe I, Duc d’Orleans (1752 – 1785) and his wife Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, the daughter of Louis Armand II de Bourbon, Prince de Conti. She was sister to the revolutionary leader Philippe Egalite, Duc d’Orleans (1747 – 1793). She was raised in a convent after the early death of her mother (1759) and was later married (1770) at Versailles to her cousin Louis Joseph de Bourbon (1756 – 1830), Duc de Bourbon. She bore him an only child Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, Duc d’Enghien (1772 – 1804) who was later executed by order of Napoleon I.
Due to her husband’s continued adulteries the princess and he were formally separated (1780) though she was refused entrée to the court of Versailles and retired to the Chateau of Chantilly. During this time she indulged in a discreet liaison with a naval officer which resulted in the birth of an illegitimate daughter whom she raised in her household. The princess later purchased the Elysee Palace from Louis XVI (1787) and established a brilliant salon there. With the eruption of the Revolution Princesse Bathilde took up the democratic cause, in opposition to her husband and son, and offered her property to the new Republic before it was forcibly confiscated. After her nephew the Duc de Chartres sought the help of the Austrians (1793) the princess was arrested and imprisoned in Marseilles by order of the National Convention. Her brother Orleans then perished under the guillotine (Nov, 1793) but the duchesse survived Robespierre’s Reign of Terror (1794) and was ultimately released. She returned to the Elysee Palace where she was forced to take in tenants in order to survive financially.
Under the Directoire of Napoleon the remaining members of the Bourbon family were sent into exile. Princess Bathilde and her daughter retired to Barcelona in Spain (1797) where she esatablished a dispensary for the poor. She remained in Spain until the restoration of the Bourbons (1814) when the Parisian crowds received her with affection as the mother of d’Enghien, revered as the ‘Martyr of Vincennes.’ She exchanged the Elysee Palace with Louis XVIII in return for the Hotel Matignon where the princesse installed an order of nuns. She refused to consider a reconcilitation with her husband and with the death of her aged father-in-law she became the last Princesse de Conde (1818 – 1822). Princesse Bathilde died (Jan 10, 1822) aged seventy-one, in Paris and was interred at Dreux. Her portrait has survived though her nephew Louis Philippe caused the manuscript of her memoirs to be destroyed to avoid any scandal.

Bathildis Vera Thyra Adelaide Hermine Mathilde Mary – (1903 – 1983)
German princess consort of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1936 – 1962)
Princess Bathildis was born (Nov 11, 1903) at Wels, near Linz in Austria, the fourth child and only daughter of Prince Christian Albert of Schaumburg-Lippe (1869 – 1942) and his wife Duchess Elsa of Wurttemburg, the daughter of Duke Eugen of Wurttemburg. She was married (April 15, 1925) at Simbach am Inn in Bavaria, in a civil ceremony, to Prince Wlorad of Schaumburg-Lippe (1887 – 1962), the son of the last sovereign Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont. The next day the couple went through a second and religious wedding ceremony at Pfaffstatt in Austria. She became the female head of the Waldeck family when her husband succeeded as the official Head of the former reigining family of the Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont. Bathildis survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1962 – 1983). Princess Bathildis died (June 29, 1983) aged seventy-nine, at Hagenburg Castle, near Wunstorf, in West Germany. Her children were,

Bathori, Jane – (1877 – 1970)
French mezzo soprano and operatic performer
She was born Jeanne Marie Berthier (June 14, 1877) in Paris. She originally studied to become a concert pianist but then decided to become a trained singer. She made her stage debut in Paris in a concert to honour the poet Paul Verlaine (1898). She then appeared in grand concert performances before appearing in La Niassance de Venus by Gabriel Faure and Messe de Requiem by Camille Saint-Saens soon afterwards. She adopted the professional name of Jane Bathori and pursued further vocal training with Pierre Emile Engel whom she later married (1908).
Jane Bathori was later appointed as the musical director of the Theatre du Vieux-Colombier and performed at La Scala in Milan and in various European cities. She supported the work of contemporary French composers and sang at the premiere performance if Printemps au fond de la mer by Louis Durey (1920). With the occupation of France by the Germans during WW II Bathori retired to Buenos Aires in Aregentina. She returned to Paris after the war where she worked as a vocal instructor. Jane Bathori died (Jan 25, 1970) aged ninety-two, in Paris.

Bathory, Erszebet (Elizabeth) – (1560 – 1614) 
Hungarian murderess
Countess Erszebet Bathory was born at Ecsed Castle in Nyirbator, the daughter of Baron Gyorgy Bathory and his wife Anna, and was the niece of Stephen Bathory, King of Poland and was a cousin of the Holy Roman emperor Matthias. She was married (1573) to the Hungarian Count Ferenc Nadasdy de Nadasd (1555 – 1604). Erszebet was popularly believed to have resorted to balck magic in order to be rid of her sterility, in consequence of which she bore four children.
The countess was found (1610) to have murdered around six hundred and fifty young girls, so that she could use their warm blood to bathe in in order to preserve her fading beauty. Claiming the immunity of her rank, the countess refused to attend her trial. Her servant accomplices were sent to be burnt at the stake, and for awhile her fate hung in the balance. Eventually, King Matthias commuted her sentence of death to life imprisonment. She was incarcerated within her infamous castle of Csejte (Cachtice), and died there three years later (Aug 24, 1614). Erszebet left two daughters and a son, her heir, Count Paul Nadasdy (1598 – 1650).

Bathsheba – (c1010 – c950 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Bathsheba was the daughter of Eliam, she was seduced by King David (c1030 – c966 BC), who then contrived to ensure the death of husband Uriah the Hittite by placing him in the forefront of the army during battle. She became David’s chief wife and queen, and was the mother of his son and ultimately successor King Solomon (c987 – 926 BC) into whose reign she survived to be honoured as queen mother.

Bathurst, Frances Apsley, Lady – (1653 – 1727)
English Stuart courtier and letter writer
Frances Apsley was the second daughter of Sir Allen Apsley and his wife Frances, the daughter of John Petre of Browhay, Devonshire. Frances came to court (1668) as maid-of-honour to Queen Catharine of Braganza, the wife of Charles II, and was renowned for her good looks. Her future close friendship with Princess Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, began when the princess appeared in the role of Calista in John Crowne’s play before the court (1673).
The two girls corresponded together, the princess taking the pen-name of ‘Mary Clorine’, and Frances that of ‘Aurelia’. By this time Mary’s sister Anne also became involved in the correpondence, calling Frances ‘Semandra’ and signing herself ‘Ziphares.’ The royal governess, Lady Frances Villiers, did not approve of this correspondence, which took place secretly between Richmond Palace and St James’s Palace. After the marriage of Princess Mary (1677) the two women continued to correspond at regular intervals. Frances married (1683) Sir Benjamin Bathurst (c1644 – 1704), and when William III and Queen Mary came to England in 1688, Lady Bathurst and her children were welcomed at the court. Frances was present at the queen’s funeral (Jan, 1695) and at the coronation of Queen Anne.
Widowed in 1704, Queen Anne later created (1712) Frances’s eldest son Allen (1684 – 1775) Baron Bathurst, and was later created first Earl Bathurst (1772) by George III. He married his maternal cousin Catherine, the daughter of Sir Peter Apsley. Frances’s second son Peter Bathurst (1687 – 1748), of Clarendon Park, Wiltshire, entered parliament, whilst her third son Benjamin Bathurst (1693 – 1767) of Lydney, Gloucestershire and Mixbury, Oxford, was himself the father of thirty-six children including Henry Bathurst (1744 – 1837), the Bishop of Norwich. Lady Bathurst died aged seventy-three (June 7, 1727). She was interred beside her husband in the church of Pawlersbury, in Northamptonshire.

Bathurst, Lady Georgiana – (1795 – 1874)
British courtier
Lady Georgiana Bathurst was the daughter of Henry Bathurst, third Earl Bathurst. She remained unmarried and served at court as lady-in-waiting to HRH Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, daughter of George III and aunt to Queen Victoria, until that lady’s death (1857). Lady Georgiana Bathurst died (March 27, 1874) aged seventy-eight.

Bathurst, Georgina Lennox, Countess – (1765 – 1841)
British courtier and society figure
Georgina Lennox was born at Goodwood House, Sussex (Dec 6, 1765), the daughter of Lord George Henry Lennox, and his wife Louisa Kerr, and was the sister to Charles Lennox, fourth Duke of Richmond, and was for some time engaged to the famous Irish patriot, Lord Edward Fitzgerald. Georgina was married instead (1789) to Henry, third Earl Bathurst (1762 – 1834) and attended the court of George III and Queen Charlotte.
Lady Sarah Lennox praised Georgina’s good nature, her wit, and gift for satire. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Bathurst (1834 – 1841). Her children included Henry George, fourth Earl Bathurst (1790 – 1866) and William, fifth Earl (1791 – 1878), both of whom died unmarried. Her third son, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Seymour Bathurst, was the father of Allen Alexander, sixth Earl Bathurst. Lady Bathurst died (Jan 20, 1841) aged seventy-five, in Berkeley Square, London. She was interred at Cirencester with her husband.

Bathurst, Lillias Margaret Frances Borthwick, Countess – (1872 – 1965)
British businesswoman
Lillias Borthwick was the daughter of Algernon Borthwick, Lord Glenesk, and his wife Alice Beatrice Lister. She was married (1893) to Seymour, Henry Bathurst (1864 – 1943), seventh Earl Bathurst (1864 – 1943), to whom she bore four children. With the death of her only brother Oliver, without issue (1905), Lady Bathurst inherited his estates and properties, and three years later she also inherited her father’s interest in the Morning Post newspaper, becoming actively involved with the management side of the business.
Because of her work organising hospitals and providing services for soldiers during Word War I, the countess was made an officer of the Legion d’Honneur of France, and received the medal of Queen Elisabeth of Belgium. Her eldest son, Allen Bathurst, Lord Apsley, was killed on active service in Malta during World War II, and his son Henry Bathurst succeeded his grandfather as eighth earl (1943). Lady Bathurst died (Dec 30, 1965) aged ninety-four.

Bathurst, Lady Louisa Georgiana – (1795 – 1874)
British courtier
Lady Louisa Bathurst was the elder daughter of Henry, third Earl Bathurst (1762 – 1834) and his wife Georgina Lennox, the daughter of Lord George Henry Lennox (1738 – 1805) and the sister of Charles Lennox (1764 – 1819), fourth Duke of Richmond. She remained unmarried and served as Lady of the Bedchamber to Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, daughter of George III and sister to George IV and William IV. Lady Louisa Bathurst died (March 27, 1874).

Batirytes – (fl. c3000 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Queen Batirytes is identified in the Cairo Annals Stone as the mother of King Semerkhet of the First Dynasty (c3050 – c2890 BC), which would make her the consort of King Adjib (Anedjib), who reigned for twenty-six years, and was interred at Abydos. Batirytes apparently survived into the reign of her son as queen mother.

Batten, Jean Gardner – (1909 – 1982)
New Zealand aviatrix
Jean Batten travelled to England in 1929 to join the London Aeroplane Club, in the hope of furthering her flying ambitions, and became the first person (1934) to complete a return flight from England to Australia, and back to England again. In 1935 she established a new speed record when she flew from England to Brazil, and she broke the world record for an Atlantic crossing in 1936. Her record for flying her Percival Gull monoplane from London to New Zealand in 1937 remained unbeaten for over four decades.

Her last recorded flight was later in the same year when she flew from Australia to England in a record five days and eighteen hours. In recognition of her acheivements in the field of flying she was granted the Freedom of the City of London and aappointed a Chevalier of the Legion d’honneur (1978). Famous for her glamorous and movie-star like persona, she remained an intensely private individual, and disappeared in Majorca just prior to her death.

Batten, Mollie – (1905 – 1985)
British pioneer social worker and educator
Edith Mary Batten was born in London, and attended secondary school at Southport. She went on to study at Liverpool University and at the London School of Economics. She later became a social work trainer (1933) attached to Birmingham University. During WW II Mollie Batten worked with the Ministry of Labour after which she became the reader in theology at St Anne’s College at Oxford (1947 – 1949). Batten was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) (1948) by King George VI in recognition of her valuable civic work, and she served as the principal of William Temple College (1950 – 1966).

Battenberg, Julia Theresa von Haucke, Princess von – (1825 – 1895)
Polish-German royal matriarch
Countess Julia Theresa von Haucke was born in Warsaw, Poland, the daughter of Count Johann Moritz von Haucke, sometime Polish minister of War, and his wife Sophie de Lafontaine.
The countess attended the Hessian court as lady-in-waiting to Princess Marie of Hesse (later wife of Alexander II of Russia). She attracted the attention of the princess’s brother, Alexander (1823 – 1888) who fell in love with her. The couple decided to elope, and were then married morganatically at Breslau (1851). Forbidden to style herself princess, the Hessian grand duke Ludwig III allowed her the title of countess von Battenberg, with the qualification of Illustrious Highness (1851).
Prince Alexander long served in the Austrian Imperial Army and the countess acompanied him on his various postings, bearing five children in Geneva, Graz, Verona, Milan, and Padua respectively. Eventually the Hessian royal family relented, and the coutness was created a princess with the title qualification of Serene Highness, and her children were then considered official members of the royal house (1858). Widowed in 1888, the princess retired to the Castle of Heilgenberg.
Her children included Louis of Battenberg, Marquess of Milford Haven (1854 – 1921), the grandfather of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, and Prince Henry (1858 – 1896) who married Beatrice, the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria, and was the father of Victoria Eugenie, the wife of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain. Princess Julia died (Sept 19, 1895) aged sixty-nine, at Heilgenberg.

Battersby, Jean – (1928 – 2009)
Australian arts advisor
Jean Agnes Robertson was born (March 28, 1928) at Drouin in the West Gippsland region of Victoria. She studied French literature at the University of Melbourne before attending the Sorbonne in Paris where she met her future husband Charles Battersby to whom she bore a daughter. Mrs Battersby became the chief executive officer of the Council for the Arts (1968 – 1983) and established the Australia Council (1970) with H.C. Coombs. After leaving the Australia Council she she worked as an arts adviser for Rupert Murdoch at the News Corporation and for the Federal Airports Commission. Jean Battersby died of cancer (Feb 24, 2009) aged eighty, in Sydney, New South Wales.

Battersea, Constance de Rothschild, Lady – (1843 – 1931)
British social reformer and writer
Constance de Rothschild was born the elder daughter and coheiress of Baron Sir Anthony de Rothschild, first baronet (1810 – 1876), and his wife Louisa (1821 – 1910), the daughter of Abraham Montefiore. She was raised with her sister Annie (later Hon. Mrs E. Yorke) at the family estate of Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire. Initiated into social philanthropy by her mother, Constance taught at the Jewish Free School in London, and with her sister she wrote The History and Literature of the Israelites (1870).
Constance was married (1877) to the Liberal politician, Cyril Flower (1843 – Nov 28, 1907), who was later created Baron Battersea (1892), but the union remained childless. She campaigned publicly for the temperance movement and was a founder-member of the Society for Preventive and Rescue Work, of which she was made honorary secretary. There she was involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of Jewish prostitutes and worked to assiste Jewish immigrants upon their arrival in London. A close friend to Princess Louise, the daughter of Queen Victoria, she joined the committee (1885) of which the princess was president, which provided evening art classes for girls, the RESA (Recreative Evening Schools’ Association). Lady Battersea was later elected as president of the National Union of Women Workers, and with the death of her husband (1907) she devoted her energies entirely over to philanthropic activities. She was closely connected with the founding of the New Cromer Hospital and wrote her Reminiscences (1922). Lady Battersea died (Nov 22, 1931) aged eighty-eight.

Batthyany, Countess Cecilia von    see   Rogendorf, Cecilia von

Battiscombe, Georgina – (1905 – 2006)
British author and biographer
Esther Georgina Harwood was born (Nov 21, 1905), the daughter of George Harwood, MP, of Bolton, Lancashire, and the maternal granddaughter of Sir Alfred Hopkinson, the first vice-chancellor of Manchester University. Educated at St Michael’s School, and at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, she married (1932) Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Battiscombe, OBE (Order of the British Empire), of the Grenadier Guards, to whom she bore an only daughter.
Battiscombe was quite a prolific writer, and was highly regarded due to her elegant style of her writing, and her meticulous research. She was best remembered for her sympathetic biography of Queen Alexandra (1969), the wife of Edward VII. Noted for her biographies of eminent public figures, Battiscombe produced lives of Charlotte Mary Yonge (1943), Mrs Gladstone (1956), John Keble (1963), for which she was awarded the James Tait Memorial Prize for best biography of the year, and Christina Rossetti (1965). Other works include Two on Safari (1946), Reluctant Pioneer: the Life of Elizabeth Wordsworth (1978), Christina Rossetti: a divided life (1981), and The Spencers of Althorp (1984) which was a collective biography of the family of Diana, Princess of Wales. Georgina Battiscombe died aged one hundred.

Bat Zabbai     see     Zenobia, Septimia

Bauchens, Anne(1881 – 1967)
American film editor
Anne Bauchens was born (Feb 2, 1881) in St Louis, Missouri, the daughter of a porter. She studied acting under the director Hugh Ford, but her stint on the Broadway stage proved unsuccessful, and she left to work as a secretary. Her career with film began when she was employed as secretary to the dramatist and director William C. DeMille, brother of the famous film director Cecil B. DeMille. She accompanied William DeMille when he went to work for his brother in Hollywood, California.
With C.B. DeMille Bauchens co-edited his silent film We Can’t Have Everything (1918), after which he entrusted her solely with the editing of his films, an impressive career of forty years (1918 – 1959). Bauchen’s editing skills won her an Academy Award (1940) for the editing of North West Mounted Police. Three of her films won Oscar nominations, Cleopatra (1934), The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), and the biblical epic The Ten Commandments (1956). She was the first recipient of the ACE (Achievement Award of the American Cinema Editors). Anne Bauchens died (May 7, 1967) aged eighty-six, at Woodland Hills, California.

Baudisch-Wittke, Gudrun – (1907 – 1982)
Austrian ceramicist
Baudisch studied ceramics and sculpture at Graz, after which she removed to Grunbach where she joined the Kunstlerwerkstatte. She became a leading ceramic designer with the Wiener Werkstatte, and was especially known for her figurines and head portraits which were colourfully and realistically decorated in makeup shades. Her work was exhibited at the International Exhibition of Ceramic Art (1928) which was held at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
With the take over of Austria by the Nazis Gudrun Baundisch removed to Berlin, where she worked with the architect Clemens Holzmeister designing architectural faience for churches throughout the world. After the war Gudrun settled at Hallstatt where she established the Keramic Hallstatt (1946) in partnership with her second husband Karl Wittke. She had organized the group of younger ceramicists known as Gruppe H to whom she handed over the running of Keramic at her retirement (1977).

Baudonivia – (fl. c570 – 614)
Merovingian hagiographer
Baudonivia was a nun at the Abbey of Sainte-Croix (Holy Cross) at Poitiers. She composed the Vita de Sancti Radegundis, which was life of the abbey’s foundress Queen Radegonde, the wife of Clotaire I of Neustria.

Bauer, Catherine Krouse – (1905 – 1964)
American housing planner
Born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, she was the daughter of a highway engineer. She was educated at Vail-Deane School for Girls in Elizabeth and at the prestigious Vassar College and Cornell University.  Her research and work led to the establishment of the first federal housing legislation act in the USA, the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act (1937). Bauer was the author of, Modern Housing (1934). Catherine Krouse Bauer died (Nov 22, 1964) aged fifty-nine, in California, aged fifty-nine, the result of an accident.

Bauer, Marion Eugenie – (1887 – 1955)
American musician and composer
Marion Bauer was born in Walla Walla, Washington, the daughter of a grocer and a language teacher. She was educated in various public schools and later studied music under the composer Henry Holden in New York, and under Paul Ertel in Prussia. Bauer wrote a tone poem for violin and piano, for her friend, the violinist Maud Powell, entitled Up the Ocklawaha (1913). Other works included Fair Daffodils (1913), a trio for female voices, The Lay of the Four Winds (1915), for male voices, and Allegretto giocoso (1920) for eleven instruments.
Bauer also produced chamber, choral, and orchestral works, such as the Sonata for viola and piano (1935) and Concertino for oboe, clarinet, and quartet (1939 – 1943). Her tone poem, Sun Splendor was performed by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski (1947). Bauer was the author of several works such as Twentieth Century Music (1933) and Musical Questions and Quizzes (1941). Marion Bauer died (Aug 9, 1955) aged sixty-seven, in South Hadley, Massachusetts.

Baughan, Blanche Edith – (1870 – 1958)
New Zealand poet and prose writer
Born in England, Baughan arrived in New Zealand at the age of thirty (1900). Her works included the collection of poetry entitled Shingle-Short and Other Verses (1908) and the anthology of stories entitled Brown Bread from a Colonial Oven (1912). Blanche Baughan was also the author of Studies in New Zealand Scenery (1916).

Baum, Doris Doscher – (1881 – 1970)
American coin model
Doris Doscher worked as a professional model, newspaper columnist and actress. She married Dr H. William Baum, a physical therapist.The sculptor Herman Atkins MacNeil selected Doris as the model for the Miss Liberty 25 cent coin, first minted in 1916. She was also the model for Diana and the Chase and was the female figure in the work Abundance in the fountain in the front of the Plaza Hotel. Baum played the part of Eve in the silent film Birth of a Nation (1914), and lectured and wrote for many years on health and beauty subjects. Doris Doscher Baum died at Farmingdale, Long Island.

Baum, Vicki Hedvig – (1888 – 1960) 
Austrian-American novelist
Vicki Baum was born (Jan 24, 1888) in Vienna where she trained to be a musician. She served as a military nurse during WW I. Seperating from her first husband she began a musical career as a harpist and supported herself by teaching music. Her remarriage to Richard Lert (1916) ended this brief career, and she was able to devote herself to writing.
Her first work, Falling Star (Der Eingang zur Buhnel)was published in 1920 through the arrangement of a friend, and her second novel, Helene Willfuer was published in 1929, but she achieved celebrity status with her third and most famous novel The Grand Hotel, (Menschen im Hotel) (also 1929) which used the accidental isolation of a group of people in an artificial setting as the basis of the plot, and which starred Greta Garbo and Joan Crawford in the famous film version (1932), set the pattern for many other novelists.
The immense success of this novel was never achieved by any of her later works, which included, Weeping Wood (1943), The Headless Angel (1948), Hotel Shanghai (1953), The Mustard Seed (1953), Written on Water (1956), and, Ballerina (1958). Her works have been translated into various languages. She travelled to New York to see a performance of The Grand Hotel in 1931 and decided to remain, settling in California and later becoming a naturalized citizen (1938). Vicki Baum died (Aug 29, 1960) aged seventy-two, in Hollywood, California.

Baume, Madame de la – (fl. c1665 – c1680)
French transcriber
Madame de la Baume transcribed the Histoires amoureuse des Gaules (Amatory History of the Gauls) (1665) which was written by Roger de Bussy-Rabutin. Its satire of the court of Louis XIV using fictitious names caused de Bussy-Rabutin to be exiled from France, and he always accused Madame de la Baume of having herself produced the scandalous portraits of the Prince de Conde and Madame de Sevigne which had caused most offence.

Baumer, Gertrude – (1873 – 1954)
German feminist leader, novelist and theologian
Gertrude Baumer was born (Nov 12, 1873) at Hohenlimburg in Westphalia, and studied at Berlin University in Prussia, where she first came into conact with feminist ideals. Baumer served as the president (1910 – 1919) of the League of German Women’s Associations and for over five decades she was the editor of the feminist newspaper Die Frau (1893 – 1944). She became a member of the Reichstag (1920 – 1933) but was later removed from her seat by the Nazis.
Due to her professed adherence to Christianity she was several times subject to interrogation by the Nazis. Her novels included Sonntag mit Silvia Monika (Sunday with Silvia Monika) (1933) and she also published the biography of the Holy Roman empress Adelaide of Burgundy entitled Adelheid, Mutter der Konigreiche (Adelheid, Mother of Kingdoms) (1936). Gertrude Baumer died (March 25, 1954) aged eighty.

Bausch, Pina – (1940 – 2009)
German dancer and choreographer
Philippine Bausch was born (July 27, 1940) at Solingen, near Dusseldorf, the daughter of a café proprietor. She studied ballet and attended the Folkwang School in Essen, which was directed by the noted dancer and choreographer Kurt Jooss. Pina Bausch went on to study at the Juilliard School in New York and under the British choreographer Anthony Tudor. Bausch later became the director of the Folkwang as successor to Jooss, and then joined the Wuppertal Theatre (1973) which developed under her guidance and that of her partner the costume designer Rolf Borzik, into the Wuppertal Dance Theatre.
Pina Bausch was famous for her visionary influence on contemporary dance, being particularly interested in translating the rhythmn of sound into movement. She staged Jooss’s adaptation of the Henry Purcell opera The Fairy Queen at the Schwetzingen Festival (1969) and then worked for the Rotterdam Dance Theatre. With the Wuppertal Theatre she produced such operas as Orpheus and Eurydice by Christoph Gluck and The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky. Bausch later directed the dance film Die Klage der Kaiserin (The Complaint of an Empress) (1990). Her best known production was Café Muller in which she herself appeared, and which was based on her childhood. Pina Bausch died (June 30, 2009) aged sixty-eight, at Wuppertal.

Baux, Alix de – (1367 – c1426)
French heiress
Alix de Baux inherited the titles of Comtesse d’Avellino and dame de Baux from her father. From her mother she inherited the titles of comtesse de Beaufort and vicomtesse de Turenne. She married firstly (1380) Odo de Villars, titular Comte de Geneva, and secondly (1418) to Conrad III, count of Freiburg and Neuenburg (died 1424). At the time of her father’s death, her uncle, Raymond, Vicomte de Turenne seized Les Baux, but it was retaken by Alix’s first husband (1400). Later, when she was in a frail and mentally enfeebled state, Alix left the seigneurie of Baux to the family of the dukes of Andria, the other branch of her own family, but this legacy was successfully rejected by the count of Provence, who seized the fief, which eventually passed to the French crown, together with Provence. Alix died soon after these events and was buried at Avignon.

Bava of Hamelant     see    Ava of Hamelant

Bava, Petronilla – (fl. 1272 – after 1314)
Italian hagiographer
Petronilla Bava was a Dominican nun in the abbey of St Margaret in Vercelli during the long rule of prioress Emilia Bicheri (1272 – 1314) whom she survived. Petronilla wrote the Vita of Emilia not long after her death. This work was used by the Catholic historian Michele Pio when he compiled the life of Bicheri in his, Vomini Illustri …… dell’ Ordine di S. Domenico.

Baverstock, Gillian Mary – (1931 – 2007)
British author
Gillain Mary Pollock was born (July 15, 1931) at Bourne End in Buckinghamshire, the elder daughter of Major Hugh Pollock and of the popular children’s novelist Enid Blyton. She was educated at Benenden and then studied history at the University of St Andrews in Edinburgh, Scotland. Gillian trained as aschool teacher and worked at Ilkley. She was married (1957) to Donald Baverstock, a BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) producer, to whom she bore four children.
Baverstock lectured extensively on the subject of children’s literature and always defended the literary reputation of her mother’s work such as The Mystery That Never Was, from later claims of racism, and established Quill Publications Ltd in conjunction with the comic writer Tim Quinn (1999) and produced several editions of the children’s comic book Blue Moon, the stories for which were based upon old fairy tales. Gillian Baverstock died (June 24, 2007) aged seventy-six.

Bawr, Alexandrine de – (1773 – 1860)
French dramatist and novelist
Alexandrine Sophie Goury de Champgrand was the illegitimate daughter of a nobleman and an actress. Her father raised Alexandrine and arranged for her suitable education. She became the wife of the Comte de Saint-Simon but her husband eventually divorced her so he could marry Madame de Stael. Her second husband, a Russian officer named Bawr, died in a tragic accident. Alexandrine then devoted her career to writing.
Her plays included Le Rival obligeant (The Helpful Rivals) (1811) and Le Double strategeme (The Double Stratagem) (1811).
Alexandrine Bawr’s novels included Auguste et Frederic (1817) and Cecilia (1852), as well as the collection of stories entitled Histoire fausses et varies (True and False Tales) (1835). Her other published works were Cours de literature (Guide to Literature) (1821) and Histoire de la musique (History of Music) (1823). She published her memoirs entitled Mes souvenirs (1853) in Paris.

Bayalun    see   Efendi

Bayard, Martha Pintard – (fl. 1794 – 1797)
American diplomatic figure, traveller, and diarist
Martha Bayard accompanied her ambassador husband to England, where she was received at the court of George III and Queen Charlotte. Martha Bayard lived in England for several years and kept a social diary during this period of her life, which was later edited and published posthumously as the Journal of Martha Pintard Bayard (1894).

Bayer, Veronika – (1940 – 2008)
German film and television actress
Bayer was born (June 4, 1940) in Suttgart, Wurttemburg. Her film credits included Zwolf Madchen und ein Mann (Twelve Girls and a Man) (1959), Melodie und Rhythmus (Melody and Rhythm) (1959), Die Lok (1993) and Marie kann zaubern (2007). She also made appearances in popular television programs such as Die Legende vom heiligen Trinker (1963), and Triumph des Todes oder Das grosse Massakerspiel (1970). Veronika Bayer died (Jan 31, 2008) aged sixty-seven.

Bayes, Nora – (1880 – 1928)
American vocalist and composer
Dora Goldberg was born in Joliet, Illinois. Adopting the professional name of ‘Nora Bayes’ she and her second husband Jack Norworth wrote and performed the song Shine On Harvest Moon from the Ziegfeld Follies (1908). Other of her popular compositions included Has Anyone Here Seen Kelly from The Jolly Bachelors (1910) and the WW I classic favourite Down at the Old Bull and Bush. She was portrayed on screen by actress Ann Sheridan in the classic movie Shine On Harvest Moon (1944).

Bayfield, Fanny Jane – (fl. 1872 – 1897)
British Victorian painter
Miss Bayfield specialized as a flower painter, and worked from London and from Norwich in Norfolk.  Exhibitions of ther work were held at the Suffolk Street Gallery and with the Royal Academy during a career which spaned twenty-five years.

Bayley, Emily Annie Theophila Metcalfe, Lady – (1830 – 1911)
British traveller and diarist
Emily Metcalfe was the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Metcalfe, British Resident in Delhi, India, and his second wife Felicity Annie, sister to Sir Samuel Browne. Emily left memoirs which covered the period of ten years from 1848 till the Indian Mutiny (May, 1857) which she herself escaped because of a timely return visit to England with her children shortly beforehand. She was married (1850) to Sir Edward Clive Bayley (1821 – 1884), the statesman and archaeologist and resided in India for a further thirty years, before retiring to England with him finally in 1878. Lady Bayley inherited the famous Reminiscences of Imperial Delhie (the Delhie-Book), compiled by her late father. Emily’s memoirs and her father’s book and illustrations were published togther at the behest of British historian M.M. Kaye and published under the title The Golden Calm (1980).

Bayley, Katherine – (1721 – 1774)
Irish society figure and letter writer
Katherine Bayley kept a private journal account of her live over a period of thirty-five years of living in Dublin (1721 – 1756). It was later edited and published posthumously by the Royal Society of Antiquaries (1898).

Baylis, Lilian Mary – (1874 – 1937) 
British theatrical manager
Lilian Baylis was born in London, and originally trained as a violinist but performed in vaudeville in music halls in South Africa from 1890. She then resided in Johannesburg, where she gave vocal lessons, but in 1898 she returned to England, where until 1912 she managed the Royal Victoria Hall, a music hall off Waterloo Road, in London, for her aunt Emma Cons.
With her aunt’s death, Lilian ran the establishment herself and through her management the ‘Old Vic Theatre‘ became a national institution renowned as ‘ the home of Shakespeare.’ She also acquired the Sadler’s Wells theatre for opera and ballet, which she managed successfully from 1931, one of her collaborators being the famous ballerina Dame Ninette DeValois. Lilian Baylis was awarded a CH (Companion of Honour) in 1929 for her services to the theatre.

Bayly, Ellen Ada     see    Lyall, Edna

Bayne, Beverly – (1894 – 1982)
American actress
Born Pearl von Name (Nov 11, 1894) in Minneapolis, she became a leading star of early silent films as ‘Beverly Bayne’ whilst she was the wife of noted actor Francis X. Bushman (1883 – 1966). She was the stepmother of actor Francis X. Bushman Jr (1903 – 1978). Her movie credits included Graustark (1915), A Virginia Romance (1916), Romeo and Juliet (1916), The Voice of Conscience (1917) and The Age of Innocence (1924). Her career quickly declined with the advent of sound and she appeared in only a couple of films such as Once in a Lifetime (1932) and As Husbands Go (1934) before she eventually retired from films altogether (1935).

Bayne, Margaret – (1798 – 1835)
British missionary
Bayne was born at Greenock, and received an excellent linguistic education. She became the wife of the missionary John Wilson with whom she established schools for girls in Bombay in India where they were trained as teachers. With Margaret’s early death her two sisters carried on her work with assistance from an educational society in Edinburgh (1837).

Baynes, Julia Smith, Lady – (1795 – 1881)
British traveller
Julia Smith was the fourth daughter of General Sir John Smith. She became the wife (1815) of Sir William Baynes (1789 – 1866), second baronet, of Harefield Place, Middlesex, to whom she bore a large family of children. She became Lady Baynes when her husband succeeded to the baronetcy (1837) and accompanied him on his travels to China, having the distinction of being the first European lady who openly ventured to travel to Canton. She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Baynes (1866 – 1881). Lady Baynes died (Jan 21, 1881). Her children were,

Baynton, Barbara Janet – (1857 – 1929)
Australian writer
Born Barbara Kilpatrick Lawrence (June 4, 1857) at Scone in New South Wales, she was the daughter of John Lawrence. Her first marriage (1880) with Alexander Frater proved a failure, and when he eloped with a servant she was granted a divorce (1890). Soon afterwards she was remarried secondly to Thomas Baynton (1819 – 1904), an antique dealer almost four decades her senior, which enabled her to pursue her writing career without fear of financial concerns.
Barbara Baynton’s first first published story The Tramp (1896) appeared in the Bulletin newspaper, and was followed by a collection of six short stories entitled Bush Studies (1902), which sealed her reputation as a popular author. She also wrote the novel Human Toll (1907). With the death of Baynton (1904) she established herself as an antique dealer and literary hostess in Sydney and Melbourne. She later travelled to London where she set up a literary salon, and was finally married (1921) to her third and last husband, Rowland George Allanson-Winn (1855 – 1935), fifth Baron Headley as his second wife and became Baroness Headley (1921 – 1935). She deserted Lord Headley when he became bankrupt and returned to Melbourne in Victoria. Barbara Baynton died (May 28, 1929) aged seventy-one, in Melbourne.

Baynton, Isabella Leigh, Lady – (c1512 – 1573)
English Tudor courtier
Isabella was the daughter of Ralph Leigh, of Stockwell, Lambeth, in Surrey. Her mother, Joyce (Jocunda) Culpepper remarried to Lord Edmund Howard, the younger son of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk and his first wife, Elizabeth Tilney. Isabella Leigh was married firstly to Sir Edward Baynton of Bromham, Wiltshire (c1480 – 1544), secondly to Sir James Stumpe of Malmesbury, Wiltshire (d. 1563), and thirdly to Thomas Stafford. She served as lady-in-waiting to her half-sister Queen Catharine Howard, the ill-fated fifth wife of Henry VIII and suffered a period of detention in the Tower of London, on a charge of misprision of treason, when her sister’s misbehaviour was uncovered (1541 – 1542). Lady Baynton died (Feb 16, 1573) aged about sixty.

Bazan, Emilia Pardo, Condesa de(1851 – 1921)
Spanish novelist
Emilia Pardo was born at La Coruna, Galicia (Sept 16, 1851), of an old patrician family, and married (1867) Senor de Quiroga, a man much her senior, the couple retiring to reside in Madrid.
The condesa wrote several essays, and her first novel, Pascual Lopez (1879) concerning the life of a medical student, reveals her own interest in philosophy, science, and literature. In her novel Un viaje de novios (1881), and in her essays in La cuestion palpitante, she argued in favour of French Nationalism, and the treatment of social problems into Spanish realistic fictions. Her views on these subjects provoked serious controversy and heated debate.
The condesa undertook much detailed research for her novel La Tribuna (1882), which dealt with the life of a revolutionary woman tobacco worker, but her greatest achievements were with her studies of decadent Galician aristocracy in Los pazos de Ulloa (The son of a bondswoman) (1886) and La madre naturaleza (1887). From 1890 she came under the influence of Christian idealism which featured prominently in her later works, such as Sirena negra (1907) and Dulci dueno (1911). Emilia was a marked literary critic, and possessed a certain amount of influence in that field.
Madame de Bazan drew attention to French and Russian writers of the 1880s, and ran a famous literary salon in Madrid. She was later appointed a counsellor on public education, and was made professor of Romantic Literature at the Central University of Madrid (1916), the first time this position was ever held by a woman. Condesa de Bazan died (May 12, 1921) aged sixty-eight, in Madrid.

Bazincourt, Thomasse de – (fl. 1768)
French poet
Madamoiselle de Bazincourt resided at the royal convent of Longchamp, perhaps as a canoness, and was supported by a pension granted her by Louis XV. She published the Abrege historique et chronologique des figures de la Bible (Short History and Chronology of Biblical Figures) (1768). This work had been written for the moral instruction of young women and was dedicated to Queen Marie Lesczynszka, wife of Louis XV.

Bazus, Baroness de     see    Leslie, Frank

Beach, Amy Marcy – (1867 – 1944)
American pianist and composer
Amy Marcy Cheney was born (Sept 5, 1867) in Henniker, New Hampshire. She was trained as a pianist under Ernst Perabo (1845 – 1920) in Boston, Massachusetts. Amy translated the works of Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869) and Francois Auguste Gevaert (1828 – 1908) and was a self taught composer, producing the symphony Gaelic. She composed works for the piano, choral works and several popular songs. Mrs Beach served as the president of the Board of Councillors of the New England Conservatorium in Boston.

Beach, Sylvia Woodbridge – (1887 – 1962)
American publisher
Sylvia Beach was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a Presbyterian clergyman. She spent several years in France from 1901, and later visited Spain (1916). During World War I she worked with the American Red Cross in Belgrade. Returning to Paris at the end of the war, Beach set up her famous bookshop, Shakespeare and Co., on the Left Bank (1919), which became a vibrant hub of literary activity, attracting the likes of T.S. Eliot, Andre Gide, Ezra Pound, Ernest Hemingway, Sherwood Anderson, Paul Valery, amongst other celebrated literary figures.

Beach was the original publisher of James Joyce’s famous work Ulysses. She remained in business until World War II, when the Nazis imprisoned her in a concentration camp at Vittel. Just prior to her death in Paris (Oct 9, 1962), Beach travelled to Dublin, in Ireland to open the James Joyce Museum at Sandycove, which was the original setting of Joyce’s novel. Sylvia Beach was the author of the memoirs, Shakespeare and Company (1960).

Beaconsfield, Viscountess     see    Disraeli, Mary Anne

Beadle, Jean – (1868 – 1942)
Australian Labour leader
Born Jane Miller at Clunes in Victoria, she was the daughter of a miner. She married and had been employed in a clothing sweatshop, which greatly influenced her political outlook.
Residing in Western Australian from 1901, Beadle devoted her energies to campaigning for equal rates of pay for women, and assisted on women’s committees organized to provide relief for striking miners. She was appointed delegate tot he first Labour Women’s Conference (1912) and later became a magistrate (1920). Jane Beadle died (May 22, 1942) aged seventy-four, in Perth, aged seventy-four.

Beale, Dorothea – (1831 – 1906)
British educator and pioneer of education for women
Dorothea Beale was born in London the daughter of Miles Beale M.R.C.S. Dorothes attended boarding school in London and Paris (1847) and then taught Latin and Greek at Queen’s College, London. In 1850 she became mathematical and Latin tutor at Queen’s. In 1857 she was appointed head teacher at the Clergy School, at Casterton, before being appointed principal of Cheltenham Ladies’ College (1858), a position she held for nearly fifty years, and her success set the example which was to be followed by other prestigious girls’ schools.

Miss Beale was the author of the Text Book of English and General History, and from 1880 she edited the Ladies’ College Magazine. Beale sponsored St Hilda’s College at Oxford (1894) and in her later years was an enthusiastic supporter of votes for women. An intersting and increasingly eccentric character, she was long a corresponding member of the National Education Association of the USA, and was made an Honorary Freeman of the Boro’ of Cheltenham.

Beale, Mary – (1632 – 1699) 
English painter
Mary Craddock was the daughter of Reverend John Craddock, rector of Barrow, Suffolk. She was married (1651) to Charles Beale, an amateur painter and minor official functionary.
Mary is said to have been the pupil of Robert Walker and of Sir Peter Lely, and she made copies of the works of Lely and Van Dyck. Beale was best known for her oil portraits, including that of Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort I (1674). Portraits of Charles II and William III, attributed to her are known, whilst her son Charles Beale (Jr) assisted Mary with the backgrounds and draperies in her portraits. She was also the author of Discourse on Friendship. Mary Beale died in London, and was buried in St James’s Church in Piccadilly.

Bealknap, Dame Sybil de – (c1350 – 1415)
English mediaeval litigant
The details of her parentage remain unrecorded. Sybil (sometimes referred to in charters as Juliana) had become the wife (before 1375) of the noted judge Sir Robert Bealknap (c1340 – 1400). The couple settled at Sir Robert’s estate of Hampstead in Kent where Sybil’s children were most probably born. Their daughter Joan de Bealknap became the wife of Sir Ralph de Stonor (1370 – 1394) and left descendants.
When Sir Robert was later exiled to Drogheda in Ireland on a charge of treason by King Richard II (1387) Sybil accompanied him there, where they were ordered to confine themselves within a circuit of three miles around the town. A decade later Richard relented and they were permitted to return to England (1397). Sir Robert died (1400) and soon afterwards (1401) Dame Sybil, together with Holt and Burgh, former colleagues of her late husband, petitioned parliament for the removal of the attainder which had been placed upon her husband and herself. This was a case in which Dame Sybil sued alone and she inspired Justice Markham with the two barbarous hexameters,

Ecce mast mirum quod femina ferl breve Regis,
Non nominando virum conjunctum roboue legis

As a result of this successful litigation Sybil was permitted to remain in possession of her husband’s estates, in spite of the attainder, until her death in the reign of Henry V. They then reverted to the crown, but her son Hamon de Bealknap petitioned parliament for the removal of the attainder which was granted (1415). Sir Edward Bealknap, the great-grandson of Sir Robert and Sybil, whose sister Alice Bealknap married Sir William Shelley, a justiciar of the Common Pleas at the time of Henry VIII, achieved considerable distinction during the reign of that monarch, and of his predecessor Henry VII, both as a soldier and a man of affairs. Another of Sybil’s descendants included Margaret Wotton, the second wife of Sir Thomas Grey (1477 – 1530), second Marquess of Dorset the first cousin of Henry VIII and left descendants.

Beals, Jessie Tarbox – (1870 – 1942)
American photographer
Jessie Tarbox was born in Hamilton, Canada, the daughter of the noted inventor Nathaniel Tarbox. She was educated at home and later became a schoolteacher in Massachusetts whilst continuing her own hobby of portrait photography. She became the wife (1897) of Alfred Beals, with whom she worked as a traveling photographer whilst he was her darkroom assistant. Mrs Beals established her own studio in New York (1905) and later produced a documentary concerning the slum children of New York (1910 – 1912). Though Jessie and her husband were later divorced (1917) they continued as business partners, and their work was published in Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue, amongst other popular magazines. She later worked with her daughter in California as a celebrity photographer (1928 – 1929).

Beanmidhe (1) – (c1176 – 1215)
Irish queen consort (1196 – 1215)
Beanmidhe was the daughter of Ua h-Eignigh (died 1201), King of Oriel. She was married prior to 1196 to Aedh Meth (the Fat) (died 1230), King of Ireland, whom she predeceased, and was the mother of his successor Domnall Og (the Young) (c1195 – 1234), who succeeded his father as King of Ireland (1230 – 1234) and left descendants.

Beanmidhe (2) – (c1340 – 1386)
Irish queen consort (1364 – 1386)
Beanmidhe was the daughter of Brian MacMahon (died 1372), King of Oriel. She became the wife (c1355) of Niall Mor (the Big), King of Ireland from 1364. Beanmidhe’s father and Niall had long been enemies, but this diasgreement was finally concluded with her marriage to Niall. She bore her husband several children including,

Beard, Mary Ritter – (1876 – 1958)
American historian and feminist
Mary Ritter Beard was born (Aug 5, 1876) in Indianapolis, Indiana, the daughter of a lawyer. She attended the DePauw University in Asbury and taught German before her marriage (1900) to Charles Austin Beard (1874 – 1948). Mary travelled to England with her husband, and whilst he was studying at Oxford, she became actively involved in the women’s suffrage movement. The couple later returned to New York (1902) and Beard later joined with Alice Paul in organizing the Wage Earner’s League, the feminist branch to aid working women. She was the author of Woman’s Work in Municipalities (1915) and A Short History of the American Labor Movement (1920). Her later literary career was mainly concerned with revealing and understanding the real place of women in history, and she produced such works as, On Understanding Women (1931) and Woman as a Force in History (1946), considered her best work. With her husband she co-wrote The Rise of American Civilization (1927). Mary Ritter Beard died (Aug 14, 1958) aged eighty-two, in Phoenix, Arizona.

Beard, May Lillian – (1879 – after 1940)
Australian music teacher and elocutionist
May Humphrey was born in Geelong, Victoria, the daughter of William Humphrey. Educated at Geelong, and then at the London College of Music, where she received her teacher’s diploma. She was married (1899) and taught English and elcocution for many years. May Beard wrote several plays, short stories, and serial stories which were published in Melbourne neswpapers. Her last years remain shrouded in obscurity.

Bearn, Angelique Gabrielle Achard des Joumards, Comtesse de (1716 – 1782)
French courtier
Angelique Gabrielle Achard des Joumards was distantly related to the notorious Duc de Richelieu. She was married (1738) to Francois Alexandre, Comte de Galard de Bearn and left a daughter, Angelique Marie Gabrielle de Galard de Bearn, who became the wife (1774) of Paul Jerome Phelypaux, Marquis de Pontchartrain. The comtesse was reduced to financial penury due to the continuation of a long-standing and ruinous lawsuit. Richelieu brought her to court (1768) when Louis XV was looking for a woman of noble birth to officially present Madame Du Barry at court. Most of the court ladies had refused this dubious offer, and Madame de Bearn was only convinced when the king agreed to pay her mounting debts for her. After initially backing out the arrangement because of intimidation for the king’s daughters who hated Du Barry, Madame de Bearn duly presented the comtesse at Versailles (April 22, 1769).

Bearn, Pauline de Tourzel, Comtesse de – (1771 – 1839)
French Bourbon courtier
Pauline was the daughter of Louis Francois de Tourzel, Marquis de Sourches and his wife Elisabeth d’ Croy-Havre. As a young woman she accompanied her mother Madame de Tourzel, governess to the children of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, to Versailles and resided with the royal family during their initial imprisonment at the Tuileries Palace and at the Temple. She accompanied her mother on the abortive escape of the royal family which ended in their capture at Varennes (1792). She was imprisoned with her mother in the Prison de la Force during the September Massacres (1792) but rescued from death by Monsieur Hardy, a royalist sympathizer, who returned to save her mother.
Pauline de Tourzel survived the horrors of the Revolution and became the wife of the Comte de Bearn to whom she bore five children. When her mother was later exiled by order of Napoleon it was Pauline who interceded successfully for her banishment to be ended four years later. With the death of her mother Madame de Bearn composed her own account of her life during the Revolution and the following four decades which was published as Souvenirs de quarante ans (1789 – 1830), recits d’une Madame la Dauphine (1861) which was edited and published two decades after her death.

Bearne, Catherine Mary – (c1856 – 1923) 
British biographer
Catherine Charlton was the daughter of Thomas Broughton Charlton, of Chilwell Hall, Nottinghamshire. Catherine was married (1882) to E.H. Bearne. Fascinated by French court life, Catherine wrote several biographies from various periods of French history. Her works included, Lives of the Early Valois Queens, Pictures of the Old French Court, The Cross of Pearls, A Queen of Napoleon’s Court, Heroines of French Society, A Sister of Marie Antoinette, and A Court Painter and his Circle.

Bearnoch – (fl. c530 – c550)
Anglo-Saxon queen consort of Bernicia
Her parentage remains unknown. Bearnoch became the wife of Ida (died 559), King of Bernicia in Northumbria. Queen Bearnoch was the mother of at least six of Ida’s sons, King Adda (560 – 568), King Ethelric (568 – 572), the ancestor of the early kings of Northumbria, King Frithuwald (579 – 586), King Hussa (586 – 593), and Prince Alric, the direct ancestor of King Alchred of Northumbria (died 774), who by his marriage with Osgifu (Osgyva) united both the branches descending from these last two sons. Two other of Ida’s sons, King Glappa (559 – 560) and King Theodoric (572 – 579) are of uncertain parentage, and were probably Bearnoch’s stepsons.

Beata of Anhalt – (c1325 – after 1379)
German princess and nun
Princess Beata was the eldest daughter of Waldemar I (c1303 – 1367), Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1316 – 1367), and his first wife Elisabethof saxe-Wittenberg, the daughter of Rudolf I (died 1356), Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg. Princess Beata never married and became a nun at the family abbey of Koswig. She was later appointed as abbess (1375) and her three younger sisters, Sophie, Jutta, and Agnes all served as nuns under her.

Beata of Norital – (c891 – after 975)
German mediaeval heiress
Beata was the daughter of Ratpoto I, count in the Norital. She became the wife of Henry (c883 – after 934), surnamed with the Golden Chariot, Count of Altdorf and Ammergau in Swabia.
Beata was heiress of the county of Hohenwarth on the Paar River, and it has been conjectured that her mother was Ellinrata, the concubine of the emperor Arnulf (898 – 900), who married Count Ratpoto after her association with the emperor had ended. Sources sometimes call her ‘Atha.’ Her husband Henry had begun building the abbey of Altdorf in memory of his father, the late Eticho I of Ammergau (died 910). It remained unfinished at the time of his death and was completed by Countess Beata and her son Bishop Conrad. Beata was still living at a great age (975) and died at Hohenwart-on-the-Paar, which she retained for her lifetime as her dower. Her children were,

Beaton, Mary – (1543 – 1598)
Scottish courtier
Mary was the daughter of Robert Beaton of Creich, and the granddaughter of Sir John Beaton, the hereditary keeper of the royal palace of Falkland. As a child she was one of the ‘four Maries’ chosen to accompany Mary Stuart to the French court (1548) where her own education was completed. With the death of King Francois II (1560) Mary accompanied the the widowed queen back to the Scottish court. Fair-haired and attractive Beaton was considered one of the most beautiful of the queen’s attendants, and her fairness was praised by the poet George Buchanan.
Beaton was courted by Lord Thomas Randolph, the English ambassador to the Scottish court who wished to use her as a spy, but Mary rejected his attentions. She became the first wife (1566) of Alexander Ogilvy of Boyne, to whom she bore a son. Mary Beaton was later involved in a dispute concerning some jewels with her former mistress and this has caused some historians to suppose that she was actually the author of the notorious ‘Casket Letters,’ though there remains no actual proof of this allegations. Mary Beaton died aged fifty-five.

Beatrice    see  also   Beatrix, Beatriz

Beatrice de Bourbon – (1319 – 1383)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1334 – 1346)
Princess Beatrice was the third daughter of Louis I, Duc de Bourbon and his wife Marie of Hainault, daughter of Jean II, Count of Hainault. She became the second wife (1334) of Jean of Luxemburg (1296 – 1346), King of Bohemia and bore him an only son Wenceslas of Bohemia (1337 – 1383) who bore his father’s subsidiary title of Duke of Luxemburg. Wenceslas was married to Duchess Johanna of Brabant but died childless. When King Jean was killed in battle against the English at the Battle of Crecy (1346) Beatrice became the Dowager Queen of Bohemia for thirty-five years (1346 – 1383). She later became the second wife of Eudo V, Seigneur de Grancey (c1315 – 1380) whom she survived. Her second marriage was childless. Queen Beatrice died (Dec 25, 1383) aged sixty-seven, less than a month after the death of her son Wenceslas.

Beatrice d’Este – (1213 – 1245)
Queen consort of Hungary (1234 – 1235)
Beatrice d’Este was born in Italy, the daughter of Aldobrandino I, Marquis d’ Este. With her father’s death (1215), she was adopted by her half-brother, marquis Azzo VII. Her marriage with Andrew II, King of Hungary, whose third wife she became (1235), was a brilliant alliance for the Este family, but it was not favourably viewed by the Arpad dynasty, who feared the consequences of any sons the new queen might bear, and the possible alteration, in that case, of the Hungarian succession. King Andrew died eighteen months after their marriage and Beatrice’s son Stephen (1235 – 1271), later titled Duke of Slavonia, was born posthumously soon afterwards. Queen Beatrice retired to her family’s court at Este, where her son was raised, and from where he chose both his wives. Beatrice became a nun at the Abbey of Gemmola, and died aged only thirty-two. The church commemorated her as a saint (July 11).

Beatrice of Amesbury – (c1120 – c1184)
English Benedictine nun and abbess
Beatrice became abbess of Amesbury, Wiltshire, and was the head of that royal foundation prior to 1160, when she became involved in a quarrel with King Henry II and Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, when she refused to accept their nominee for her church at Froyle. Despite all royal threats, the abbess remained obdurate and won her hand. However, in 1177 the king manufactured evidence against Beatrice, deposed her from office and dispersed her nuns. Amesbury and its benefices were then granted by the king to the sisters of the Abbey of St Marie, Fontevrault, in France, who now established a daughter house there. Beatrice was granted a pension by the king, and the Pipe Roll evidence reveals that this was paid until 1184, presumably when she died.

Beatrice of Anjou (1) – (c1135 – after 1177)
French mediaeval heiress
Beatrice of Anjou was the only child and heiress of Helie II, Count of Anjou and Maine, and his wife Philippa, the daughter of Rotrou I, Count of Perche. Beatrice was married (c1150) to Jean I (c1125 – 1191), Count of Alencon, as his first wife. She was living in 1177 and died not long afterwards. She left six children,

Beatrice of Anjou (2) – (1247 – 1275)
Latin empress consort of Constantinople (1273 – 1275)
Beatrice of Anjou was the second daughter of Charles I of Anjou, King of Naples and his first wife Beatrice of Provence, the youngest daughter of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence. Beatrice became the first wife (1273) of Philip I (1243 – 1283), the titular Latin emperor of Constantinople, and was the mother of an only child Catherine I (1275 – 1307), who succeeded her father as titular empress (1283 – 1307). She then became the second wife of Charles I (1270 – 1325) Count of Valois, the younger brother of Philip IV le Bel (the Fair), King of France (1285 – 1314). The Empress Beatrice died from the effects of childbirth.

Beatrice of Aragon – (1457 – 1508)
Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia (1490 – 1500)
Princess Beatrice was born in Naples, the daughter of Ferrante I (Ferdinand), King of Naples, and his wife Isabella de Clermont. Beatrice was married firstly to Matthias Corvinus (1440 – 1490), King of Hungary as his second wife. This marriage remained childless. With his death she then became the first wife (1490) of Vladyslav I Jagiello (1456 – 1516), King of Hungary and Bohemia. There were no children and Queen Beatrice was divorced a decade afterwards (1500). Queen Beatrice died (Sept 23, 1508) aged fifty-one, at Ischia in Italy.

Beatrice of Arques – (fl. c1065 – c1086)
Anglo-Norman noblewoman
Beatrice was of unrecorded parentage. She became the wife of Lord William de Bolebec (died after 1086), Vicomte of Arques in Normandy. Her husband also held the lordship of Folkestone in Kent. Beatrice left two daughters,

Beatrice of Bavaria – (1344 – 1359)
Queen consort of Sweden (1355 – 1359)
Princess Beatrice of Bavaria was the daughter of Ludwig IV of Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife Margaret of Hainault, the daughter of Wilhelm III, Count of Hainault and his wife Jeanne de Valois, the granddaughter of Philip III, King of France (1270 – 1285). She was the maternal niece of Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377). Beatrice was married (1355) to Erik XII (1339 – 1359), King of Sweden and was crowned as queen consort. Queen Beatrice died (Dec 25, 1359) aged fourteen, after bearing twin sons who both died.

Beatrice of Bourbon – (1319 – 1383)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1334 – 1336)
Princesse Beatrice de Bourbon was the daughter of Louis I, Duc de Bourbon and his wife Marie of Hainault, the daughter of Johann II, Count of Hainault. She was married (Dec, 1334) to Johann of Luxemburg (1296 – 1346), King of Bohemia as his second wife, and was crowned in Prague as queen consort. Queen Beatrice was the mother of Prince Wenzel (Wenceslas) of Bohemia (1337 – 1383) who was created Duke of Luxemburg. Beatrice survived Johann II for almost forty years as the Queen Dowager of Bohemia (1346 – 1383). The widowed queen later remarried to Eudes V (c1315 – 1380), Seigneur de Grancey. Queen Beatrice died (Dec 25, 1383) aged sixty-four.

Beatrice of Brabant (Beatrix)(1225 – 1288)
Queen consort of Germany (1246 – 1247)
Princess Beatrice was the daughter of Heinrich II, Duke of Brabant and his first wife Maria of Swabia, the daughter of Philip of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia and King of Germany and his wife the Greek princess Irene Angela, the daughter of Isaak II Angelus, Emperor of Byzantium. Her maternal grandfather King Philip was the son of the German Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa and his wife Beatrice of Burgundy, for whom she named. The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiae Heredum Franciae recorded both her parentage and her husbands.
Beatrice was married firstly (1241) to the Landgrave Heinrich Raspe IV of Thuringia (1204 – 1247) as his third wife and became the Landgravine consort of Thuringia. She became queen of Germany when Heinrich Raspe was elected as king of Germany (1246). The marriage remained childless and with his death after a horse riding accident (Feb 19, 1247) the young queen returned to the ducal court and her family at Louvain. Beatrice survived her husband for four decades as the Queen Dowager of Germany (1247 – 1288).
The young queen remarried soon afterwards at Louvain to William III (1224 – 1251) Count of Flanders. Beatrice then became the Countess consort of Flanders (1247 – 1251) but retained her regal titles as was customary. Her second marriage also remained childless and Beatrice was the Dowager Countess of Flanders for almost forty years (1251 – 1288) and appears to have resided in Flanders during her long widowhood. Queen Beatrice died (Nov 11, 1288) aged sixty-three, and was interred within the Abbey of Marquette near Lille.

Beatrice of Burgundy – (1145 – 1184)
Holy Roman empress (1167 – 1184)
Beatrice was the sole heiress of Rainald III, Count Palatine of Burgundy, and his wife Agatha of Lorraine. She became the second wife of the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, at the age of eleven (1156). This marriage brought Upper Burgundy, Savoy, and the county of Provence under the suzerain of the House of Hohenstaufen. She was crowned empress in Rome by Pope Paschal II (Aug 1, 1167), and was for some time appointed as independent ruler of Burgundy, which fact is attested by surviving charters.
The empress promoted French culture at the German court, studied poetry and verse, and wrote her own epitaph in eight Latin verses. The poet Gautier d’Arras dedicated his Ille et Galeron to the empress. Her sons included Emperor Henry VI (1190 – 1197), Philip of Swabia, King of Germany, and Emperor Otto IV (1209 – 1218). Empress Beatrice died (Nov 15, 1184) aged thirty-nine, at Jouhe, near Dole. She was interred within Speyer Cathedral. Her children were,

Beatrice of Castile – (1134 – 1179)
Queen consort of Navarre (1153 – 1158)
Infanta Sanchia was born in Burgos, the eldest daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile, and his first wife Berengaria of Barcelona, the daughter of Raymond Berengar II the Great, Count of Barcelona. Her younger sister Constanza (Constance) became the second wife of Louis VII, King of France (1137 – 1180). The infanta officially took the name Beatrice after her marriage (1153) with Sancho VII (1132 – 1194), King of Navarre, as his first wife.
Beatrice was the mother of Sancho VII (1154 – 1234) who succeeded his father on the Navarrese throne, whilst her daughters included Blanche of Navarre (1161 – 1229) the wife of Theobald III, Count of Champagne, and Berengaria of Navarre (1163 – 1230) the wife of Richard I the Lionheart, King of England (1189 – 1199). Queen Beatrice died (Aug 5, 1179). She was interred in the Cathedral of Santa Maria in Pamplona.

Beatrice of Falkenburg – (1253 – 1277)
Queen consort of the Romans (1269 – 1272)
Countess Beatrice was born at Falkenburg Castle, the daughter of Dirk II, Count of Falkenburg, and his wife Johanna van Loon. Beatrice became the third and last wife of Richard Plantagenet, King of the Romans (1209 – 1272), forty years her senior, the younger brother of Henry III of England (1216 – 1272). They were married at Kaiserleuten (1269), but their union remained childless. Extremeley beautiful, King Richard brought Beatrice home to England, the couple landing at Dover, via Mainz (Julu, 1269), and being greeted at Gravesend by Prince Edward, Beatrice’s stepson. The king and queen were present at the translation ceremony of the remains of St Edward the Confessor to the new church built by Henry III at Westminster (Oct 13, 1269). She accompanied Richard to Hayles Abbey in Knaresborough, for the burial of her stepson, Prince Henry (1271). King Richard died at Berkhampsted Castle in London (April 2, 1272). Queen Beatrice never remarried, and survived Richard for five years as Queen Dowager (1272 – 1277). Queen Beatrice died (Oct 17, 1277) aged twenty-four. She was interred before the high altar in the church of the Franciscan Friars Minor at Oxford.

Beatrice of Kent – (c1210 – c1281)
English nun and author
Beatrice became an Augustinian nun at the abbey of Lacock, in Wiltshire, under Ela Longsword, Dowager countess of Salisbury, who founded the house in 1230, and whom she succeeded as abbess (1257 – 1269). Beatrice later retired as superior, possibly due to ill-health, and was living in 1280. Sister Beatrice was the author of several works which have not survived, including a hagiography of Abbess Ela, written after her death (1261), and composed verses and poetic epitaphs.

Beatrice of Le Bourg – (c1083 – after 1118)
French Crusader princess
Beatrice was the third and youngest daughter of Hugh I of Le Bourg, Count of Rethel (c1081 – 1118) and his wife Melisande, the daughter of Guy I de Montlhery, Seigneur de Braye. She was the sister of Baldwin II of Le Bourg, King of Jerusalem (1118 – 1131), and was alive at the time of her brother’s accession to the throne. Beatrice as given in marriage in a dynastic alliance with the Armenian prince Leon (c1075 – 1140), known as the Lord of the Mountains.

Beatrice of Luxemburg – (1305 – 1319)
Queen consort of Hungary (1318 – 1319)
Beatrice of Luxemburg, Princess of Germany was the daughter of Henry VII of Luxemburg, King of Germany and his wife Margaret of Brabant. She was married (June 24, 1318) to Charles I Martel (Carobert) (1288 – 1342) King of Hungary as his second wife, and became queen consort. Queen Beatrice died (Nov 11, 1319) aged only fourteen, from the effects of childbirth. Her only child died in infancy.

Beatrice of Navarre (Beatrix) – (1392 – c1412)
Infanta
Infanta Beatrice was born in Pamplona, the probably the fourth daughter of  Carlos II, King of Navarre, and his wife Leonor, the daughter of Enrique II, king of Castile. She was married (1406) to Jacques II de Bourbon, Comte de La Marche, as his first wife. Beatrice inherited the duchy of Nemours, which she brought to her husband as her dowry. Charles VI had originally granted it to her father (1404) and had it made into a peerage of France (duche-pairie).
Through the marriage of Beatrice’s third and youngest daughter Eleanore de Bourbon, to Bernard d’Armagnac, Comte de Pardiac, Nemours passed to the house of Armagnac, in whose possession it remained until the extinction of the house of Armagnac-Pardiac (1505), when it then reverted to the French crown. Comtesse Beatrice probably died from the effects of childbirth, aged barely twenty, but had definitely died prior to 1415, when her husband remarried to Queen Joanna II of Naples. Her two elder daughters, Isabelle and Marie de Bourbon, both became nuns.

Beatrice of Nazareth – (1200 – 1268)
Flemish nun and mystic
Beatrice de Lewis was born at Tienen, near Louvain, Brabant, the daughter of Bartholomew de Lewis, a middle class burgher. Her mother died when she was young and her education was supervised by a group of beguines at Zoutleeuw. She was professed as a nun at the convent of Bloemendaal (1216) and there became a close friend of Ida de Nivelles. Beatrice then joined the daughter house at Maagdendaal, near Tienen, where she remained until 1236. Therafter she removed to the newly founded abbey of Nazareth, at Lier, of which she was appointed prioress (1237) a post she held for three decades. Beatrice recorded her mystical revelations in her Seven Manieren van Minnie, which was written during the latter years of her life. Beatrice of Nazareth died (Aug 29, 1268) aged sixty-eight.

Beatrice of Provence – (c1231 – 1267)
Queen consort of Naples (1266 – 1267)
Beatrice was the fourth and youngest daughter of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence (1209 – 1245) and his wife Beatrice of Savoy, the daughter of Tommaso I, Count of Savoy. Her sisters included Margaret of Provence, the wife of Louis IX of France, and Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III of England. Beatrice was married (1246) in Paris to Charles I of Anjou (1227 – 1285) who became king of Naples. Beatrice was the mother of Charles II (Carlo) (1254 – 1309) who succeeded his father as King of Naples (1285 – 1309) and left issue. Queen Beatrice died (Sept 23, 1267) aged about thirty-six, at Naples. She appears as a character in the historical romance The Queen from Provence (1979) by Jean Plaidy which dealst with the life of her sister Eleanor.

Beatrice of Rethel – (1135 – 1185)
Queen consort of Sicily (1151 – 1154)
Countess Beatrice of Rethel was the daughter of Witier IV, Count of Rethel. She became the third wife (1151) of Roger I (1095 – 1154), King of Sicily and posthumously bore him an only daughter and heiress Constance of Hauteville, the wife of the Emperor Heinrich VI and mother of Emperor Friedrich II (1194 – 1250). Beatrice survived Roger for three decades as Queen Dowager of Sicily (1154 – 1185) and later retired to a convent with her daughter who was raised and educated there. Queen Beatrice became a nun before her death (March 31, 1185).

Beatrice of Savoy – (1224 – 1258)
Queen consort of Sicily
Beatrice was the eldest daughter of Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy and his first wife Anne of Burgundy, the daughter of Duke Hugh III of Burgundy. She was married firstly (1233) to Manfred III (1207 – 1244) Marchese of Saluzzo, as his second wife, and was the mother of his successor Tommaso I (1244 – 1296), Marchese of Saluzzo who left descendants. She then became the first wife (1248) of Manfred of Hohenstaufen (1232 – 1266), King of Sicily, the illegitimate son of the Emperor Friedrich II. Their daughter Constance of Sicily (1248 – 1302) became the wife of Pedro III, King of Aragon (1276 – 1285), and left many descendants. Through Constance Queen Beatrice was the ancestress of Catharine of Aragon, the ill-fated first wife of Henry VIII of England (1509 – 1547) and of their daughter Mary I (1553 – 1558) and of the Hapsburg emperors and their many descendants. Queen Beatrice died (May 10, 1258) aged thirty-three.

Beatrice of Silesia – (1293 – 1322)
Queen consort of Germany (1314 – 1322)
Princess Beatrice was the daughter of Heinrich III, Duke of Silesia-Glogau. She became the first wife (1309) of Ludwig IV (1282 – 1347), King of Germany (later Holy Roman emperor). Queen Beatrice was the mother of Ludwig V (1316 – 1361), Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg, whilst her daughter Agnes of Bavaria (1314 – 1352) was venerated as a saint. Queen Beatrice died (Aug 24, 1322).

Beatrice Plantagenet (1) – (1242 – 1275)
English medieval princess
Princess Beatrice was born at Bordeaux in Gascony (June 25, 1242), the second daughter of Henry III, king of England (1216 – 1272) and his wife Eleanor, the daughter of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence. She was the younger sister to Edward I (1272 – 1307). Beatrice was married (1260) at the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris, to Jean of Brittany (1239 – 1305), count of Montfort, and earl of Richmond in England, who later succeeded to the Breton throne as Duke Jean II (1285 – 1305).
Beatrice died in London (March 24, 1275), aged thirty-two, whilst visiting her family. She was interred within the Greyfriars Church at Newgate in London, but her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation. Princess Beatrice bore her husband seven children including, Arthur of Montfort (1265 – 1312), who succeeded his father as Duke of Brittany (1305 – 1312), and left descendants, Marie of Brittany, the wife of Guy de Chatillon, Comte de St Pol, and Eleanor of Brittany, abbess of Amesbury in Wiltshire, England, and abbess of St Marie at Fontevrault in France.

Beatrice Plantagenet (2) – (1286 – 1290)
Princess of England
Beatrice was born (after Aug, 1286) in Gascony or in Aquitaine in France, the twelfth daughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor of Castile, the daughter of Ferdinando III, King of Castile. She was named for her paternal aunt, the daughter of Henry III. Princess Beatrice died young (before Nov 28, 1290).

Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore – (1857 – 1944)
Princess of Great Britain and Ireland
Princess Beatrice was born (April 14, 1857) at Buckingham Palace, London, the ninth and youngest child of Queen Victoria and her husband Albert of Saxe-Coburg, the Prince Consort. Trained from childhood Beatrice was a talented pianist, and several of her compositions were published. Having become her mother’s constant companion and confidante, the queen would only consent to her marriage (1885) with Prince Henry of Battenberg on the condition that the couple should reside in her household after the marriage. The marriage took place in the prescence of the Queen at Whippingham Church on the Isle of Wight. Their daughter Victoria Eugenie (1887 – 1969) became the wife of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain. With Henry’s death whilst returning from a military expedition to the Ashanti (1896), Beatrice was given his former appointment as governor of the Isle of Wight. Present throughout her mother’s last illness and death, Beatrice and her children then removed to Osborne Cottage, and her nephew George V later granted her the use of Carrisbrooke Castle.
Princess Beatrice had been bequeathed all her mother’s private journals, consisting of many manuscript volumes dating prior to 1837, with permission to modify or destroy any portions which appeared to her unsuitable for permanent preservation. This work Beatrice carried out with devotion, every page being transcribed in her own hand, and then destroying the original manuscript. This enormous task took forty years to complete (1942), and this transcribed journal is now preserved in the royal archives at Windsor Castle.
Her other literary task included the translation of extracts from the diary of Queen Victoria’s maternal grandmother, Augusta, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg, which was published as In Napoleonic Days (1941). Princess Beatrice died (Oct 26, 1944) at Brantridge Park, near Balcombe in Sussex, and was interred beside her husband, whom she had survived almost fifty years, in the chapel she had prepared at Whippingham Church, near Osborne, Isle of Wight.

Beatrix Frangepan – (1480 – 1510)
Hungarian princess and heiress
Countess Beatrix Frangepan was the second daughter of Count Bernat Frangepan of Modrus and Vinodol, and his Italian wife Luisa Marzano d’ Aragona. Through her father she was descended from Count Bartholomaeus Frangepan of Veglia (died c1363) and Beatrix was also a descendant of the counts of Gorz in Tyrol, the Garay family of Hungary, and of the Este family in Italy. Beatrix was married at Bihac (1496) to Janos Corvinus Hunyadi (1473 – 1504), Duke of Lipto, Slavonia and Croatia, the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary (1458 – 1490). The couple resided at Bihac but their two children Erszebet (Elisabeth) Hunyadi (1496 – 1508) and Crysztof Hunyadi (died 1505) both died young.
Beatrix inherited Veglia as sovereign countess and this important fief was administrated by her husband in her right. With the early death of Janos (Oct 12, 1504), Duchess Beatrix devoted herself to the care of her two children at the Castle of Bihac. With their successive deaths she then remarried (Jan 22, 1509) at Gyula in Hungary, becoming the second wife of Margrave George of Brandenburg (1484 – 1543), the second son of Friedrich IV of Brandenburg (1460 – 1536), Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and his wife Sophia of Poland, the daughter of King Kasimir IV. Beatrix died (before March 27 in 1510) soon after her second marriage. Sources which place her death in 1524 are in error. There were no children of this marriage.

Beatrix I of Bigorre – (c1063 – 1095)
Gascon heiress and countess (1077 – 1095)
Beatrix I was the younger daughter and coheiress of Bernard II, Count of Bigorre and his second wife Stephanie. She was married (c1076) to Centule V Gaston, Viscount of Beran. With her father’s death (1077) Beatrix and her husband succeeded to the rule of the county of Bigorre in Gascony. With her husband’s death (1090) Beatrix then ruled alone until her death (shortly after Oct 14, 1095). Her three sons were,

Beatrix II of Bigorre – (c1100 – 1114)
Gascon heiress and countess (c1113 – 1114)
Beatrix II was the only child and heiress of Benard III Centule, Count of Bigorre and his wife Alaline de Fezensac, later the wife of Geraud III, Comte d’Armagnac, the daughter and heiress of Astanove, Comte de Fezensac. She was the granddaughter of Countess Beatrix I. With the death of her father (c1113) Beatrix succeeded as countess of Bigorre. As she was a child the county was ruled by her stepfather Count Geraud. She also inherited the county of Fezensac from her mother. Beatrix II died unmarried, whereupon Count Geraud seized Fezensac, which then remained in the possession of the Armagnac family, whilst Bigorre passed to her paternal uncle Centule II.

Beatrix III of Bigorre – (c1110 – c1163)
Gascon heiress and countess (1134 – c1163)
Originally called Stephanie, Beatrix III was the only child and heiress of Centule II, Count of Bigorre and his wife Amable of Nimes, the daughter of Bernard Aton V, Viscount of Nimes. Beatrix was the granddaughter of Beatrix I and the first cousin of Beatrix II. She was married (1127) to Pierre, Vicomte de Marsan, which meant that the vicomital house became permanently attached to the county of Bigorre until 1299, when after a succession of marriages within the family, it finally returned to Bearn. With her father’s death (1134) Beatrix III and Pierre ruled Bigorre together. Countess Beatrix was succeeded by their son Centule III (c1130 – c1178) who left issue.

Beatrix of Bavaria – (1302 – 1360)
German princess and ruler
Beatrix was the second daughter of Stephen I (1271 – 1310), Duke of Upper Bavaria and his wife Judith of Swidnica, the daughter of Bolko I, Duke of Silesia-Swidnica. She became the second wife (1322) of Heinrich III (1304 – 1323), Count of Gorz (Gorizia) to whom she bore an only child and successor Count Johann Heinrich IV (1323 – 1338) before his early death the following year. Due to the minority of her infant son Countess Beatrix ruled the county of Gorz as regent. He died childless aged fifteen with his mother still ruling in his name. The countess was also the regent of Treviso (1332 – 1334), was captain-general of Aquileia, and was the administrator of the city of Friuli. Countess Beatrix died (April 29, 1360).

Beatrix of Chalons – (c1171 – 1227)
French mediaeval heiress
The daughter and heiress of Guillaume III, Count of Chalons and Viscount of Thiers in the Auvergne, and was heiress of the county of Chalons-sur-Saone in Burgundy, Beatrix became the first wife (c1186) of Count Stephen II of Auxonne (c1171 – 1241) to whom she bore several children. The necrology of the Abbey of Saint-Vincent recorded that Count Guillaume of Chalons was succeeded (1203) et pro filia sua comitissa but by this time Beatrix and Stephen had divorced (1200) and the countess remarried soon afterwards to Eudes des Barres, Seigneur d’Oisery. A surviving charter (1226) revealed that Beatrix was involved in a land agreement with the Abbey of Saint-Martin in Autun. Beatrix later retired to the Abbey of Tournus and died (April 7, 1227) there. She was interred within the Abbey de la Ferte-sur-Grosne. Her children were,

Beatrix of France – (938 – 1003)
Duchess consort and ruler of Lorraine
Princess Beatrix was the eldest daughter of Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris and his third wife Hedwig of Saxony, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry I the Fowler (919 – 936), and was sister to Hugh Capet, King of France (987 – 996). Beatrix was married (954) to Friedrich I (912 – 978) Duke of Lorraine and was his duchess consort (959 – 978). She was named as Frederick’s wife by the Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium.
With her husband’s death the Dowager Duchess Beatrix ruled Lorraine as regent for their son Thierry I (Dietrich) (978 – 987), with the assistance of her brother Hugh Capet, and when Thierry was captured by French troops during the siege of Verdun (985) Beatrix intervened with her brother to secure his release. The duchess did not wish to hand over the reigns of power and government when he came of age (987) which resulted in conflict between mother and son, and Beatrix was detained and briefly imprisoned, being quickly released due to papal intervention. Duchess Beatrix served as the official envoy to the Holy Roman Empress Adelaide at Compeigne soon afterwards, and assisted with process of making her brother Hugh the King of France. The duchess died (Sept 23, 1003) aged sixty-five. Her children were,

Beatrix of Louvain – (c1069 – after 1117)
Flemish-French regent
Beatrix was the daughter of Godfrey II the Hunchback, of Louvain, Duke of Lower-Lorraine and his wife, the famous Countess Matilda of Tuscany, the daughter of Bonifacio, Marquis of Tuscany. Welf IV, Duke of Bavaria was briefly her stepfather. Beatrix was married (c1088) to Stephen I, count of Burgundy and Macon, who went to the Holy Land on the First Crusade. He was murdered there at Askalon (1102) and Beatrix was left to rule as regent in for their son count Rainald III (c1091 – 1148). Countess Beatrix was living in 1117. Beatrice of Burgundy, the wife of Frederick Barbarossa was her granddaughter.

Beatrix of Macon – (c1020 – 1072)
French mediaeval countess
Beatrix was the sister of Guy Capels, a minor Burgundian nobleman. She became the wife (c1035) of Count Geoffrey of Macon (c1018 – 1065) and became the countess consort of Macon (1041 – 1065). Beatrix survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Macon (1065 – 1072) and remarried to the knight Wilifried, her second marriage being recorded by a surviving charter (1080) from the Abbey of Cluny.
Beatrix left an only child Guy II (1040 – 1109). He became Count of Macon (1065 – 1078) but resigned his estates in order to become a monk at the Abbey of Cluny. He was married to the Infanta Mayora Garcia of Navarre, and left four children, who all withdrew from the world and entered the religious life with their parents.

Beatrix of Montferrat (1) – (c1159 – 1202)
Italian literary patron
Princess Beatrix was the daughter of William VI (Guglielmo), marquis of Montferrat and his wife Judith, the daughter of Leopold III, margrave of Austria, and was sister to the famous Crusader figure Boniface I of Montferrat, king of Thessalonika. She was married to an Italian nobleman, Alberto, marquis di Malaspina, who survived her and was living in 1210. The famous Provencal troubadour, Raimbaut de Vaqueyras (fl. c1155 – 1207), who passed the greater part of his life at the court of Montferrato, devoted himself and his poetry to Princess Beatrix. One of the most moving poems of the age was written by him to commemorate her death.

Beatrix of Montferrat (2) – (1205 – 1274)
Italian feudal heiress
Beatrix was the second daughter of Guglielmo VIII, Marquis of Montferrat (1207 – 1225) and his second wife Bertha of Clavesana, the daughter of Bonifacio, Marquis di Clavesana and a descendant of Anselmo I of Montferrat. She was sister to Marquis Bonifacio III of Montferrat (1225 – c1254). Beatrix held the seigneurie of Saint-Bonnet and the fiefs of Embrunais and Gapencais. She was married firstly (1219) to Guigues Andrew (1185 – 1237) as his second wife. She was the mother of three children, Guigues VII (1225 – 1269), Dauphin of Vienne and Count of Albon who married and left issue, and Jean (1227 – 1239) and Catherine of Vienne (born c1229) who both died young. Beatrix remarried secondly to Guy II, Seigneur of Bage and Bresse (c1228 – c1255) and bore him a daughter and heiress, Sybilla of Bage (1255 – 1294), Dame of Mirbel, the first wife of Amadeo V, Count of Savoy (1248 – 1323). Beatrix remarried thirdly to Jean de Chatillon and fourthly to Pierre de a Roue, but both of these marriages remained childless.

Beatrix of Normandy – (c985 – 1030)
French nun
Beatrix was the illegitimate daughter of Richard I the Fearless, Duke of Normandy (942 – 996) by an unknown mistress or concubine. Some sources place Beatrix as the daughter of the Duke and his mistress Gunnora de Crepon, the sister of Herfastus de Crepon, the forester of Arques, whom he later married and made his duchess. Beatrix was thus the sister of half-sister of Duke Richard II (996 – 1026) and of Emma of Normandy, the mother of Edward the Confessor, King of England (1042 – 1066).
Beatrix was married (1001) to Ebles I (c963 – 1030) Vicomte de Turenne, as his first wife and was the mother of his son and successor, Vicomte Guillaume I (c1003 – 1074) and of Archambaud II de Turenne, Viscount of Comborn (c1007 – c1059). Her daughter Idearde de Turenne became the wife of Bernard, Seigneur de Dent. The vicomtesse was praised in the Miracles of Sainte-Foy for freeing imprisoned pilgrims at Turenne. Ebles and Beatrix were later divorced (c1015) and she returned to the Norman court where she became a nun, being appointed as the first Abbess of Sainte-Marie at Montivilliers at Rouen in Normandy. Beatrix of Normandy died (Jan 18, 1030) aged about fifty-one.

Beatrix of Savoy – (1310 – 1331)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1328 – 1331)
Beatrix of Savoy was the youngest daughter of Amadeo V the Great (1249 – 1323), Count of Savoy and his second wife Maria of Brabant. She was half-sister to Count Edward of Savoy (1323 – 1329) whilst her sister Anna became the wife of the Byzantine emperor Andronikus III Palaeologus.
She was married (1328) at Wilten, near Innsbruck, to Heinrich VI of Carinthia (1270 – 1335), King of Bohemia as his third wife. There were no surviving children of the marriage. Queen Beatrix was the stepmother to Margaret Maultasch (1318 – 1369), Countess of Tyrol and appears as a character in the historical novel The Ugly Duchess (1923) by Leon Feuchtwanger.

Beatrix of Stargard – (1324 – 1399)
German abbess
Princess Beatrix was the daughter of Heinrich II, Prince of Mecklenburg-Stargard, and his second wife Anna of Saxe-Wittenberg, the widow of Frederick, Margrave of Meissen. Beatrix was married, whilst only a few months old to Jaromar, the son of Vizlav III, Prince of Rugen, whose widowed mother Agnes, had become her own stepmother. Left a childless widow whilst still in the cradle (1325), Beatrix never remarried and became a nun at the abbey of Ribnitz. She served that house as abbess for nearly fifty years (1348 – 1395), eventually forced to retire because of ill-health. Beatrix died (Aug 5, 1399) aged seventy-five. 

Beatrix of Swabia – (1198 – 1212)
Holy Roman empress (1212)
Originally named Blanche, she was the eldest daughter of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany, and his wife Irene Angela, the daughter of Isaac II Angelus, Emperor of Byzantium. She was originally betrothed (1203) to Otto, Count of Wittelsbach, who eventually assasinated her father (1208). Beatrix was then betrothed (1209) to the emperor Otto IV (1177 – 1218), on the recommendation of the German princes, the marriage taking place at Nordhausen, Saxony (July 22, 1212) when she adopted the name Beatrix in honour of the emperor’s late mother Beatrice of Burgundy.
However, Beatrix was empress for only three short weeks, dying suddenly at the age of fourteen (Aug 11, 1212), and was interred in the Church of St Blasius in Brunswick. Her death alienated the southern duchies, and Otto failed to prevent the Emperor Frederick II, Beatrix’s cousin, from entering Germany.

Beatrix of Vermandois – (c880 – after 931)
Queen consort of France (921 – 923)
Beatrice was the daughter of Herbert I, Count of Vermandois and his wife Beatrice of Morvois, the daughter of Guy I, Seigneur of Morvois and Ava of Tours. She was the sister of Count Herbert II of Vermandois and became the second wife (895) of Count Robert of Neustria and Paris (860 – 923), the marriage being arranged as apart of a political alliance between Count Herbert and Robert’s powerful family. Beatrix was the mother of Hugh Capet (898 – 956), the Duke of the Franks. The Historia Francorum Senonensis recorded that sororem Herberti was the wife of Count Robert, as did the Norman chronicler William of Jumieges.
With the deposition of Charles III (921) her husband became King Robert I and Beatrix was crowned as queen consort with him (June 22, 922) at Rheims, near Paris by Archbishop Gauthier of Sens. Beatrix survived Robert as Queen Dowager of France and her dower rights were respected by Raoul of Burgundy. The queen was still living (March 26, 931) when she appeared in a surviving charter with her stepdaughter Countess Hildebrande of Vermandois.

Beatriz I (Brites) (2) – (1372 – 1410)
Queen regnant and heiress of Portugal (1383 – 1385)
Infanta Beatriz was born in Coimbra, the only child of King Ferdinando I and his wife Leonora Telles de Meneses. In 1381 she was betrothed to Edward, the son of Edmund, Duke of York, and grandson of Edward III of England, but her father later broke off this arrangement, and betrothed her instead (1382) to Juan, son and heir of Enrique II of Castile. With Ferdinand’s death (1383), Queen Leonor ruled as regent, and Castile claimed the Portugese crown.
Beatriz fought to retain her inheritance, but never succeeded because the Portugese, whilst recognizing her as the lawful heiress, thought it more important to remain independent of the kingdom of Castile, so they accepted the coup of her bastard half-brother, Joao of Avis (Joao I) (1385) whom was then regognized as king. Beatriz was never allowed to remarry after the death of Juan I (1390), and was kept in virtual imprisonment for the rest of her life, as her claim to the throne too important. Queen Beatriz resided for nearly twenty years at Madrigal de la Torres, in Castile, where she died.

Beatriz Alfonsez – (1242 – 1303)
Queen consort of Portugal (1253 – 1279)
Beatriz Alfonsez was the daughter of Alfonso X el Sabio, King of Castile, and his mistress Maria Guillen de Guzman. She was recognize by her father and granted the lordships of Alcocer, Salmeron and Vadesliras. Beatriz was given in marriage (1253) by her father to Alfonso II (1210 – 1279), King of Portugal as his second wife and consort. Queen Beatriz survived Alfonso as the Dowager Queen of Portugal into the reign of her son Diniz (1279 – 1303). Queen Beatriz died (Oct 27, 1303) aged sixty-one, in Lisbon, Estramadura. She was buried within the Cistercian abbey of Santa Maria at Alcobaca. She left eight children,

Beatriz of Portugal (Brites) (1) – (1347 – 1381)
Infanta (1361 – 1381)
Beatriz was the eldest child of King Pedro I and his third wife, Ines de Castro, being born well before their public marriage (1354). King Pedro later caused Beatriz to be legitimated (1361), thus granting her the royal rank and style. Her marriage (1373) with Sancho Alfonsez de Castile, Conde de Alburquerque (1342 – 1374) as part of peace negotiations between Henry II, king of Castile and King Fernando I of Portugal at Santarem (March, 1373). Her husband was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI el Justo, King of Castile and his mistress, Leonor Nunez de Guzman.
Widowed in 1374, she never remarried, their only child and heiress, Leonora (Urraca) (1374 – 1435) was later married to King Ferdinando I of Aragon. Infanta Beatriz died (July 5, 1381) aged thirty-four, at Ledesma.

Beatriz of Portugal (2) – (1435 – 1462)
Infanta
Infanta Beatriz was the second daughter and fifth child of Infante Pedro, Duque of Coimbra and his wife Isabella of Urgel, and was the paternal niece of King Duarte (Edward) (1433 – 1438). Beatriz was the granddaughter of King Joao I the False (1385 – 1433) and his English wife Philippa of Lancaster, the granddaughter of Edward III (1327 – 1377). Carefully and piously educated she remained extremely religious for the rest of her life. She became the first wife (1453) of the Flemish ruler Adolf of Cleves (1425 – 1492), Count of Ravenstein, the wedding being celebrated with considerable magnificence, after which the couple retired to the court of Burgundy.
At this court the Infanta resided in much splendour and state but because of her devout religious nature, under her rich garments and gowns she wore a coarse hair-shirt, and at night she forsook the rich comfort of her elaborately furnished apartments to sleep upon cold stone floors. Beatriz bore Count Adolf two children Philip of Cleves (1456 – 1528) who succeeded his father as Count of Ravenstein (1492 – 1528) but died childless, and Louise of Cleves (born 1457) who appears to have died in infancy. Her death (Feb, 1462) when aged twenty-six, though rumoured to have been caused by poison for which accusation there is no proof or motive, is believed to have been a form of tuberculosis, probably accelerated by her religious privations.

Beatriz of Portugal (3) – (1430 – 1506)
Infanta and duquesa
Infanta Beatriz was the second daughter of the Infante Joao of Portugal, Duke of Beja and his wife (and niece) Isabella of Braganza, the daughter of Duke Alfonso I of Braganza and his first wife Beatriz Nunez de Pereira, the daughter of Nuno Alvarez de Pereira, Conde de Barcelos. Her maternal grandfather Duke Alfonso was the legitimated son of King Joao I the False, King of Portugal (1385 – 1433). Her elder sister Isabella became the second wife of Juan II, King of Castile and she was thus the maternal aunt of Queen Isabella I of Castile and the great-aunt of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England.
Beatriz was married (1452) to her kinsman the Infante Ferdinand (1433 – 1470) the Duque de Viseu, a younger son of King Duarte I (1433 – 1438) and brother to King Alfonso V. she bore her husband nine children and with Ferdinand’s death became the Dowager Duquesa de Viseu (1470 – 1506). A woman of admirable character and intelligence Infanta Beatriz was a much respected figure at the Portugese court but she only rose to prominence as a widow. Her nephew the Infante Joao used Beatriz as a mediator with her niece Queen Isabella of Castile in order to make peace between the two warring nations. The two women met at Alcacovas in Portugal where they successfully organized the peace treaty which was signed there (Sept 4, 1479). In order to promote this peace Isabella’s eldest daughter Isabella of Aragon was betrothed to the Infante Alfonso, heir of Infante Joao, and it was agreed that the two children she be raised and educated in the Infanta’s household at Moura. In order to maintain good faith Beatriz’s son Infante Diego was to be sent to the court of Castile, but due to his ill-health at the time his brother Manuel took his place.
The Braganza family later fell from favour at the court and the Infanta became involved with dissensions in the royal family, and her correspondence with the Queen of Castile, whilst nor treasonable in itself, was not viewed favourably by her son-in-law King Joao II, who also refused to countenance the idea of a marriage between his sister Juana and Beatriz’s eldest son Diego. Though the king kindly accepted her interference in these matters, calling her his ‘esteemed mother’ in his polite letters, she could not influence him at all. When her son Diego, whilst attempting to assassinate Joao II was killed by the king himself (Aug, 1484), it was the king who personally announced to Beatriz the news and manner of her son’s death whilst he elevated her surviving son Manuel to the dukedom of Beja. She then ordered the keepers of her late son’s estates and castles to surrender them to the king. She is believed to have forseen Diego’s death but been powerless to prevent it, and the Infanta was certainly not implicated in her son’s treason.
With the accession of her son to the throne as King Manuel I (1495) the Infanta was received at court with the honours due to a queen mother. She lived a retired life, respected by all. Infanta Beatriz died (Sept 30, 1506) aged seventy-six. Her children were,

Beatriz of Spain – (1909 – 2002)
Infanta
HRH (Her Royal Highness) the Infanta Beatriz Isabel Frederica Alfonsa Eugenia Cristina Maria Teresa Bienvenida Ladislaa Borbon y Battenberg of Spain was born (June 22, 1909) at Ildefonso, the elder daughter of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886 – 1941) and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg, the granddaughter of Queen Victoria of England (1837 – 1901). She accompanied her family into exile (1931) and was raised in France until 1933 when Beatriz and her younger sister Infanta Maria Cristina accompanied their father to reside at Rome. She was originally betrothed (1931) to her cousin Prince Alvaro de Borbon-Orleans but this match was broken off due to fears of inherited haemophilia.
Infanta Beatriz was later married in Rome (1935) to the Italian nobleman Alessandro Torlonia (1911 – 1986), Prince di Civitella-Cesi, and became the Princess (Principessa) di Civitella-Cesi (1935 – 1986). The marriage was a lavish affair, well-attended by the other crowned heads and royals of Europe. After the ceremony the couple received the blessing of Pope Pius XI (1922 – 1939). Infanta Beatriz bore her husband four children all of whom were born in Rome. The Infanta spent her time between the Torlonia family homes in Rome, where she raised her family, and also made periodic visits her mother, the Dowager Queen at Lausanne in Switzerland. With the restoration of her nephew Juan Carlos I as King of Spain (1975) Beatriz made several visits to Madrid. She resided mainly at the Palazzo Torlonia in Rome and survived her husband as the Dowager Princess di Civitella-Cesi (1986 – 2002). Infanta Beatriz died (Nov 22, 2002) aged ninety-three. Her children were,

Beatriz Sanchez – (1293 – 1359)
Queen consort of Portugal (1309 – 1357)
Infanta Beatrice Sanchez was born at Toro, the daughter of Sancho IV, King of Castile and his wife Maria, the daughter of Alfonso of Castile, Lord of Molina. She was married at Lisbon (1309) to Alfonso IV, King of Portugal, and became the mother of King Pedro I (1320 – 1367). Her son quarrelled openly with his father due to his romantic liasion with Inez de Castro, one of the queen’s ladies-in-waiting. Pedro resisted all his father’s attempts to force him to part with Inez, and eventually Alfonso had her assasinated (1355). Queen Beatriz had learnt of her husband’s tragic decision, and attempted to secretly warn Pedro of his father’s intentions, but her message arrived too late. Beatriz survived her husband two years as queen mother and retired to the convent of Santa Clara in Coimbra where she became a nun. Queen Beatriz died there (Oct 25, 1359) aged sixty-six.

Beatty, Patricia Robbins – (1922 – 1991)
American children’s writer
Born in Portland, Oregon, she graduated from Reed College, Portland, becoming a children’s librarian and schoolteacher. Beatty began writing whilst her own children were young, and her first published work The Indian Canoe Maker (1960) drew on her personal knowledge of the Quileute Indians. Eleven of her books were written in collaboration with her first husband, the academic John L. Beatty, history professor at the University of California at Riverside, and she wrote a total of fifty books altogether, including Charley Skedaddle (1987) for which she received the Scott O’Dell Award for Historical Fiction. Her work was recognized by an award from the Southern California Council on Children’s Literature (1974), and she established the John and Patricia Beatty Award through the California Library Association (1988).

Beauchamp, Anne de – (1444 – 1449)
English Plantagenet child heiress
Lady Anne de Beauchamp was born (Feb, 1444) at Cardiff, in Wales, the daughter of Henry de Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick and his wife Cecily Neville. With her father’s death (1445) Anne succeeded as duchess of Warwick and held the barony of Burghersh in her own right (suo jure). She was made a ward of Queen Margaret, the wife of Henry VI, and later of John de La Pole, Duke of Suffolk. With the death of Prince Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (1447), Anne succeeded to the lordship of the Channel Islands. Duchess Anne died (Jan 3, 1449) aged only four years, at Ewelme, Oxfordshire, and was interred at Reading Abbey. With her death the dukedom of Warwick reverted to an earldom, and devolved upon her only paternal aunt of the full-blood, Anne de Beauchamp, wife of Richard Neville the Kingmaker, who became earl of Warwick in her right.

Beauchamp, Gundrada de – (c1149 – c1208)
English mediaeval religious benefactor
Gundrada de Beauchamp was the daughter of Roger de Beauchamp, second Earl of Warwick and his wife Lady Gundrada de Warenne, the daughter of William de Warenne, second Earl of Surrey. She was a direct descendant of William de Warenne, the first Earl of Surrey and his wife Gundrada of St Bertin (died 1085), after whom she was named, who was once thought to be the daughter of William the Conqueror, or of his wife Matilda by a spurious first marriage. She became the second wife (c1166) of Hugh Bigod (1095 – 1176), the first Earl of Norfolk, over five decades her senior. Gundrada bore him a son Hugh Bigod and two daughters, Margaret and Gundrada Bigod.
With the death of her the Earl of Norfolk (March, 1176) Gundrada immediately disputed the inheritance which went to her stepson Roger, on behalf of her own son Hugh. Eventually after a decade the two half-brothers came to an agreement. Roger was the son of Earl Hugh’s first wife Juliana de Vere from whom he had been divorced, and it would appear that Earl Hugh, as well as Gundrada, had attempted to have the inheritance passed to their younger son, choosing to consider that the divorce of his parents had rendered Roger Bigod illegitimate. Despite these legal wranglings the law and church considered Roger to be the legitimate heir.
The countess had remarried secondly (1177) to William de Lancaster to whom she bore children, as his second wife, and thirdly to Roger de Glanville (died c1189). The countess founded the priory of Bungary (1188) and with the death of her third husband soon afterwards she paid King Henry II the sum of one hundred pounds to ensure that she would not have to remarry against her will. The countess then granted her foundation at Bungary five churches, including that of the Holy Cross in Bungary, which lands had formed part of her marriage portion and dower. Gundrada de Beauchamp died sometime prior to midsummer 1208.

Beauchamp, Katherine    see     Mansfield, Katherine

Beauchet, Marie Josephe – (1750 – 1833)
French society figure
Marie Josephe Daustry became the wife of Nicolas Beauchet (1757 – 1816), a clerk with the ministry of Finance under Louis XVI. Madame Beauchet was a friend to the Marquise de La Fayette and the two women exchanged letters.

Beauclerk, Diana Spencer, Lady – (1734 – 1808)
British artist
Lady Diana Spencer was the daughter of Charles Spencer, Duke of Marlborough and his wife Elizabeth Trevor. She was married firstly (1757), to Frederick St John, Viscount Bolingbroke (1734 – 1787) to whom she bore two sons including George Richard St John (1761 – 1824), fourth Viscount St John and third Viscount Bolingbroke. From 1762 – 1768 Diana served at the court of George III as lady-in-waiting to Queen Charlotte. In 1768 she was divorced by Act of Parliament and remarried to Topham Beauclerk (1739 – 1780) the grandson of the first Duke of St Albans, to whom she bore four children including Elizabeth Beauclerk (1769 – 1793), the first wife of Lord George Augustus Herbert, later the eleventh Earl of Pembroke.
Lady Diana resided at Spencer Grove, Twickenham, near the antiquarian Horace Walpole, who praised her talent somewhat extravagantly. In 1778 she made a drawing of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, which was later engraved by Bartolozzi, and she also produced engravings of cupids and children. Sir Joshua Reynolds painted her portrait (1763) and much admired her artistic capabilities remarking that ‘many of her ladyship’s drawings might be studied as models.’ Lady Beauclerk died (Aug, 1808) aged seventy-four.

Beaufort, Lady Anne – (c1447 – after 1496)
English Plantagenet noblewoman
Lady Anne Beaufort was the ninth daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, and his wife Lady Eleanor de Beauchamp, the daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, fifth Earl of Warwick.
Lady Anne became the wife (c1466) of Sir William Paston II (1436 – 1496) of Norfolk, and bore him five children. This marriage with a descendant of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) brought Paston considerable social prestige, but little in the way of financial benefit. For some years after this date Lady Anne’s mother-in-law, Agnes Paston (nee Berry) resided with her and her husband in their London home, which fact is revealed by references on the Paston Letters. Sir William was buried in the Priory of Blackfriars, London, but Lady Anne survived him. Her children were,

Beaufort, Antoinette de – (c1375 – 1416)
French heiress
Antoinette de Beaufort was only daughter of Raymond Roger de Beaufort, Vicomte de Tournes, the descendant of Guillaume II Roger, Comte de Beaufort, the brother of Pope Clement VII.
Antoinette was married (c1391) to Jean le Meingre Boucicaut, Marshal of France (c1366 – 1421), but the union remained childless. With her father’s death (1413) she inherited the seigneurie of Beaufort and the vicomte of Tournes. Her husband was captured in battle by the English at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), and remained a prisoner in England until his death. His foundation of the chivalric order the ‘Dame blanche a’l’ecu vert,’ for the protection of the wives and daughters of absent knights, may have been partly founded in his enforced seperation from Antoinette.
With her death, the vicomte of Tournes reverted to her unmarried aunt, Eleanor de Beaufort, and thence to her father’s unmarried cousin, Pierre de Beaufort (1420). Prior to her death, Antoinette sold her share of the fief of Alais, in Langeudoc to Jean du Verger, president of the Toulouse parlement.

Beaufort, Georgiana Charlotte Howe, Duchess of – (1825 – 1906)
British peeress
Lady Georgiana Howe was born (Sept 29, 1825) the daughter of Richard William Penn Howe, first Earl Howe, and his wife Lady Harriet Georgiana Brudenell-Bruce, the daughter of Robert Brundenell-Bruce (1769 – 1837), sixth Earl of Cardigan. She was married (1845) to Henry Charles Somerset (1824 – 1899), eighth Duke of Beaufort, to whom she bore five sons and one daughter. Her husband the duke had many mistresses, but the duchess accepted their existence with exemplary clam and fortitude. Interesting anecdotes concerning her life are provided in E.F. Benson’s book of memoirs entitled As We Were. She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Beaufort (1899 – 1906). Duchess Georgiana died (May 14, 1906) aged eighty, at Stoke Parke, Stapleton, near Bristol, and was interred with her husband at Badminton. Her six children were,

Beaufort, Jacinta, Thomasine     see    Thomasine of Somerset

Beaufort, Joan      see    Joan Beaufort

Beaufort, Lady Margaret – (1443 – 1509) 
English Tudor royal matriarch
Lady Margaret Beaufort was born (May 31, 1443) at Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire, the daughter and only child of John Beaufort, first Duke of Somerset, and his wife Margaret de Beauchamp. Her first childhood union with William de La Pole, Duke of Suffolk was dissolved (1453), and she was married secondly (1455) to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond (1430 – 1456), the half-brother of Henry VI, by whom she was the mother of the first Tudor monarch Henry VII (1457 – 1509) born posthumously when Margaret was only fourteen.
With the death of Henry VI (1471), the Lancastrian claim to the English crown was transferred to Margaret, and it was by right of her descent from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the third son of Edward III, that her son ascended the throne (1485) after the Battle of Bosworth Field. During the Wars of the Roses Margaret had been kept confined at Pembroke Castle by the Yorkists. She remarried (1459) Sir Henry Stafford, son of the first Duke of Buckingham, who was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471), and fourthly and finally (1473) to Sir Thomas Stanley, first earl of Derby, as his second wife, which marriage was arranged by the Yorkist king Edward IV. At the coronation of Richard III (1483) Margaret carried the train of his queen, Anne Neville.
Whilst her son was in exile in Brittany, Margaret remained in England, but kept up communication with her son. She took an active role in the plans of the Woodville faction that led to the abortive insurredction of 1484. Richard’s parliament then deprived Margaret of her title and lands, and Lord Derby was urged by the king to keep her in complete seclusion. During her son’s reign, Lady Margaret was the wealthiest and most powerful woman in England, though she took no active part in politics. She exercised full control over her own property, and was queen-mother in all but name, even being permitted to sign her documents with the royal, ‘Margaret R.’
Lady Margaret was a generous benefactress of Oxford and Cambridge universities, where she endowed two divinity professorships (1502). She also founded Christ’s College, Cambridge, and St John’s College, Cambridge (1508), and was the patron of the English printers, William Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde, as well as providing encouragement to churchmen like John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and literary figures like Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and the poet John Skelton. De Worde printed several books for Margaret and styled himself, ‘Printer unto the most excellent princess, my lady the King’s (Henry VIII) grandame.’ Countess Margaret died (June 29, 1509) aged sixty-six, two months after the death of her son, at the Abbot’s House at Cheyney Gates, Westminster Abbey. She was interred within Westminster Abbey, where her monument remains.

Beaufort, Mary Capell, Duchess of – (1630 – 1715)
British horticulturalist
Mary Capell was born at Hadham Parva, in Hertfordshire, the daughter of Arthur, Lord Capell, and his wife Elizabeth Morrison. She was married firstly to Henry Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, and secondly (1657) Henry Somerset, later created first Duke of Beaufort (1682) to whom she bore two sons, the younger of whom, Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, was the father of Henry, second Duke of Beaufort (1700 – 1714).
Beautiful and intelligent, and an enthusiastic botanist and collector of rare specimens, the duchess was a friend of Sir Hans Sloane, the physician and botanical collector, and contributed examples of dried plants to his herbarium. She commissioned a florilegium in water colours from Everhardus Kickius, the professional illustrator, and obtained seeds and plants from all over the world, including the East and West Indies, the Canaries, China, and the Cape of Good Hope.
The duchess entertained Charles II and his queen, Catharine of Braganza at the ducal estate of Badminton House, in Gloucestershire (1663), where she herself planned and developed the extensive gardens. With the death of her husband (1700), the duchess retired to Chelsea, in London. Duchess Mary died (Jan 7, 1715) aged eighty-four.

Beaufoy, Charlotte Lane, Lady – (c1645 – before 1724)
Irish aristocrat
Charlotte Lane was the eldest daughter of George Lane (1620 – 1683), first Viscount Lanesborough, and his first wife Dorcas (c1624 – c1650), the second daughter of Sir Anthony Brabazon, of Tallaghtown, County Louth. She was the maternal niece of William Brabazon, the first Earl of Meath and was sister to James Lane (1650 – 1724), second Viscount Lanesborough, who died childless. Charlotte Lane was married (c1663) to Sir Henry Beaufoy, of Gryscliffe, near Warwick, who died sometime prior to 1679.
With the death of her daughter Mary Beaufoy (1705), Lady Charlotte commissioned Grinling Gibbons to produce the mounment erected to her memory in Westminster Abbey, which portrays her daughter in a kneeling pose, flanked by sorrowful cherubs. Lady Beaufoy sold the house, lands and mill of the estate of Guyscliffe in Warwickshire (1701) and died before 1724 when, with the death of her brother James, Lord Lanesborough without issue, the family estates devolved upon her younger sister Frances Lane, the wife of Henry Fox.

Beaugency, Agnes de – (c1115 – c1145)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Agnes de Beaugency was the elder daughter of Raoul I, Seigneur de Beaugency and his second wife Matilda of Vermandois, the granddaughter of Henry I, King of France (1031 – 1060). She was the granddaughter of Lancelin II (died 1098), Seigneur de Beaugency, and sister to Seigneur Lancelin III (1154 – 1192). She became the wife (1132) of Enguerrand II (c1110 – 1148), Seigneur de Coucy, to whom she bore two sons, Raoul I (c1143 – 1191), Seigneur de Coucy, who was killed at the siege of Acre in Palestine, and Enguerrand de Coucy (c1145 – 1174).
The De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notae Parisienses named Agnes uxor domini Ingelranni di Cociaco as domina de Baugenciaco primogenita, and also identified her two sons. Dame Agnes does not appear to have survived her husband, so her death must have occurred prior to his leaving France to go on crusade (1147). Her granddaughter and namesake Agnes de Coucy (died c1214) became the wife of Gilles de Beaumetz, Chatelain de Bapaume.

Beaugency, Matilda de    see     Matilda of Vermandois

Beauharnais, Eugenie Hortense Cecile    see   Hortense

Beauharnais, Josephine de     see     Josephine

Beauharnais, Comtesse Nadejda de     see   Annenkova, Nadejda Sergeievna

Beaujolais, Philippine Elisabeth d’Orleans, Princesse de – (1714 – 1734)
French Bourbon princess
Princess Philippine de Bourbon d’Orleans was born (Dec 18, 1714) at the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, the sixth and youngest daughter of Philippe II, Duc d’Orleans who was Regent of France for Louis XV (1715 – 1723). Her mother was Francoise Marie de Bourbon, the natural daughter of Louis XIV and his mistress Madame de Montespan. An attractive and charming child she was suggested (1722) as a bride for the Infante Carlos (later king Carlos III), son of Philip V of Spain.
The match was agreed too and the princess travelled to the Spanish court in Madrid where she joined her sister Louisa Isabella, the widow of King Luis I of Spain, to be educated in preparation for her future marriage. However when Carlos’s sister Mariana Victoria, the betrothed of Louis XV was sent back to Spain (1725) the marriage plans were broken off, and Madamoiselle de Beaujolais and her sister were forced to return to the French court. She then resided at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Princess Philippine died of the measles (May 21, 1734) aged only nineteen, at Bagnolet, Val de Marne.

Beaulaincourt, Sophie Charlotte de Castellane, Comtesse de – (1818 – 1904)
French salonniere and society leader
Sophie Charlotte de Castellane was the daughter of the marechal de Castellane and his wife Cordelia de Greffhule (1796 – 1847), the mistress of the famous Vicomte de Chateaubriand. Elegant and cultured she was married firstly to the Marquis de Contades. With his death (1858), she remarried to the Comte de Beaulaincourt-Marles. Madame de Beaulaincourt held a fashionable salon in Paris during the Second Empire, and she conducted liasions with several important political figures, including the Comte de Fleury, the French ambassador to the Imperial court at St Petersburg, and the Comte de Coislin, to whom she bore s child. The comtesse was said to have been the inspiration for the character of Mme de Villeparisis in Marcel Proust’s work A la Recherche. In later years she spent much time at her rural estate, the Chateau d’Acosta in the Yvelines region.

Beaumarchais, Marie Therese Amelie de (1751 – 1816)
French literary figure, letter writer and salonniere
Born Marie Therese Willermaula, she was married to Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais. Her correspondence has been published posthumously as, Madame de Beaumarchais, d’apres sa Correspondence inedite (1890).

Beaumont, Agnes – (1652 – 1720)
British religious biographer
Agnes Beaumont was born at Edworth in Bedfordshire, the daughter of a farmer. She later joined the congregation of John Bunyan at Gamlingay (1672) but against the wishes of her family. When Agnes defied her father an altercation ensued but they were quickly reconciled. When her father died shortly afterwards Agnes and Bunyan were accused of causing his death by poison and had to be cleared by coroner’s jury. Her autobiographical account entitled Narrative of the Persecution of Agnes Beaumont was later published in An Abstract of the Gracious Dealings of God with Several Eminent Christians (1760).

Beaumont, Albreda de – (c1104 – after 1168)
Anglo-Norman nun
Albreda de Beaumont was the daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester and his wife Elisabeth of Vermandois, the niece of Philip I of France. Before 1120 Albreda had married Hugh II, Seigneur de Chateauneuf-en-Thimerais. When she became a widow she took vows as a nun (c1133) at the Abbey of Chase Dieu, at Breteuil in France. Later Albreda removed to the abbey of Nuneaton in Warwickshire, England, founded by her brother Robert and his wife Amicia de Gael. This foundation was a daughter house of Chase Dieu, with connections to the abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault, Poitiers. Albreda was appointed prioress of Nuneaton, and her sister-in-law Amicia became a nun under her rule (1168). The ancient story that Albreda was sent from Chase Dieu to found the convent of Nuneaton is inaccurate.

Beaumont, Constance de     see    Fitzroy, Constance

Beaumont, Guillemette de – (c1320 – c1375)
French mediaeval heiress
Guillemette de Beaumont was the daughter and heiress of Jean de Beaumont, Seigneur de Luzarches and his wife Isabelle, the heiress of Anseau IV, Seigneur de L’Isle Adam in the Ile de France. Guillemette became the wife of Pierre, Seigneur de Jagny whom she survived for some years. She inherited the seigneurie of L’Isle Adam (Val d’Oise) from her parents and her husband used this title in her right. Pierre de Jagny died sometime prior to 1364 in which year Dame Guillemette sold the fief to Pierre I de Villiers, Seigneur de Mazy whose descendants retained it until 1527 when L’Isle Adam then passed to the Montmorency family.

Beaumont, Isabel de – (c1105 – after 1172)
Anglo-Norman concubine
Isabel de Beaumont was of patrician birth, being daughter to the Earl of Leicester (count of Meulan in Normandy). She became the mistress of King Henry I after the death of his first wife, Queen Edith (c1120), and bore the king his youngest illegitimate daughter, Isabel Fitzroy, before Henry arranged a suitable marriage for her (c1130) with Gilbert de Clare, earl of Pembroke (1100 – Jan 6, 1147). Her brothers, Waleran of Meulan and Robert of Leicester were present at the king’s deathbed in Normandy (Dec, 1135). She attested the charter for Monmouth priory, granted by Baderon de Monmouth, when he married Gilbert’s sister Rohese. Isabel survived her husband over twenty-five years, and was patron of the nuns of Saint-Saens, and the abbey of Fourcarmont in France, and of the priory of Monmouth, in Wales. Her daughter Isabel never married, and resided with her mother after the death of her stepfather (1147). Her legitimate children included,

Beaumont-sur-Vingeanne, Ermengarde de     see    Ermengarde of Atuyer (2)

Beaune-Semblencay, Charlotte de    see   Sauve, Charlotte de

Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire, Comtesse de   see   Saint-Aulaire, Comtesse de

Beausacq, Ingeborge de – (1910 – 2003)
German-American photographer, traveller and writer
Born Ingeborge Holland (Jan 25, 1910) in Hattingen, Germany, she was the daughter of a dentist. She originally studied medicine in Berlin but the rise of the Nazis caused her to remove to France, where she studied photography. She was married to the French peer, Comte Jean de Beausacq (1939) and they fled Europe for Rio de Janeiro in South America. Ingeborge pursued her photographic career in order to provide an income, and separated from her husband.
After the war Madame de Beausacq came to the USA, where she established her own photographic studio in New York. She visited French Guyana where she lived native style with the Boni tribe for awhile and wrote articles on her experiences, which were published in various magazines. She later travelled to New Guinea where she visited tribes along the Sepik River (1957 – 1959), and also travelled to India, Lebanon in the Middle East, and Greece, many of her collected artifacts appearing in various exhibitions of her work. She was a member of the Society of Women Geographers (1996). Ingeborge de Beausacq died (July 12, 2003) aged ninety-three, at St Didier, near Pernes-les-Fontaines, in Provence.

Beausoileil, Martine de Bertereau, Baronne de – (1578 – after 1640)
French mineralogist
Martine de Bertereau pursued her own studies in mathematics, hydraulics, chemistry and mechanics for thirty years, continuing her work after she made a society marriage in order to please her family. Madame de Beausoleil was the author of two works, Veritable Declaration de la decouverte des mines et minieres (1632) and La Restitution de pluton (1640), which recorded the mine and ore deposits available within the kingdom of France. She described scientific processes for extracting these minerals, duch as metaalurgy, smelting, the assaying of ores, and the methods needed to locate such valuable resources.

Beauvais, Catherine Henriette Bellier, Baronne de – (1608 – 1690)
French courtier
Madame de Beauvais served at the court as chief lady-in-waiting to Anne of Austria, the wife of Louis XIII. She later became the first mistress of the young Louis XIV, thirty years her junior. she was the mother of andre de la Betoulout (1629 – 1693), Seigneur de Frementau and Comte de La Vauguyon who was married the wealthy older widow Marie de Stuer de Caussade de Saint-Maigrin (c1611 – 1693), Comtesse de Broutay. Madame de Beauvais always retained the affection and regard of King Louis and was memtioned in the Memoires of the court historian the Duc de Saint-Simon.

Beauvau, Marie Charlotte Sylvie de Rohan-Chabot, Princesse de – (1729 – 1807)
French memoirist
Marie Charlotte de Rohan-Chabot was married firstly to Jean Baptiste Louis de Clermont d’ Amboise, Marquis de Reynel. Widowed in 1761, she then became the second wife of Charles Juste, the marechale Prince de Beauvau-Craon (1720 – 1793) to whom she bore a large family of children. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole and survived the horrors of the Revolution, residing quietly at the family chateau in the country. The princesse left memoirs which dealt with the grief felt at the death of her second husband, which were published in Paris  by her granddaughter, with the title Souvenirs de la marechal princesse de Beauvau (nee Rohan-Chabot) suivis des memoires du marechal prince de Beauvau, recuellis et mis en order par Madame Standish (nee Noailles) (1872). Madame de Beauvau died (March 26, 1807) aged seventy-seven, in Paris.

Beauvau-Craon, Anne de Ligniville, Princesse de – (1686 – 1772)
French peeress and diplomatic and society figure
Anne de Ligniville was born in Houecourt, and became the wife of Francois Vincent Marc, Prince de Beauvau-Craon (1676 – 1754). Husband and wife attended the Regency court and the court of Louis XV at Versailles. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole and attended the salons of Madame Du Deffand in Paris. She survived her husband as the Dowager Princesse de Beauvau-Craon (1754 – 1772). Madame de Beauvau died (July 12, 1772) at the Chateau d’Haroue. She left twenty children,

Beauvilliers, Anne de – (b. 1652)
French nun
Anne de Beauvilliers was born (Jan 1, 1652) the fifth daughter of Francois de Beauvilliers (1610 – 1675), Comte de Saint-Aignan and his first wife Antoinette Servien (c1615 – 1679), and was the younger sister to Paul de Beauvilliers de Saint-Aignan (1648 – 1714), Duc de Beauvilliers, who served at the court of Versailles as the governor to the grandsons of King Louis XIV. Anne remained unmarried and became a nun at the Abbey of La Joye. She became involved in a romantic liaison with Henri Joseph, Marquis de Segur (1661 – 1737), a decade her junior. This association led to the incorrect assumption that Anne de Beauvilliers was the ‘Portugese Nun’ of the famous letters.

Beauvoir, Simone de – (1908 – 1986)
French feminist and novelist
Born Lucie Ernestine Maria Bertrand (Jan 9, 1908) in Paris, she was the daughter of a Catholic lawyer she graduated from the Sorbonne (1929), being placed second in the competitive examinations to Jean Paul Sartre (1905 – 1980) the famous philosopher and novelist, and destined to be her lifelong collaborator and exploiter. Simone, as she became known, taught philosophy at various lycees in Marseilles (1931 – 1932), Rouen, Normandy (1932 – 1936), and in Paris (1936 – 1943). Towards the end of WW II she gave up teaching to work as a scriptwriter and editor for the Radiodiffusion Nationale (1943 – 1944). Simone became an important exponent of the study of human existentialism, and though she was long merely thought to have been Sartre’s disciple, her own original and profound contribution to this study has now been realized and appreciated. She joined the board of the literary review Les Temps Modernes (1945) and contributed many articles.

Her most important and best known work was the two volume encyclopaedic study of the human female, The Second Sex (1949) which long remained the greatest of all feminist tracts, and itself transforming the debate concerning the role of women in modern society. Her other works included The Mandarins (1954) a novel concerning the literary circles surrounding the prestigious Prix Goncourt, The Long March (1958) a study of modern China, and her own autobiographical Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter (1959). After Sartre’s death she produced Farewell to Sartre (1981), and at her own death five years later (April 14, 1986), she was interred with him in Montparnasse Cemetery, Simone’s other notable works include The Prime of Life (1963), Force of Circumstance (1965), A Very Easy Death (1966) and All Said and Done (1972).

Beaux, Cecilia – (1855 – 1942) 
American artist and portrait painter
Cecilia Beaux was known for her gentle style, she specialized in paintings of women and children, and her sitters included Mrs Theodore Roosevelt, and her daughter Alice Roosevelt Longworth. Beaux won the Dodge Prize at the New York National Academy, the Saltus Gold Medal of the National Academy of Design (1913), and the Gold Medal of the National Institute of Arts and Letters (1942).

Beaver, Louise Polk Huger – (1902 – 1976) 
American editor
Louise Huger was born in New Orleans, the descendant of two old Huguenot families. Graduating from Hollins College, Virginia, Louise joined the staff of the New York Times in 1927 as a stenographer, and became secretary to the publisher and president, Arthur Henry Sulzberger (1929 – 1946). In 1946 she was appointed editor of the ‘Letters to the Editor ‘department. Louise kept this position until her retirement in 1968. Louise Beaver died (April 8, 1976) aged seventy-three, in Massachusetts.

Beaver, Racey – (1872 – 1931)
Australian poet and children’s writer
Born Rachel Rebecca Schlank in Adelaide, South Australia, she was the daughter of Salis Schlank. Apart from writing verse for children, she produced poems and prosewriting for the Journal publication in Adelaide, using the pseudonym ‘Racey Beaver.’ Beaver spent years working with the Braille alphabet translating it into verse (1929) and was the inventor of a clock and mechanical teaching aid for the education of the blind, which model was copied internationally for the benefit of blind students. She remained unmarried. Racey Beaver died (April 14, 1931) aged fifty-eight, in Adelaide.

Bebba – (c575 – c603)
Anglo-Saxon queen consort (c595 – c603)
Bebba was of unidentified parentage though she came from the same royal line as her future husband Aethelfrith. She may have been the daughter of King Frithuwald or his brother Hussa, and thus a grandchild of King Ida of Bernicia. Bebba became the first wife (c590) of Aethelfrith (579 – 617), King of Bernicia, and if she was his first cousin then their marriage may have helped ensure his succession to the Bernician throne, though this remains conjecture. Nennius in his Historia Brittonum states that Aethelfrith gave Queen Bebba the town of Bamburgh in Northumbria, founded by King Ida, as her marriage gift or dower. Originally known as ‘Bebbanburh’ (Bebba’s town) after her it became the royal seat of the Bernician and Northumbrian kings. She was the mother of Eanfrith (c600 – 634), King of Bernicia (633 – 634). He was married to a Pictish princess and left two children, Talorcan I (c620 – 657), King of the Picts which throne he inherited through his unnamed mother, and a daughter, name unknown, who became the wife of Bile, sub-King of Fortrinn and was the mother of Bruidhe III (c645 – 693), King of the Picts.

Beccaria, Angela Bianca – (fl. c1580 – 1595)
Italian literary figure
Angela Beccaria was a noble Genoese matron who patronized the work of the poet Stefano Guazzo (1530 – 1593). His work Ghirlanda was dedicated to Angela and was published posthumously (1595). He also addresses a group of madrigal verses in her honour.

Beccary, Madame – (fl. 1769 – 1781)
French novelist
Her Christian name remains unknown. Madame Beccary published four novels which were said to be translations of English works, Lettres de Milady Bedfort (Letters of Lady Bedfort) (1769), Memoires de Lucie d’Olbery (1770), Milord d’ Ambi (1778), and Memoires de Fanny Spingler (1781).

Becher, Eliza O’Neill, Lady      see     O’Neill, Eliza

Beck, Helen Gould    see    Rand, Sally

Becker, Gladys Sarah Duggan, Lady – (1906 – 1985)
Australian philanthropist
Gladys Duggan was born in Adelaide, South Australia, and was originally employed in a music shop in Adelaide, where she met her future husband, the famous business entrepeneur, Jack Ellerston Becker (1904 – 1979), whom she later married (1928) and was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1962). The couple had an only daughter, whom they later disinherited for marrying a naval stoker without parental approval. Lady Becker, together with her husband, was a patron of the Australian Academy of Science, whose headquarters in Canberra in the ACT (Australian Capital Territory) was called Becker House. The couple retired to Pembroke in Bermuda (1971). Lady Becker survived her husband five years, and left the Academy the enormous sum of three million dollars in her will. Lady Becker died (Jan 3, 1985) aged seventy-eight.

Becker, Lydia Ernestine – (1827 – 1890) 
British feminist and activist
Lydia Becker was born at Manchester in Lancashire, the daughter of a prominent manufacturer. Educated at home, Becker later became a strong advocate of women’s suffrage, after attending a lecture by Barbara Bodichon. Becker was appointed secretary of the Manchester Women’s Suffrage Committee (1867), which soon merged with the Manchester National Society for Women’s Suffrage. She was the editor of the Women’s Suffrage Journal (1870 – 1890) and was a member of the Manchester School Board from 1870. She published pamphlets on the subject of female suffrage.

Beckett, Clarice Marjoribanks – (1887 – 1935)
Australian painter
Clarice Beckett was born at Casterton in Victoria, the daughter of Joseph Clifton Beckett, and was educated at private schools. She studied art at the National Gallery School in Melbourne (1914 – 1916) under the instruction of Frederick McCubbin and Max Meldrum (1875 – 1955) and rejected modernism in her work. Noted especially for her suburban streetscapes in which she experimented with diffused light. Beckett was an especially prolific artist, despite the fact that she remained at home caring for her elderly parents. Influenced by the portraitist Justus Jorgensen (1893 – 1975), Beckett later became part of the artistic coterie at his artist’s camp at San Remo. Her work was exhibited with the Victorian Artists’ Society and the Melbourne Society of Women Painters and Sculptors, and she was a member of the Twenty Melbourne Painters association. Clarice Beckett died (July 7, 1935) aged forty-eight, in Melbourne.

Beclard d’Harcourt, Margeurite – (1884 – 1964)
French composer and ethnomusicologist

Becu, Anne – (1713 – 1788)
French seamstress
Anne Becu was born at Vaucoleurs of humble origins. She became a seamstress and after an affair with a monk named Jean Gomard de Vaubarnier she gave birth to her daughter Jeanne Becu (1743 – 1793) later the Comtesse Du Barry, the famous mistress of King Louis XV. Anne later resided in Paris under the protection of the financier M. Billard-Dumonceaux, and was later married (1749) to Nicolas Rancon.
When her daughter officially became the king’s mistress (1768) Madame Rancon became known as the Marquise de Montrabe and Madame Du Barry purchased the estate of Villers-sur-Orge for her. Madame de Montrabe died in comfort in Paris, narrowly predeceasing the Revolution which would take the life of her daughter. Her legatee was her niece Marie Josephe Becu de Quantigny, Marquise de Boisseson. Madame Becu appears as a minor character in the historical novel The Road to Compeigne (1959) by British author Jean Plaidy.

Beddington, Frances Ethel – (c1880 – 1963)
Irish amateur pianist and memoirist
Frances Matlock was the daughter of Francis Berry Matlock, of Bellair, Ballycumber, in King’s County, and his wife Ethel Annie, the daughter of Sir Edward Braddon, K.C.M.G. Educated in Europe she was married to Claude Beddington, to whom she bore three children. A talented pianist, she did not perform publicly, and devoted her time to various charitable social causes, as well as in the patronage of young artists from her salon in Welbeck Street, London. With a passion for collecting sixteenth century furniture, Frances was also the author of memoirs, All that I have Met (1929).

Beddington, Nadine Dagmar – (1915 – 1990)
British architect and author
Beddington was educated at the Regent Polytechnic School of Architecture, and became a fellow of RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) (1940). She worked for several years as an assistant to local and central governments before establishing her own private practice (1945 – 1957). Beddington served as the vice chairman of the Architects in Industry Group (1965 – 1967), and twice served as a member of the RIBA council during the 1970’s and also served as vice-president (1971 – 1972).
Beddington was also a longtime member of the Architect’s Registration Council of the United Kingdom (ARCUK) (1969 – 1987). She was awarded the Silver Jubilee Medal from Queen Elizabeth II (1977) in recognition of her contribution to architecture, and published Design for Shopping Centres (1982). Nadine Beddington remained unmarried and died (April 15, 1990).

Bedford, Catherine Brydges, Countess of – (1580 – 1657)
English Stuart peeress (1627 – 1641)
The hon. (Honourable) Catherine Brydges was the daughter of Giles Brydges, third Baron Chandos. She was married (1608) to Francis Russell (1593 – 1641), Lord Russell of Thornhaugh from 1613, and who later succeeded his cousin as the fourth Earl of Bedford (1627). She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Bedford (1641 – 1657). The countess died (Jan 22, 1657) aged seventy-six. Her children were,

Bedford, Catherine Tudor, Duchess of    see    Woodville, Catherine

Bedford, Diana Spencer, Duchess of – (1710 – 1735)
British courtier
Lady Diana Spencer was the daughter of Charles Spencer, third Earl of Sunderland and his wife Anne, the daughter of John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough. With her mother’s death (1716) she was raised by her maternal grandmother, the redoubtable Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, whose favourite grandchild she became. Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, son and heir of George II, fell in love with Diana after his arrival in England from Hanover (1728), and her grandmother had hopes that the couple would be able to marry and she would see her granddaughter as a queen. However, George II and Queen Caroline soon put a stop to these intrigues, and Diana eventually married Lord John Russell (1710 – 1771) as his first wife (1731), with a dowry of thirty thousand pounds, and the promise of one hundred thousand on the death of her grandmother. The two women continued to correspond on a daily basis and the duchess built Diana and her husband a house at Wimbledon. Her husband succeeded his brother as fourth Duke of Bedford (1732). The young duchess was suffering from tuberculosis, and during her last pregnancy she became very ill. Her portrait (c1733), attributed to Thomas Hudson, is preserved at Blenheim Palace. Her only child, John Russell, marquess of Tavistock, died in infancy (1732). The duchess died (Sept 27, 1735) aged twenty-five, at Southampton House, and was interred at Chenies in Buckinghamshire.

Bedford, Louisa Whitwell, Duchess of – (1892 – 1960)
British divorce litigant
Louisa Whitwell was the daughter of Robert Jowitt Whitwell of Thornbury Lodge, Oxford. She was married (1914) to Hastings Russell (1888 – 1953), Marquess of Tavistock, son and heir of the eleventh Duke of Bedford. They had three children including Robert Russell (born 1917), the thirteenth Duke of Bedford (1953). The marriage was uncongenial and the couple became estranged. In 1935 Lady Tavistock petitioned her husband for restoration of conjugal rights, claiming that he had deserted her. Lord Tavistock justified his separation by claiming that Lady Tavistock had been involved in an adulterous affair with her children’s tutor, Cecil Squire, whom the marquess himself had introduced into the family home. Letters between Lord and Lady Tavistock were read in court by Lady tavistock refused to cease her association with Squire as a condition of her return to her husband, and her petition for restoration of marital rights was dismissed. Tavistock succeeded his father as Duke of Bedford and Louisa became Duchess of Bedford (1940 – 1953) but the couple remained estranged. Louisa survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Bedford (1953 – 1960). Duchess Louisa died (Oct 2, 1960).

Bedford, Lucy Harington, Countess of – (1581 – 1627)
English literary patron
Lucy Harington was the daughter of John, the first Baron Harington of Exton, and was married (1594) to Edward Russell, third Earl of Bedford. The countess remained childless and was patron to poets such as John Davies, Michael Drayton, and Samuel Daniel. Ben Jonson praised her as ‘Life of the Muses,’ and she was prominent figure at the court of Anne of Denmark, the wife of James I (VI). Lady Bedford is specifically remembered for her patronage and support of John Donne (1608 – 1615), and several of his poems were addressed to her.

Bedford, Margaret St John, Countess of – (c1529 – 1562)
English Tudor peeress (1555 – 1562)
Margaret St John was the daughter of Sir John St John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire, and sister of Oliver, Lord St John of Bletsoe. She became the first wife (c1544) of Lord Francis Russell (1527 – 1585), who succeeded his father as the second Earl of Bedford (1555) during the reign of Queen Mary, the countess dispensing justice at the local assizes ‘girt with the sword’ (ie, as the official representative of the queen). The Earl and Countess were present at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I in London (1559). The countess died (Aug 27, 1562). Her children were,

Bedford, Mary Du Carroy Tribe, Duchess of (1865 – 1937)
British aviatrix
Mary Du Carroy Tribe was the daughter of Walter Harry Tribe, archdeacon of Lahore, India, and was married (1888) to Herbrand Russell, Lord Tavistock (1858 – 1940), the son ahd heir of Hastings, ninth Duke of Bedford. Her husband succeeded as duke in 1891, and she was the mother of Hastings, twelfth Duke of Bedford (1888 – 1953). The duchess trained as a nurse, surgeon, radiographer, and radiologist, and established a model hospital on her husband’s estate of Woburn Abbey, but her most abiding interest was aviation after 1918. The duchess completed more than two hundred hours of solo flying and became popularly known as ‘the Flying Duchess.’ She made record flights to India (1929) and South Africa (1930), and sufferred an accident in Morrocco (1934), though she managed to escape unharmed. The duchess left Woburn in her de Havilland Gypsy (March 22, 1937) and was never seen again. Her plane washed up on March 26, but her remains were never recovered.

Bedford, Ruth Marjory – (1882 – 1963)
Australian writer and children’s poet
Ruth Bedford was born (Aug 2, 1882) at Petersham, Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of Alfred Bedford, a clerk. Her mother, Agnes Victoria Stephen, was the daughter of Sir Alfred Stephen. She was educated at home with her sisters, and produced a small volume of poems in childhood entitled Rhymes by Ruth (1893), which was later reprinted (1896). A close friend of the poet Dorothea Mackellar, the two shared a flat in London and returned to Australia prior to WW I (1913). They co-wrote two novels, The Little Blue Devil (1912) and Two’s Company (1914), and Ruth produced another collection of poems, Sydney at Sunset and other Verses (1911). Later collections included Rosycheeks and Goldenhead (1913) and Hundreds and Thousands (1934) and he rpoetry was published in the Sydney Morning Herald for over three decades. Bedford also wrote the play Postman’s Knock and wrote others for the Australian Broadcasting Commission. Bedford, who was a member of the Women’s Pioneer Society of Australia, produced her best known work, Think of Stephen (1954) concerning her famous grandfather, at the end of her long career. She remained unmarried. Ruth Bedford died (July 24, 1963) aged eighty, in Paddington, Sydney.

Bedford, Sybille – (1911 – 2006)
German-Anglo writer
Baroness Sybille von Schoenebeck was born (March 16, 1911) at Charlottenburg, near Berlin in Prussia, the daughter of Baron Maximilian von Schoenebeck and his English wife Elizabeth Bernard. She was determined to become a writer, and was best known for her novels A Legacy (1956) and Jigsaw (1989). Her style was compared to that of Marcel Proust and Henry James. Sybille Bedford died aged ninety-four.

Bedford-Gillan, Vera Elizabeth – (1894 – 1935)
Australian vocalist and composer
Vera Bedford was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of Randolph Bedford. She studied composition under A. Chanter and Fritz Hart, and taught at the Melbourne Conservatory.

Vera composed the choral piece Hyperion, as well as a synmphony, chamber music and other works. After winning the Verbrugghen scholarship from the Sydney Conservatory, Vera performed in the Rigo-Williamson opera season (1919), and then with Dame Nellie Melba in 1924 and 1928. She travelled to America (1929) appearing at the Roxy Theater in New York before going to London, where she appeared at Sadler’s Wells (1931). Vera Bedford-Gillan died (Jan 8, 1935) aged forty, in Melbourne.

Bedingfield, Charlotte Georgiana Jerningham, Lady – (1773 – 1854)
British courtier
Charlotte Jerningham was the daughter of Sir William Jerningham, sixth Baronet, of Cossey, Norfolk, by his wife Frances Dillon, and was sister to the eighth Baron Stafford.
Charlotte was married (1795) to Sir Richard Bedingfield, fifth Baronet (1767 – 1829), to whom she bore eight children. Because they were Roman Catholics, they left England for Ghent in Flanders (1816) so they could preside over their children’s education, the British universities being closed to Catholics. The couple twice received the Duke and Duchess of Clarence (1818) and (1822), Lady Bedingfield and the duchess becoming close friends. With her husband’s death (1829) Lady Charlotte returned to England. There she took up residence at the Benedictine convent in Hammersmith, and continued her friendship with the duchess at nearby Bushey Park. With the accession of the duke of Clarence as William IV (1830), Lady Bedingfield was appointed as woman-in-waiting to Queen Adelaide, a post she retained until the king’s death (1837). He granted her the precedence of the daughter of a baron by royal warrant (1831). With the king’s death, Lady Bedingfield remained a close friend of the Queen Dowager, whom she survived by five years. Her children included Sir Henry Paston-Bedingfield, sixth Baronet (1800 – 1862), and Charles Richard Bedingfield (1803 – 1870), a captain of hussars in the Imperial Austrian service. Lady Bedingfield died (July 29, 1854) aged eighty.

Bedogni, Odette    see   Scala, Delia

Bedrifelek – (1851 – 1930)
Ottoman sultana
Bedrifelek was born (Jan 4, 1851) at Poti in the Caucasus region. She entered the sultan’s harem as a slave girl and was married in Constantinople (1868) to Sultan Abdulmecid II (1842 – 1918) as his first wife. With the birth of her elder son Mehmed Selim at Bechiktache (Jan, 1870) Bedrifelek was given the rank of Haseki Sultan (princess favourite). Two more children followed. Her husband was was deposed (1909) and his sons by Bedrifelek rendered ineligible for the Ottoman throne. The former sultan died (Feb 10, 1918) at the Palace of Beylerbey on the Bosphorus. If Abdulmecid had not been deposed then Bedrifelek would have survived to become Valide Sultan (queen mother) for her eldest son. Princess Bedrifelek died (Feb 6, 1930) aged seventy-nine, at Yildiz. Her children were,

Beech, Olive Ann Mellor – (1903 – 1993)
American aviation industrialist
Olive Mellor was born in Waverley, Kansas, the daughter of a farmer, and was raised in Paola. She attended the American Secretarial and Business College in Wichita, and then became the secretary (1925) to Walter Beech, the President (1924 – 1929) of the Travel Air Company in Wichita. Olive and Beech were later married (1930) and established together the Beech Aircraft Corporation which developed into a leading manufacturer of private airplanes for general aviation. The company supplied most of the planes used for the training of navigators and bombardiers during WW II. Mrs Beech served as the secretary and treasurer of the company until the death of her husband whereupon she took over full control and management for almost two decades (1950 – 1968). The company sales exceeded nine hundred million annually by the 1980’s.
After retiring as president Olive Beech remained at the helm as Chairman of the Board (1968 – 1982). After the company was purchased by The Raytheon Company (1980) Mrs Beech was elected to the board and executive committee of the the parent company. Olive Beech served as the president of the Women’s International Association of Aeronautics and was an adviser to the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institute. Fortune magazine twice named Olive Beech as one of the ten most influential business women in the USA (1973) and (1978), and she was inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame. Olive Beech died (July 6, 1993) aged eighty-nine, in Wichita.

Beecher, Catharine Esther – (1800 – 1878)
American educator
Catharine Beecher was born at East Hampton in New York, the daughter of Presbyterian clergyman Lyman Beecher, and was sister Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). With her sister Mary she established the Hartford Female Seminary (1823) to educate women in domestic values and economies in preparation for the roles as wives and mothers. Her published works included A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1841) and The Duty of American Women to Their Country (1845). With her sister Harriet Catharine co-authored The American Woman’s Home (1869).

Beecher-Stowe, Harriet    see    Stowe, Harriet Beecher

Beechey, Anne Phyllis Jessop, Lady – (1764 – 1834)
British painter
Anne Jessop was born at Thorpe, near Norwich, Nofolk, and became the second wife of the artist Sir William Beechey. Anne executed drawings and painted miniatures, and the painters H. Berne (1800) and Henry Jacobus both painted her portrait, which they exhibited in London. Anne Jessop executed her own works at the Royal Academy under her maiden name (1787 – 1795) and continuing to paint after her marriage, as Lady Beechey from 1795 – 1805.

Beer, Amalia    see   Pachelbin, Amalia

Beer, Nellie – (1900 – 1988)
British civic leader and local councilor
Born Nellie Robinson (April 22, 1900), she attended secondary school at Ardwick. She was married (1927) to Robert Beer to whom she bore a daughter. Mrs Beer served fort hirty-five years (1937 – 1972) as a member of the Manchester City Council and was appointed OBE (Officver of the Order of the British Empire) (1957) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her valuable civic work. Mrs Beer served as an alderman (1964 – 1972) and then as the Lord Mayor of Manchester (1966). She was also a Justice of the Peace and received an honorary degree from Manchester University (1978). Nellie Beer died (Sept 17, 1988) aged eighty-eight.

Beere, Fanny Mary – (1856 – 1915)
British operatic soprano
Born Frances Whitehead (Oct 5, 1856) in Norwich, Norfolk, she studied under Hermann Vezin. She made her stage debut at the Opera Comique in London (1877), and appeared as Emilia in Shakespeare’s Othello, as well as performing comic roles. She performed at the Haymarket Theatre and appeared in the role of Lady Teazle in the production of School for Scandal (1891) by Charles Wyndham, and appeared in Oscar Wilde’s play A Woman of No Importance in the role of Mrs Arbuthnot. Fanny Beere was married three times and died (March 25, 1915) aged fifty-eight.

Beesley, Ann – (fl. 1774 – 1783)
British painter
Ann Beesley was the wife of painter Robert Beesley, who was a member of the Free Society of Artists, and specialized in fruit and still-lifes. Beesley was a talented painter herself, mainly of flowers, and her works were exhibited at the Free Society.

Beetham, Jane – (fl. 1794 – 1810)
British painter and artist
Jane Beetham was the daughter of the actor Edward Beetham. She specialized in miniatures.

Beeton, Isabella Mary – (1836 – 1865)
British journalist and home economist
Isabella Beeton’s name became a household word in British kitchens for over a century. She was born Isabella Mayson, and was educated in Heidelberg, Germany. Originally trained as a pianist, she married a British publisher, and began writing on culinary subjects in his periodical, the Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Mrs Beeton was the author of the famous Book of Household Management (1861) which was originally published in three parts (1859 – 1860).

Beevor, Kinta – (1911 – 1995) 
British memoirist
Kinta Waterfield was born at Northbourne, East Kent, the daughter of Aubrey Waterfield and his wife Lina Duff-Gordon, who as Lina Waterfield is remembered as the founder of the British Women’s Institute. After her father left to join the army in WW I, she moved with her mother and brother to Florence. Her childhood was spent between Poggio Gherardo and the castle of Aulla. Kinta later married and settled at Eastry in Kent, but continued to visit Italy annually. She was the author of memoirs A Tuscan Childhood (1993), which was dedicated to her grandchildren. Kinta Beevor died (Aug, 1995) aged eighty-three.

Bega of Landen – (c624 – 693)
Carolingian noblewoman and dynastic figure
Bega was the elder daughter of Pepin I of Landen, Duke of Austrasia by his wife Iduberga of Aquitaine, the daughter of Grimoad, Duke of Aquitaine. She was married (c637) to her first cousin Anisegal (602 – 662), Duke of Austrasia, the son of Arnulf of Metz, and was the mother of Pepin II of Heristal (639 – 714), the grandmother of Duke Karl Martel, and the great-grandmother of Pepin III (751 – 768), the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. Her name was recorded by the Annales Xantenses which also noted her marriage with ‘Anchisius dux egregious filius Arnolfi epicopi Mettensium.’ The Cronica Hohenburgensis also recorded Bega as the wife of Anisegal.
After her husband’s death Bega travelled to Rome on a pilgrimage and on her return she built seven chapels at Andenne on the Meuse River, between Huy and Namur, in imitation of the seven principal churches in Rome. She also established the church and convent at Andenne with nuns procured from Nivelles, and was taught the rules of the religious life by Abbess Wulfetrude of Nivelles. Bega was then installed at Andenne as the first abbess of that house. She died there (Dec 17, 693) and was revered as a saint her feast being being observed (Dec 17). The monastery of Andenne was later converted into a collegiate church for thirty-two deaconesses from noble families, with ten canons to officiate at the altar.
Bega was not responsible for the establishment of the Beguines, who were actually founded in the twelfth century by Lambert le Begue, a priest of Liege. Bega left several daughters including Clotilda became the wife of the Merovingian king Theuderic III (died 690) and Theuderada became the wife of Ansprand of Lombardy.

Begg, Dame Heather – (1932 – 2009)
New Zealand mezzo-soprano
Begg was born (Dec 1, 1932) in Nelson. She won a competition and later travelled to London (1957) where she studied under Sister Mary Leo, the mentor of Kiri Te Kanawa. She became the resident mezzo-soprano at the Covent Garden Opera, continuing to perform with Te Kanawa and also with The Three Tenors, Luciano Pavarotti, Jose Carreras and Placido Domingo. Heather Begg was best remembered for her performance in Figaro with Dame Kiri Te Kanawa.
Heather was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1978) in recognition of her valuable contribution to music. Her own government caused her to be honoured shortly before her death when she was appointed DNZM (Dame Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit) (2009) in recognition of her career and service to the operatic arts. Dame Heather Begg later resided in Sydney in Australia, where she died (May 12, 2009) aged seventy-six.

Begin, Aliza (Ala) – (1920 – 1982)
Israeli First Lady (1977 – 1982)
The wife of Menachem Begin (1913 – 1992), Prime Minister of Israel (1977 – 1983), she was born Aliza Arnold in Borislav, Poland, one of a pair of identical twins. Aliza married Begin in 1939, but with the outbreak of WW II some months afterwards the couple tried to reach the Romanian border and safety. Menachem was eventually captured by the Russians at Vilna, in Lithuania, and sentenced to a Siberian labour camp, whilst Aliza managed to reach Palestine. She was reunited with her husband a year later when he was allowed to return to Israel as a soldier. The two worked covertly and tirelessly togther as part of the militant underground Irgun Zvai Leumi movement, of which Menachem was the leader (1943). Throughout her husband’s long political career, Aliza accompanied him on his trips and visits, but was herself uncomfortable with the limelight, and preferred to remain in the background of events. Nonetheless, she accompanied him on his visit to American (1977) and to Stockholm, Sweden when he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with President Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt (1978). Having long suffered from asthma, Mrs Begin died in hospital in Jerusalem of severe respiratory problems.

Behn, Aphra – (1640 – 1689) 
English novelist, poet, and adventuress
Born Aphra Amis, she has been acknowledged by historians as the first known professional female writer. Brought up in Surinam, she eventually returned to England where she married a merchant named Behn. Following the death of her husband she spent an adventurous interlude where she was employed as a spy in Holland. When she was eventually imprisoned because of debt she decided to support herself by writing, and produced two plays and fourteen novels, including Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave, which anticipated the ‘ noble savage ‘ characterization created by the philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau. Aphra Behn was the first writer to publish an anti-slavery novel, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, London.

Behrens, Hildegard – (1937 – 2009)
German dramatic soprano
Behrens was born (Feb 9) in Varel-Oldenburg, and attended the University of Freiburg where she originally studied law before transferring her career to music and receiving instruction at the Freiburg Academy of Music from Ines Leuwen. She made her stage debut in Frieburg (1971) as the Countess in Mozart’s Le Nozze de Figaro, and at the Metropolitan Opera in New York several years afterwards (1976) she made her American debut appearing as Girgetta in Puccini’s Il Tabarro.
Behrens then performed at the Salzburg Festival in Austria (1977) where she sang the title role in Richard Strauss’s opera Salome under the direction of Herbert von Karajan. She was best known for her Wagnerian roles, particularly that of Brunnhilde in the Otto Schenk production of the Ring Cycle and was the recipient of the Danish Leonie Sonning Music Prize (1998) and the German Order of the Merit Cross (Bundesverdienstkreuz). Hildegard Behrens died (Aug 18, 2009) aged seventy-two, in Tokyo, Japan.

Beilby, Vangie – (1872 – 1958)
Anglo-American stage and film actress
Beilby was born (Jan 8, 1872) in England where she gained some considerable stage experience before working in silent films in Hollywood. She was best remembered for her character roles in films such as Vagabond Lady (1935) and The Secret Fury (1950). Vangie Beilby died (Oct 14, 1958) aged eighty-six, in Alameda County in California.

Bejart, Armande – (1642 – 1700)
French actress
Armande Bejart was the daughter of actress Marie Madeleine Bejart. She joined her mother’s travelling troupe at Lyons in 1653, being officially engaged as that actress’s ‘sister’. She married (1662) the actor and dramatist Moliere (1622 – 1673) (Jean Baptiste Poquelin), and made her stage debut in the role of Elise in La Critique de l’Ecole des femmes (1663). Armande seperated from Moliere in 1665, but they were ultimately reunited in 1671, and Armande played various roles written by Moliere, including that of Celimene in Le Misanthrope, which was modelled on her personally, and Angelique in Le Malade Imaginaire.
With Moliere’s death in 1673, Armande managed the company successfully and kept the troupe together. Her biggest coup was in securing the talent of the famous tragedienne Marie de Champmesle (1679). In 1667 she remarried to the leading actor Isaac Francois Guerin d’Etriche, and her theatre became the Comedie Francaise, the French national theatre.

Bejart, Marie Madeleine – (1618 – 1672)
French actress
Marie Madeleine Bejart was the sister of actors Joseph (1617 – 1659) and Louis Bejart (c1630 – 1678). Her daughter Armande Bejart became the wife (1662) of the actor and dramatist Moliere, and her sister Genevieve achieved success as an admired tragedienne. Madeleine and her siblings were the children of strolling players, and eventually she became the head of this troupe.

Bejart is credited with having persuaded Moliere to enter upon a theatrical career in 1643, and her own acting abilities were such as too be able to tide the troupe over during times of financial difficulty, she being particularly admired in the role of soubrette. Moliere himself wrote several parts specifically for her, notably the role of Dorine in the controversial Tartuffe (1665) banned for four years because of its attack on religious hypocrisy.

Beke, Alice(c1265 – 1311)
English medieval heiress
Alice Beke was the eldest daughter of John Beke, Lord Beke of Evesby (died 1303), and his wife Sarah, the daughter of Thomas, Lord Furnival. Alice became the wife of Sir William Willoughby (died 1306). Her only brother, Walter Beke, predeceased their father (c1302), and Alice became, with her two sisters, coheiresses of the feudal barony of Bec, which fell into abeyance at their father’s death (1303). With the death of Alice’s uncle, Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham and Patriarch of Jerusalem (1311), her son Robert Willoughby (died 1316) became his heir. Robert was created first Baron Wolloughby de Eresby (1313) by King Edward II, and left descendants.

Belassunu (fl. c1780 – c1770 BC)
Assyrian princess
Princess Belassunu was the daughter of Samu-addu, king of Karana, perhaps by his wife Ama-duga, and sister to Iltani, the wife of the usurper king Aqa-Hammu. Details of Belassunu’s life are known from surviving letters from the former royal archive at Tell-el-Rimah. She was the wife of one Abdu-Suri to whom she had borne children. The assertion that Belassunu had been a secondary wife of Zimri-Lim, king of Mari has now been proved incorrect. Whilst residing in the city of Karana she was the recipient of royal rations of meat and oil. She visited the cities of Mari and Andariq and eventually retired to her father’s court at Karana, being escorted there under the protection of her brother-in-law Aqa-Hammu.

Belasyse, Susanna Armine, Lady – (1644 – 1713)
English Stuart peeress
Susanna Armine was the daughter and coheir of Sir William Armine, first baronet of Osgodby in Lincoln, and his second wife Anne Crane, who later remarried to John Belasyse (1614 – 1689), the first baron Belasyse of Worlaby. Her stepfather arranged that Susanna should be married (1662) at Kensington in London to Sir Henry Belasyse (1637 – 1667), her stepbrother. He was later killed in a duel and was buried in St Giles-in-the-Fields (Aug, 1667). Susanna bore Henry a son and heir Henry, second Baron Belasyse (1689 – 1691) whose widow, Anne Brudenell, was remarried to Charles Lennox, the first Duke of Richmond, the illegitimate son of King Charles II and his French mistress Louise de Keroualle.
Lady Belasyse was a confirmed Protestant, though she had married into a Catholic family. When the widowed Prince James, Duke of York began looking for a second wife (1673) he noticed Lady Belasyse and paid attentions to her and made her a promise of legitimate marriage. Gilbert Burnet in his History of His Own Time recorded that ‘She was a woman of much life and vivacity, but of very small proportion of beauty … The king sent for the Duke and told him that it was too much that he had played the fool once that was not to be done a second time, and at such an age. The lady was also so threatened that she gave up the promise, but kept an attested copy of it as she herself told me.’ as a reward for her compliance Lady Belasyse was then creaed Baroness Belasyse of Osgodby, Lincoln, for life (1674) by Charles II.
The portrait of St Catherine amongst the ‘Court beauties’ at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, probably painted by Huysman is generally supposed to be of Lady Susanna and not of Lady Eleanor Byron, as supposed by some. She was also mentioned in Mrs Jameson’s Court Beauties of the Reign of Charles II. Lady Belasyse was present at the birth of Prince James Edward Stuart, Prince of Wales (June 10, 1688) and later attested by oath to the circumstances of his birth.
Sometime prior to 1684 Susanna remarried to James Fortrey of Chequers (1659 – after 1713), fifteen years her junior. Lady Belasyse died (March 6, 1713) aged sixty-eight, and was buried at Twickenham in Middlesex. With her death the Belasyse peerage (1674) became extinct.

Belcher, Diana Jolliffe, Lady – (1808 – 1890)
British author
Diana Jolliffe became the wife (1830) of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher (1799 – 1877), K.C.B.C. (1867). She wrote The Mutineers of the Bounty (1870) in which she exonerated her stepfather, Peter Heywood, for his part in the mutiny. She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Belcher (1877 – 1890) and was buried in Highgate Cemetery, London.

Belcheva, Elisaveta     see    Bagryana, Elisaveta

Bel Geddes, Barbara – (1922 – 2005)
American actress
Bel Geddes appeared in several well-known movies such as I Remember Mama (1948), Fourteen Hours (1951), Vertigo (1958), The Todd Killings (1970), and the television movie Our Town (1977). Barbara Bel Geddes is best remembered in the role of Miss Elly Ewing, the matriarch in the popular television series Dallas (1978 – 1990), where she played the mother of J.R. Ewing, played by Larry Hagman.

Belgrave, Cynthia – (1920 – 1997)
American actress and director
Cynthia Belgrave was born in Manhattan, New York, and was married to Kenneth Farris. Belgrave is best known for her performance in the first New York production of The Blacks (1961) by Genet as well as Adrienne Kennedy’s Funnyhouse of a Negro. Belgrave herself directed two plays, Trials of Brother Jero and The Strong Breed, written by Wole Soyinska, the Nigerian political activist. She later (1977) opened her own studio theatre. Cynthia Belgrave died in Brooklyn, New York.

Beliarde of Montpellier – (c1045 – after 1095)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Beliarde was the daughter of Guillaume III (died c1068), Count of Montpellier in Languedoc, and sister to Count Guillaume IV (c1069 – 1079). She as the granddaughter of Count Guillaume II (999 – 1025) and his wife Beliarde for whom she was named. She became the second wife (c1060) of Archambaud IV (c1035 – 1095) the Bold, Seigneur de Bourbon (1079 – 1095) whom she survived as the Dowager Dame de Bourbon. Beliarde was interred with her husband in the Benedictine monastery of Sauvigny. She was the mother of Aymon II Vairvache, nicknamed ‘the Prince’ (c1063 – 1116) who succeeded his father as Seigneur de Bourbon (1095 – 1116) and was married to Lucia of Nevers and left descendants. Through her son Beliarde was an ancestress of most of the later royal and aristocratic families of Europe.

Belina (c1130 – 1153)
French saint
Belina was of patrician birth, and had refused the suit of the seigneur de Pradines and d’Arcy, fleeing to a convent of St Maura, at Troyes. Pradines pursued Belina to Landreville, where he finally captured her and had her beheaded. Belina’s death caused a local uprising, the population storming Pradines’s castle and burning it to the ground. He himself escaped, but was excommunicated for his crime and exiled from France. Belina was canonized (1203), but her relics were dispersed during the Revolution.

Belknap, Kitturah Penton – (1820 – 1913)
American pioneer settler and diarist
Kitturah Belknap travelled with her family in a covered wagon from Ohio to the Des Moines River in Iowa (1839), and later to Oregon (1848). Her private journal of this overland trip was published posthumously in the Annals of Iowa as Family Life on the Frontier: The Diary of Kitturah Penton Belknap (1977).

Bell, Acton     see     Bronte, Anne

Bell, Ada(fl. 1880 – 1903)
British painter
Ada Bell was a native of London, and specialized in studies of flowers, and landscapes. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy, the New Water Colour Society, at the Grosvenor Gallery, prior to 1890, and various other exhibitions over more than two decades.

Bell, Barbara – (1870 – 1957)
Irish-Australian educator
Bell was born in Dublin, Ireland and was convent educated in Dublin and Belgium. She received training at a Catholic seminary as a teacher. After working as a teacher in Holland, she came out to Australia (1896), where she was sent to train Roman Catholic women teachers at Ballarat in Victoria, in Tasmania, and at Remuera in New Zealand. Barbara Bell died (Sept 18, 1957) aged eighty-seven.

Bell, Currer     see    Bronte, Charlotte

Bell, Deborah – (1668 – 1739)
British Quaker, traveller, and journal writer
Deborah was married to a clergyman named John Bell, and travelled with him throughout England for a period of three decades (1707 – 1737). Her memoirs, published posthumously and entitled A Short Journal of the Labours and Travels of that Faithful servant of Christ, Deborah Bell (1762) were based upon her own private diary.

Bell, Ellis       see    Bronte, Emily Jane

Bell, Dame Florence Eveleen Eleanore – (1850 – 1930)
British author
Florence Olliffe was the daughter of Sir Joseph Olliffe. She became the second wife (1876) of Thomas Hugh Bell (1844 – 1931), heir to the Bell baronetcy of Rounton Grange in Yorkshire. Mrs Bell bore her husband a son and two daughters and was the stepmother to the traveller Gertrude Lowthian Bell. She raised her own children and her stepchildren in an atmosphere of liberality in Yorkshire, and maintained affectionate an intellectual relationship with her stepdaughter Gertrude, with whom she maintained a correspondence.
Florence became Lady Bell (1904 – 1930) after her husband succeesed as Sir Thomas Bell, second baronet, and they were both present at the coronation of George V and Queen Mary at Westminster Abbey in London (1911). She became involved with voluntary work organizing ambulance and nursing brigades for the war effort, and her valuable contribution was recognized by King George V who appointed Lady Bell as DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1918) and became Dame Florence Bell. She also served as a Justice of the Peace in Yorkshire.
Florence Bell co-wrote the play Alan’s Wife (1893) with the actress Elizabeth Robins but as it dealt with the subject of infanticide it was published anonymously. A comparatively small part of her stepdaughter’s correspondence was edited by Dame Florence and published in two volumes as The Letters of Gertrude Bell (1927). Dame Florence Bell died (May 16, 1930). Her children were,

Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian – (1868 – 1926)
British traveller, author, and archaeologist
Gertrude Bell was born in Washington Hall in Durham, the daughter of a prominent industrialist. She attended Lady Margaret Hall at Oxford University, becoming the first woman to obtain a first class degree in history (1888). Completing her education she travelled in Europe and from 1899 – 1904 was a prominent mountaineer in the Alps, where the ‘Gertrude Peak’ was named in her honour. She visited the Middle East for the first time in 1899, and undertook archaeological work in Syria. She learnt Persian and Arabic, and her travel books such as The Desert and the Sown (1907) and Amurath to Amurath (1911) became important guides for travellers in the region.

During WW I she served as an influential liasion officer between British and Arab interests, becoming a friend of author T.E. Lawrence. She was chosen to advise Winston Churchill on political affairs in Turkey, and recommended the Hashemite emir Faisal as an acceptable ruler for the new state of Iraq, and upon the king’s installation in 1922 Gertrude became his closest advisor. During the last years of her life Gertrude founded an archaeological museum in Baghdad and became Iraq’s Director of Antiquities. Gertrude Bell died of an overdose of sleeping pills. Bell was the author of the influential work, the Review of Civil Administration in Mesopotamia (1921) and her Letters were published in 1947. Her other works included a volume of sketches, Safar Nameh (1894) and a translation, Poems from the Divan of Hafiz (1897).

Bell, Jane – (1873 – 1959)
Australian hospital matron
Jane Bell was born at Middlebie in Scotland, and immigrated to Australia after the deaths of her parents (1886). She later trained as a nurse at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, New South Wales (1894 – 1898), after which she was appointed as matron at the hospitals at Bundaberg and Brisbane in Queensland. Bell travelled to England to study midwifery and was for several years employed at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in Scotland before returning to Australia where she served as lady superintendent at the Melbourne Hospital for over two decades (1910 – 1934). She served twice as president of the Royal Victorian College of Nursing (1931 – 1934) and (1938 – 1946). Jane Bell died (Aug 6, 1959), aged eighty-six, in Melbourne.

Bell, Josephine – (1897 – 1987) 
British novelist
Josephine Bell came from a prominent medical family, and studied and qualified as a physician. Josephine practiced medicine till the death of her husband (1936), when she abandoned it, and then took up a literary career, using her extensive medical background and knowledge of tools when writing her successful murder mystery novels such as Murder in Hospital (1937). She continued to write novels for several decades, and later included more modern crime themes, such as drug addiction into her novels, to keep her work contemporary.

Bell, Laura – (1829 – 1894)
Irish courtesan and social reformer
Born Laura Eliza Jane Seymour in Belfast, she was the daughter of a bailiff, and was originally employed as a shop assistant. She then went to London, where she established herself as a courtesan of note, noted for her rides through the city in a magnificent coach and white horses during the excitement of the Great Exhibition (1851). Laura Bell became notorious and was popularly referred to as ‘the Queen of Whoredom.’ Bell was later converted to religion, and became a missionary in the slum areas of London, where her talent for public oratory was admired by such famous public figures at the Prime Minister William Gladstone and his wife.

Bell, Lucy Hilda – (fl. 1889 – 1908)
British painter
Lucy Bell was a native of London, and specialized in painting fruit and still-lifes. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Suffolk Street Gallery in London for nearly two decades.

Bell, Margaret Elizabeth – (b. 1898)
American writer
Margaret Bell was born (Dec 29, 1898) in Thorn Bay, Alaska. She later attended the University of Washington in Seattle. Her first employment was as an editor with a trust company in San Francisco, and during WW II she worked with the Red Cross in Canada and the Aleutian Islands. She later made a trip to the Alaskan Arctic (1954), and resided for many years in the small village of Loring in Ketchikan, which resulted in the publication, Ride out the Storm (1951), which was based on experiences from her own youth.
Her other works included, The Pirates of Icy Strait (1943), Enemies of the Icy Strait (1945), The Totem Casts a Shadow (1949), Daughter of Wolf House (1957), and To Peril Straight (1971). Bell also published the biographies, Kit Carson: Mountain Man (1952) and, Touched with Fire (1960). Margaret Bell appeared several times on television and her books were translated into various languages including Spanish, German, and Japanese. She was the recipient of the National Mass Media Award from the Thomas Alva Edison foundation (1960).

Bell, Maria Hamilton, Lady – (c1761 – 1825)
British painter and sculptor
Maria Hamilton was the daughter of an architect, and became the wife of Sir Thomas Bell (c1756 – 1824), sheriff of London. Having received training from her brother, the artist William Hamilton, and from Sir Joshua Reynolds, she copied several of Reynold’s canvasses with considerable skill. Her copy of Rubens’ Holy Family, which hung at Carlton House, the residence of the Prince Regent, was highly praised. She exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1809 amd 1824, her sitters including her husband, whose portrait was engraved by William Dickinson, and the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Matthew Wood. Also a sculptor of some talent, two busts executed by Lady Bell were exhibited at the Royal Academy (1819). Lady Bell died (March 9, 1825) in Soho, London.

Bell, Mary    see    Farren, Mary

Bell, Vanessa – (1879 – 1961)
British painter and designer
Vanessa Stephen was born in Kensington, London, the daughter of the notes scholar, Sir Leslie Stephen, and was sister to the famous novelist Virginia Woolf. She trained as an artist under Sir Arthur Cope at the Royal Academy (1896 – 1900) and studied painting at the Royal academy Schools (1901 – 1904). Vanessa was married (1907) to the literary critic, Clive Bell, and was associated with the ‘Bloomsbury Group,’ but left him a decade later, so that she could cohabit with her lover, the designer Duncan Grant, at Firle in Sussex. She was lected to the London Group (1919), and exhibited her works with them from 1920 onwards. Her flower study, Chrysanthemums is preserved at the Tate Gallery.

Bellamy, George Anne – (c1727 – 1788)
British Hanoverian actress
Bellamy was the illegitimate daughter of Lord Tyrawley. She preferred a live on the stage rather than a respectable marriage within the ranks of the lower gentry, and made her stage debut at Covent Garden Theatre in Thomas Otway’s production of The Orphan (1744). She then worked in Dublin before working with David Garrick at the Drury Lane Theatre where she excelled in tragic and romantic roles such as Cleopatra, Juliet and Volumnia. Considered a great beauty in her heyday, her career declined with her looks and age. Bellamy engendered much public scandal and censure due to two unwise marriages and she was constantly hounded by creditors. She published the six volume autobiographical work entitled Apology (1785).

Bellanger, Margeurite – (1840 – 1886)
French courtesan
Born Julie Leboeuf, she was the daughter of a peasant family. Margeurite became the last official mistress of the emperor Napoleon III (1862 – 1864) to whom she bore an illegitimate child, Charles Leboeuf, whom the emperor granted an estate at Oise. The affair with the emperor was ended at the insistence of the Empress Eugenie, and Margeurite was abruptly dismissed.  Marguerite Bellanger died of peritonitis at the age of forty-five.

Belleme, Hildeburge de – (fl. 1006 – c1020)
Norman noblewoman
Hildeburge was the daughter of Yves de Creil, Seigneur de Belleme and Count of Alencon and his wife Godehilde the sister of Bishop Senfroi of Le Mans. She was sister to Guillaume de Belleme, Seigneur de Saonnais who was the great-grandfather of the Norman murderess Mabel Talvas. Sometime prior to 1006 Hildeburge became the wife of Hamon (c978 – 1030), Seigneur de Chateau-du-Loir to whom she bore five children. Hildeburge died (Oct 27) in an unknown year, though it appears unlikely that she survived her husband. Her son Gervais in a surviving testament dated (c1040 – c1047) made reference to matris mee Hyldeburge. Her children were,

Belleville, Jeanne de    see    Clisson, Jeanne de

Bellew, Elaine Carlisle Leach, Lady(1888 – 1973)
British voluntary worker
Elaine Leach was the daughter of John Benjamin Leach of Queenstown, South Africa. She was married firstly to Herbert Lloyd-Dodd, of Johannesburg, and after his death she remarried (1927) to the Irish peer, George Leopold Bryan (1857 – 1935), the fourth Baron Bellew (1911 – 1935). Their marriage remained childless. During WW I Lady Bellew served (1914 – 1915) with the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) and was mentioned in dispatches. She survived her husband almost forty years and resided mainly at Rosemount in Kilkenny, where she was later elected as a member of the local council (1955).

Belloc, Marie Adelaide    see    Lowndes, Marie Adelaide Belloc

Belmont, Alva Erskine – (1853 – 1933)
American socialite, women’s suffrage campaigner, philanthropist, and author
Alva Erskine Smith was the daughter of the wealthy financier, Murray Forbes Smith and his wife Phoebe Desha. She was married firstly to William Kissam Vanderbilt (1849 – 1920), from whom she was later divorced, and secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont (1858 – 1908) with whom she had become romantically involved during the time of her first marriage. Alva had borne her first husband two sons, and a daughter, Consuelo Vanderbilt, who married the British duke of Marlborough and left memoirs.
After the death of Belmont Alva became closely involved with the women’s suffrage movement (1909) and was a particular friend of the suffrage leader Alice Paul. She served as president of the NWP (National Women’s Party), and herself established the International Feminist Committee (1926). Besides the work Log of the Seminole (1916) she co-wrote the play Melinda and Her Sister (1916) with Elsa Maxwell, who composed the music and lyrics. She wrote articles for various New York papers and periodicals such as Women’s Magazine, Harper’s Bazaar, Ladies Home Journal, and Good Housekeeping. Her personal correspondence has also survived. From 1922 Alva resided at her chateau near Malesherbes in the Loiret region of France. Alva Belmont died (Jan 26, 1933) aged seventy-nine, at her chateau.

Bellisle, Margeurite Pauline – (1778 – 1869)
French Imperial mistress
Margeurite Bellisle was born in Carcassone, the illegitimate daughter of a gentleman and a cook named Bellisle. Attractive and blonde she was apprenticed to a milliner before she became the wife of an infantry lieutenant named Foures, whose unit she had accompanied to Cairo in Egypt disguised as a boy (1798). There she was noticed by General Napoleon Bonaparte, who sent her husband on a mission so that he could seduce her. Her husband was captured by the British, who released him, whereupon he demanded a divorce, which was granted (1799). Margeurite, who was popularly known as ‘La Bellilotte,’ by the troops, flaunted her association with Napoleon in Cairo. During his absence on his Syrian campaign he wrote Margeurite many letters but she destroyed them. When she showed no signs of producing a child the emperor, which would have vindicated himself to Josephine, he quickly tired of her.
Margeurite later went to Paris, after her ship was captured by the British, who allowed the passengers to return to France. There the emperor sent her gifts, provided her with a magnificient house at Belleville, near Paris, and arranged a suitable marriage for her with Comte Henri de Ranchoup, who was later appointed French Consul at Santander in Spain (1810) and then consul to the Swdedish court at Gothenburg. Despite her requests, the emperor always refused to see her again, and she established a popular salon, where she entertained international notables such as Count Naryshkin, Count Chernyshev, and Baron Reveroni Saint-Cyr, and set herself up as a patron of the arts. Margeurite produced several paintings, played the harp, the lute, and was an accomplished vocalist. She wrote several novels such as Lord Delaunay (1813) and Une chatelaine du douzieme siecle (1833). Margeurite Bellisle died (March 11, 1869) aged ninety.

Belleville, Charlotte de      see     Pitel, Charlotte Legrand

Bellomont, Francesca Bard, Lady – (1646 – 1708)
English royal mistress and suspected Catholic agent
Francesca Bard was the eldest daughter of Sir Henry Bard, first viscount Bellomont, and his wife Anne Gardiner. The death of Lord Bellomont (1656) left his widow and children in severely straightened circumstances. Francesca first met Prince Rupert of Bohemia and the Palatine (1619 – 1683) around 1660 and became his mistress, but details concerning their association remain sparse. They remained togther for a few years, and Francesca bore a son Dudley (1666), of whom Rupert acknowledged paternity. The child was educated at Eton where he was registered as Dudley Bard. He was ultimately killed (Aug, 1686) whilst attempting to storm the walls of Buda, in Hungary.
With the death (1667) of her brother Charles Rupert Bard, second viscount Bellomont, Francesca officially adopted the style of ‘Lady Bellomont,’ and seperated from the prince around this time also, though the reasons remain unknown. In later years Francesca constantly maintained that Rupert had married her morganatically, and popular tradition had it that the prince was believed to have owned the marriage on his deathbed (1683). Further corroboration of this claim has never been produced (a marriage certificate dated July 30, 1664, at Petersham, Surrey, and produced in 1899, was firmly believed to be a forgery. This document still existed in 1906.
Rupert’s death left Francesca unprotected and she was given refuge at the court of Hanover in Germany, by Rupert’s sister the electress Sophia, who made her a pensioner in her own household. Just prior to her death however, Whig supporters of the electress in Hanover, chose to view Francesca as a threat, she being a Catholic and accused her of ‘posing as Prince Rupert’s widow.’ They accused her as a confirmed Jacobite and traitress to the Hanoverian cause. Lord Stamford in England suggested to Sophia that Francesca should be immediately dismissed from her household. Sophia refused to do this, and we may safely deduce that these accusations amounted to no more than mere slander. Lady Bellomont died aged sixty-two, at the court of the margrave of Baden at Karlsruhe.

Bellucci, Anna – (fl. c1750 – c1770)
Italian ballet dancer
Anna Bellucci was born in Venice, her surname sometimes rendered as Belluzzi. An acclaimed performer in Venice, she was popularly known as ‘Las Bastoncina.’ Anna toured wideley, and appeared in St Petersburg, in Russia (1758 – 1759), in Barcelona, in Spain, and in her native Venice (1764 – 1765). Her husband was the ballet master Giuseppe Bellucci.

Belmeis, Alice de – (c1140 – c1180)                                     
Anglo-Norman heiress
Also called Adeliza, she was the wife of Alan La Zouche (c1130 – 1190), a younger brother of Eudes of Porhoet, Duke of Brittany. Alice was the daughter and eventually sole heiress of Philip de Belmeis, of Tong Castle, Salop, Shropshire, and Ashby (later called Ashby de La Zouche), Leicestershire, and his wife Maud, daughter of William Le Meschin, of Skipton-on-Craven, Yorkshire. She was the niece of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London (d. 1162). Her brothers, Philip and Ranulph (d. 1167) both succeeded to the estate of Tong.
Married c1155, her eldest son William (1161 – 1199) took his mother’s surname of Belmeis, presumably because he inherited her family estates, but he died childless. Her younger son Roger La Zouche (c1165 – 1238) took his father’s surname, and inherited Alice’s lands from his brother in 1199. He was sheriff of Devon from 1228 – 1231. Alice was ancestress of the lords Zouche of Mortimer and Haryngworth, as well as of the Harcourt and Stanford families, into which her two daughters had married. Alice also inherited the estate of North Molton in Devonshire, as well as lands in Cambridgeshire. Her grandson Alan, first Lord Zouche, later gave lands to the Belmeis family foundation of Buildwas, after having carried on with protracted lawsuits with that establishment for some years.  

Belmont, Eleanor Robson – (1879 – 1979)
Anglo-American actress, philanthropist and patron
Born Eleanor Robson at Wigan, in Lancashire, England (Dec 13, 1879), she was a successful stage actress in New York and London, and had captivated George Bernard Shaw, who wrote Major Barbara (1905) for her. Robson retired from the stage at her marriage (1910) to the wealthy financier August Belmont, and became a popular society hostess in New York. Mrs Belmont founded, and supported by her own patronage and extensive fundraising activities, the Metropolitan Opera Guild (1935), and was honoured by the Red Cross (1934). She was the author of memoirs The Fabric of Memory (1957). Eleanor Belmont died (Oct 24, 1979) aged ninety-nine, in New York.

Beloff, Nora – (1919 – 1997)
British author and novelist
Beloff was born in London and graduated from Oxford University (1940). She worked as a journalist for three decades (1948 – 1978) with The Observer newspaper, and wrote several books including The General Says No: Britain’s Exclusion from Europe. Nora Beloff died (Feb 12, 1997) aged seventy-eight, in London.

Beloslava Asenina – (c1217 – after 1285)
Queen consort of Serbia (c1233 – c1269)
Princess Beloslava Asenina was the daughter of Ivan II Asen, Tsar of Bulgaria and his first wife Anna. She became the wife (c1233) of King Stephen Vladislav of Serbia (c1216 – c1269) but neither of her two sons succeeded their father. Her daughter became the wife of Djune Kacic, the governor (knez) of Omis. Queen Beloslava survived her husband as Queen Dowager of Serbia and was still living in 1285.

Belper, Angela Mariota Tollemache, Lady – (1900 – 1995)
British peeress and ATS commandant
Angela Tollemache was born (June 10, 1900) the second daughter of the Hon. (Honourable) Douglas Alfred Tollemache (1862 – 1944) and his wife Alice Mary Head. She was married firstly (1923) to Algernon Henry Strutt (1883 – 1956), second Lord Belper, as his second wife, and became the Baroness Belper (1923 – 1956), bearing him two sons. She was appointed as a Justice of the Peace in Nottinghamshire (1939) and during WW II Lady Belper became an honorary colonel of the WRAC (Women’s Royal Army Corps) and was later appointed as Senior Commandant with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) (1958). She survived her husband over four decades as the Dowager Baroness Belper (1956 – 1995) and remarried secondly (1958) to Reverend Harry Norman Tollemache, the Rector of Binstead.

Belper, Eva Bruce, Lady    see    Rosebery, Eva Bruce, Countess of

Belsunce, Emilie de – (fl. 1770 – after 1807)
French literary figure
Emilie de Belsunce was the daughter of Angelique de La Live d’ Epinay, Comtesse de Belsunce and was granddaughter to the writer Madame d’Epinay (1726 – 1783), whose Conversations d’Emilie (1774) was composed for the benefit of her education and were crowned by the French Academy (1783). Her grandmother’s friend, Friedrich Melchior von Grimm procured Emilie’s dowry from the Russian empress Catharine II, which enabled her to marry the French nobleman, the Comte de Bueil. With the death of Catharine the Great (1796), Emilie gave Grimm refuge in her household, and survived his death (1807).

Beltran, Cecilia   see   Solsona i Querol, Josefina

Beltum – (fl. c1778 – c1770 BC)
Assyrian princess
Princess Beltum was the daughter of Ishki-Adad, king of Qatna, and married Yasmah-Addu, prince of Assyria, who was made governor of Mari by his father King Shamshi-Adad I, but the marriage was not happy. After the successful dynastic coup led by Zimri-Lim, who then became king of Mari, Yasmah-Addu fled the city. Beltum was treated with the respect due to her rank by the new regime, but she eventually retired to her father’s court at Qatna. Letters from the surviving royal archive at Tell-el-Rimah reveal details of Beltum’s married life. Her father-in-law King Shamshi-Adad warned his son to to neglect Beltum, and insisted that he kept her with him at Mari. This instruction may indicate that the princess had herself contemplated a return to her father’s court, a political and dynastic upheaval which the king sought to prevent.

Beluzzi, Maria Antonietta – (1930 – 1997)
Italian actress
Beluzzi appeared in several notable Italian films. She was best remembered in the role of the tobacco seller in Federico Fellini’s classic film, Amarcord (1974). Maria Antonietta Beluzzi died (Aug 9, 1997) aged sixty-six, in Bologna.

Belzu, Madame     see    Gorriti, Juana Manuela

Benaglio Castellani-Fantoni, Ines – (1849 – 1899)
Italian writer
Ines was born at Pavia in Lombardy, her mother Elena Dattili di Borgho Priolo, coming from an ancient and noble family. Ines made a suitably aristocratic marriage with the Italian Count Benaglio Castellani-Fantoni. Her published novels included La Pericholle (1888), Anime liete (1889), L’Ultima Primavera (1894) and Carina d’Orno (1896). The contessa died at Azzate Varesimo in Lombardy.

Benauges, Margaret de La Pole, Comtesse de – (c1422 – c1480)
Anglo-French medieval aristocrat
Lady Margaret de La Pole was the daughter of Sir John de La Pole, Duke of Suffolk. She was married (c1440) to Jean de Foix, Comte de Benauges, who was created Earl of Kendal in the English peerage, and was the mother of Gaston de Foix (c1443 – 1500), Comte de Candale, who left issue.

Bender, Catharina – (1791 – 1831)
German courtier
Catharina Bender was born (Jan 19, 1791) at Frankfurt-am-Main, the daughter of Christoph Bender. At the age of nineteen Catharina became the third wife (1810) at The Hague in Holland of Constantin Alexander (1762 – 1828), the second Prince von Salm-Salm. The marriage was not recognized by the royal family and was regarded as morganatic. Catharina was then granted the title of Countess von Salm-Hoogstraeten which title was held by her children, who though legitimate, were not in the line of succession to the principality of Salm-Salm. With the death of Prince Constantin Alexander Catharina became the Dowager Countess von Sal-Hoogstraeten (1828 – 1831). Countess Catharina died (March 13, 1831) aged forty. Her five children were,

Bendidio, Isabella – (1546 – after 1610)
Italian vocalist
Isabella Bendidio was born (Sept 13, 1546) into a patrician family at Ferrara, and was the elder sister of Lucrezia Bendidio, they being aunts to the singer Anna Guarini. With her sister she attended the court of the Dukes of Modena. Isabella performed with Lucrezia singing at the court concerto delle donne. She retired after her marriage with the nobleman the Marchese Cornelio Bentivoglio (1573). Her sons Guido and Enzo Bentivoglio were the patrons of the composer Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 – 1643) who was appointed as the organist at St Peter’s in Rome (1604).

Bendidio, Lucrezia – (1547 – after 1584)
Italian vocalist
Lucrezia Bendidio was born (April 8, 1547) at Ferrara, the younger sister of Isabella Bendidio, they being aunts to the singer Anna Guarini. She became a lady-in-waiting at the court to Duchess Leonora d’Este (1561). She became an accomplished singer at the court, her talent being noted and admired by the poet Torquato Tasso, who admired her during her youth. The character Licori in his play Aminta is said to have been based upon Lucrezia. She performed with her sister Isabella singing at the court concerto delle donne. She retired after her marriage with the Ferrarese nobleman Conte Baldassare Macchiavelli.

Bendish, Bridget – (1650 – 1726)
English parliamentarian figure
Bidget Ireton was the granddaughter of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth Bourchier, being the daughter of Henry Ireton and Bridget Cromwell. She was raised by her grandmother the Lady Protectress at the palace of Whitehall in London during her mother’s absence in Ireland. After residing with her mother and stepfather at Stoke Newington, Bridget was married (1670) to Thomas Bendish of Yarmouth in Norfolk, and assisted him in the daily management of both his farms and his salt works. With the death of her husband Mrs Bendish was left a wealthy widow. Mrs Bendish was somehow connected to the Rye House Plot (1683) and supported the deposition of James II and the accession of William III. Archbishop Tillotson presented Mrs Bendish to Queen Mary II.

Bene, Signora del     see    Ferrarese, Adriana

Benedict, Ruth Fulton – (1887 – 1948)
American cultural anthropologist
Ruth Fulton was born in New York, the daughter of a surgeon. She studied philosophy and English literature at Vassar College before going on to Columbia University, where she studied anthropology under Franz Boaz and Alexander Goldenweiser. Ruth Fulton was married (1914) to Stanley Benedict. Her published works included Patterns of Culture (1934), the anti-racism work entitled Race, Science and Politics (1940) and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (1946).

Benedicta of Origny      see    Benoite d’Origny

Benedicta of Sens    see    Sens, Beoite de

Benedicta Henrietta Philippina – (1652 – 1730)
Princess of Bohemia and Princess Palatine of the Rhine
Princess Benedicta was born (March 14, 1652) in Paris, the daughter of Prince Edward of Bohemia, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, and his wife Anna di Gonzaga-Nevers. Through her father she was the great-granddaughter of James I, King of England (1603 – 1625) and Edward was the brother of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, making Benedicta was first cousin to George I of England (1714 – 1727). Raised in a convent and possessed of a quiet and retiring nature, with the early death of her father (1663) it was her mother Princess Anna who conducted her marital arrangements.
Princess Anna’s sister, Benedicta’s aunt Queen Marie Louise of Poland was childless. She therefore made arrangements for her wealth to be divided between her Palatine nieces one of whose husbands might receive the elective crown of Poland. Duke Johann Friedrich of Hanover (1625 – 1679), the Catholic brother-in-law of the Electress Sophia of Hanover, announced his candidature for the Polish throne with the proviso that their heirs should renounce their succession to Hanover (Nov 20, 1668). Ten days after this the Duke and Benedicta were married in Paris (Nov 30). However this marriage failed to bring Duke Johann Friedrich the Polish throne which went instead to the Sobieski family, and Duchess Benedicta produced only four daughters, who were all Catholic and unable to succeed to the dukedom of Hanover.
With the death of her husband the young duchess went on a prolonged visit to the French court (1679 – 1680). She never remarried and survived Johann Friedrich for over five decades as the Dowager Duchess of Hanover (1679 – 1730). Her brother-in-law Duke Ernst Augustus treated the duchess with great kindliness. He permitted her to remove all her furniture and possessions from the Castle of Hanover, which actually belonged to the royal family, and promised to look after her surviving daughters. Duchess Benedicta later paid another extended visit to the French court (1695 – 1697) but returned to Hanover to attend the marriage of her daughter Charlotte to the Prince of Modena.
The Act of Succession (1699) promulgated by William III of England specifically disinherited Benedicta and her sisters and their Catholic children from succession to the British crown, vesting it instead with her sister-in-law Sophia, the Protestant electress of Hanover and her descendants. Duchess Benedicta died (Aug 12, 1730) aged seventy-eight, in Hanover. Her children were,

Benedictsson, Victoria     see     Ahlgren, Ernst

Benedikta Ebbesdotter – (c1164 – c1198)
Queen consort of Sweden (1196 – c1198)
Benedikta Ebbesdotter was the daughter of the nobleman Ebbe Sunesson Hvide. She became the first wife (c1180) to Sverker II (1164 – 1210), King of Sweden and was proclaimed queen consort at his accession (1196). Their only child, Prince Karl Sverkersson (c1181 – 1198) died childless before his father. Queen Benedikta died soon afterwards.

Benedikta of Ymseborg    see   Sunesdotter, Benedikta

Benefelde, Ada(1887 – 1967)
Russian soprano
Ada Benefelde was born (Feb 19, 1887) in Riga, and trained as a vocalist under A. Viulnar. Benefelde toured Germany prior to WW I (1908 – 1913), and was then engaged as a solist with the Riga Latyshkaia Opera. Madame Benefelde was later appointed a professor at the Latvian Conservatory. Ada Benefelde died (May 24, 1967) aged eighty.

Benerib (Berner-Ib) – (fl. c3050 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Benerib was probably the wife of King Hor-Aha. A tomb found and excavated at Abydos, contained small labels with her name, which translates as ‘sweetheart.’ She is conjectured as the wife of Hor-Aha, and her name also appears on items found at the site of the tomb of Queen Neithotep, her mother-in-law, at Naqada.

Benesova, Bozena – (1873 – 1936) 
Czech writer
Bozena Benesova was born (Nov 30, 1873) at Novy Jicin in Czechoslavakia, and came from a middle class background. She was married to a railway official (1896). From 1900 – 1905 her writings were published under her maiden name of Zapletalova. Her work, Nedobytavitezstvi (1910) are physcological studies of small town life stripped of all the sentimental gloss. Her later novel Uder (1926) set in 1914 featured an educated and intelligent heroine who works for the Czech resistance. Her best known work was, Don Pablo, don Pedro a Vera Lukasova (1936), which dealt with a girl who successfully survives the trauma of an encounter with a child molester. Bozena Benesova died (April 8, 1936) aged sixty-two, in Prague, Bohemia.

Benet, Guillemette – (fl. c1300 – c1322)
French heretic
Guillemette Benet was a prominent member of the Cathar sect at Montaillou. She refused to answer questions put to her by the papal inquisitor and was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment.

Benet, Sula – (1906 – 1982)
Polish-American anthropologist
Born in Warsaw, Benet immigrated to the USA, and was the author of How to Live to Be 100 (1970). Sula Benet died (Nov 12, 1982) aged seventy-four, in New York.

Benger, Elizabeth Ogilvy – (1778 – 1827)
British author
The daughter of a merchant, Elizabeth Benger studied the classics at a school for boys. She later came to London, where she managed to meet the celebrated novelist Elizabeth Inchbald, after disguising herself as a servant woman. Benger also became a friend to Charles Lamb and his sister Mary, and the Letitia Aikin Barbauld. Her first verses were published anonymously in The Monthly Magazine, and this was followed by the successful poem On the Slave Trade (1809).
Miss Benger also produced novels which are now forgotten, though they enjoyed relative success in their day, and produced several historical memoirs such as Elizabeth Woodville: an Autographic Sketch of the 15th Century (1827) which was published in The Literary Souvenir. Elizabeth also produced translations of German works into English. During her later years Elizabeth Benger’s health declined and she died in poverty.

Benincasa, Caterina – (1347 – 1380)
Italian mystic, saint and letter writer
Also known as St Catherine of Siena after her birthplace, she was the daughter of a cloth dyer. She resisted the efforts of her parents to find a suitable husband preferring to embrace the religious life, and became a Dominican tertiary (1367), residing in her father’s home. Caterina exhibited the stigmata and her reputation for holiness attracted much attention, as well as friendships with many important churchmen and lay people.
Caterina intervened on behalf of the city of Florence in the conflict with the papacy and travelled to Avignon in Provence where she was received by Pope Gregory XI (1370 – 1378) whom she successfully exhorted to return to Rome. When his successor Pope Urban VI (1378 – 1389) was deposed and the ‘great schism’ began, Caterina campaigned tirelessly on Urban’s behalf, sending letters to influential churchmen and city leaders. Many of Caterina’s letters have survived including part of her correspondence with the English soldier of fortune Sir John Hawkwood. She was consulted by Pope Urban in Rome but her advice was ignored. She dictated the moral work entitled Dialogue which was later translated into English (1898). Caterina died in Rome and was canonized (1461) by Pope Pius II (1458 – 1464). St Caterina became the patron saint of the Dominican Order and was made a doctor of the church (1970) by Pope Paul VI (1963 – 1978).

Benislawka, Konstancja – (1747 – 1806)
Polish devotional verse writer
Konstancja was born into a noble family in Livonia. She made a suitable marriage and bore several children. She wrote the devotional work entitled Piesni sobie spiewanr (Songs Sung to Oneself) (1776)

Benitz-Reixach, Lucienne     see     Mome Moineau

Benn, Catherine – (1910 – 2006)
British volunteer servicewoman
Benn was the founder of the WVS (Women’s Volunteer Service) for civil defence, which was renamed the RWVS (Royal Women’s Volunteer Service). A keen golfer, Catherine Benn was elected as the chairman of the ELGA (English Ladies’Golf Association). Catherine Benn died aged ninety-five.

Bennett, Amelia – (1840 – after 1914)                                 
Anglo-Indian captive and memoirist
Also known as Amy Horne, she was the daughter of Captain Frederick William Horne and his wife Emma, later the wife of John Hampden Cook. Residing with her family at Kanpur, India in April, 1857, she accompanied them in General Wheeler’s entrenchment, and on June 22 following, whilst boarding boats, supposedly to take them to safety in Allahabad, the British were attacked by the rebellious Sepoy forces. During this massacre, Amelia was abducted by Mohammed Ismail Khan, a trooper of the 2nd Cavalry, and was forced to become a Muslim. Kept prisoner at Lucknow and later at Bareilly, she was finally freed in April, 1858, because of the approaching British forces to that region. Amelia finally settled in Allahabad, and married William Bennett, a railway engineer c1859. Granted a small pension by the British government, after her husband’s death, Mrs Bennett augmented her income by giving piano lessons. She was still living in 1914. Her written deposition of her adventures, Ten Months Captivity after the Massacre at Cawnpore (1913), written under the pseudonym of Amy Haines, is now in the British Library, London.

Bennett, Anna Maria – (c1750 – 1808)
Welsh novelist and memoirist
Anna Maria Bennett was married in London to David Evans. She later became the mistress of Admiral Sir Thomas Pye and published Anna, or Memoirs of a Welch Heiress (1785) which was published anonymously in London. Her novels included Agnes de Courci (1789), Ellen, or the Countess of Castle Howel (1794) and The Beggar Girl and her Benefactress (1797).

Bennett, Constance – (1905 – 1965)
American actress
Constance Bennett was born (Oct 22, 1905) in New York, the eldest daughter of Richard Bennett (1873 – 1944) and his second wife Adrienne Morrison. She was the sister to actresses Joan Bennett (1910 – 1990) and Barbara Bennett (1911 – 1958) and was educated under the supervision of a governess and finished her schooling in Paris. She appeared in films without any prior acting training of any kind and appeared in the silent films such as Reckless Youth (1922), Cytharea (1924), The Goose Hangs High (1925) and The Pinch Hitter (1926).
Possessed of admirable poise and a husky throated voice she appeared in many films as wealthy socialite ladies in such movies as Born to Love (1931) and Rockabye (1932). She became a noted star and her leading men included Lew Ayres (1908 – 1996), Adolphe Menjou (1890 – 1963) and Joel McCrea (1905 – 1990). She appeared in The Easiest Way (1931) opposite Robert Montgomery (1904 – 1981) but was best remembered for her role in the ghost comic movie Topper (1937) which was based on the novels by Thorne Smith. Miss Bennett later established her own film company and starred in and produced Madame Pimpernel (1944). Her later film credits included Merrily We Live (1938), Escape to Glory (1940), Two-Faced Woman (1941), The Unsuspected (1947) and, As Young As You Feel (1951). Her last film role was as the socialite mother of actor John Forstye in the film Madame X (1965) with Lana Turner in the title role as her unfortunate daughter-in-law.
Bennett was married five times, firstly to Chester Moorhead, secondly to Philip Hayward Plant, thirdly to the French peer Henri de La Falaise, Marquis de La Coudray, and fourthly (1941 – 1945) to the actor Gilbert Roland, to whom she bore two children. Her last husband was Theron Coulter. Constance Bennett died (July 24, 1965) aged fifty-nine, at Fort Dix in New Jersey.

Bennett, Emily – (1871 – 1941)
Australian feminist
Emily MacNamara was born in Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of Denis MacNamara, and became the wife (c1894) of Sydney Francis Bennett. After her marriage she became slosely involved with the women’s suffrage movement, being a member of the National Council of Women (1922) and of the Australian Federal Council of Women Voters (1927). Bennett served as secretary of the Women’s League (1929) and was an active organizer of the Australian Women’s Guild of Empire (1932), besides being an active promoter of factory organization for women (1933  1934). Emily Bennett died (May 19, 1941) aged sixty-nine, in Sydney.

Bennett, Isobel – (1909 – 2008)
Australian marine biologist, sea-shore specialist, educator and author
Ida Isobel Bennett was born (July 9, 1909) in Brisbane, Queensland. She left school at sixteen (1925) in order to find work to help support her family. With encouragement, she later went on to work on the faculty of the zoology department at Sydney University for over four decades. She was one of the first women to ever travel with the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, and she and her fame assistant were amongst the first four women scientists to visit Macquarie Island (1959). She was the author of many publications, including The Great Barrier Reef (1971), and was co-author of Australian Seashores, considered a text-book concerning Australia’s inter-tidal regions. Isobel Bennett died (Jan 12, 2008) aged ninety-eight, in Mona Vale, Sydney.

Bennett, Jill – (1931 – 1990)
British stage actress
Bennett was born in London and made her stage debut at Stratford-on-Avon (1949) and then in London (1950). Known for elegance and quick wit, Bennett established her reputation as an actress with her success in Jean Anouilh’s play, Dinner With the Family (1957). After her marriage with the dramatist John Osborne (1929 – 1994) Jill appeared in several of his productions including Time Present (1968), West of Suez (1971) and Watch It Come Down (1976). She also appeared with enormous success in the title role of Osborne’s adaption (1872) of the famous play Hedda Gabbler by Henrik Ibsen.

Bennett, Josephine Waters – (1900 – 1975)
American scholar and author
Josephine Waters attended Ohio State University and studied at Radcliffe before joining the faculty of the City University of New York. She was married to Roger E. Bennett, a Harvard English academic. A founding member and first executive director of the Renaissance Society of America, Josephine Bennett was the author of The Rediscovery of Sir John Mandeville (1954), a work concerning the supposed fabulous travels of an English knight in the fourteenth century. She wrote wideley concerning the English Renaissance, and her work, The Faerie Queene (1942) was a study of Edmund Spenser’s poetical and allegorical epic written to honour Queen Elizabeth I. Her last work, Measure for Measure as Royal Entertainment (1966), was a study of dark Shakespearean comedy. Josephine Bennett died in Washington.

Bennett, Louie – (1870 – 1956)
Irish trade unionist
Louise Bennett was born at Temple Hill in Dublin, and attended the Alexandra College in London. Louie became involved with the establishment of the Irishwoman’s Suffrage Federation (1911) and became the secretary of that organization. She was a joint founder of the Irish Women’s Reform League and worked to improve conditions and wages for ordinary working women. During WW I she campaigned as a pacifist, and was chosen to represent Ireland on the International Executive of the Women’s League for Peace and Reform. Closely associated with the Womens Workers’ Union Bennett was chosen to be the first president (1932) of the Irish Trades Unions Congress. Her attempt to enter politics as a Labour candidate failed (1944).

Bennett, Louise Simone – (1919 – 2006)
Jamaican poet
Louise Bennett was born (Sept 7, 1919) at Kingston, and was educated there. She studied journalism prior to traveling to England where she enrolled at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London (1945). She taught drama and performed in plays in Jamaica, Britain and the USA, and published collections of folk-stories, ballads and poetry including the collection of verse entitled Jamaican Labrish (1966). Louise Bennett died (July 26, 2006) aged eighty-six.

Bennett, Mary Letitia Somerville – (1913 – 2005)
British educator and scholar
Born Mary Letitia Somerville Fisher (Jan 9, 1913), she was educated at Oxford High School and at Somerville College. She was married (1955) to John Sloman Bennett, a prominent civil servant with the Colonial office. Mrs Bennett was employed by the Joint Broadcasting Committee (1940 – 1941), and the Transcription Service of the BBC during WW II (1941 – 1945), and also worked with her husband in the Colonial office after the war (1945 – 1956). Bennett was later appointed as principal of St Hilda’s College at Oxford (1965 – 1980) and served as pro-chancellor of Oxford University (1979 – 1980). For twenty-five years she was the honorary secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (1960 – 1985).

Bennett, Portia – (1898 – 1989)
Australian architectural painter
Bennett was born (Jan 28, 1898) in Sydney, New South Wales. She studied under Dattilo Rubbo at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales (1913 – 1914) and then under Julian Ashton (1915 – 1919). She trained as a teacher andtaught art at the blackfriars Teachers College (1921 – 1925) whilst continuing to study during the evenings. She was married (1925) and seven years later she removed to Perth in Western Australia (1932). In Perth Miss Bennett assisted with the establishment of the Perth Society of Artists, and produced many watercolour paintings of contemporary Perth architecture. Portia Bennett died (May 1, 1989) aged ninety-one.

Bennie, Eda Anita – (c1889 – 1932)
Australian soprano
Eda Bennie was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of James Bennie. An acclaimed operatic soprano, Eda performed with the Quinlan Company of Australia from 1912 – 1913, and gave many performances in British grand opera, singing lead roles with Carl Rosa, Sir Thomas Beecham, and the British National Opera Company. From 1928 Eda resided in Melbourne, and she married her second husband, William Edward Reynolds, in Sri Lanka soon afterwards. Eda Bennie died suddenly, in Melbourne, from surgery complications.

Benois, Nadia Leontievna – (1895 – 1975) 
Russian author and painter
Nadia Benois was born near St Petersburg the daughter of Louis Benois, the Imperial architect. The distinguished painter Alexandre Benois was her uncle. A great beauty, Nadia studied art in St Petersburg, and married (1920) Jona Ustinov, the famous journalist. The noted actor and dramatist Sir Peter Ustinov (1921 – 2004) was their son. The couple travelled to England, and when Ustinov came into conflict with the Nazi regime in Germany, the couple became British subjects.
Her works was first exhibited at Tooth’s Galleries, London (1929) and the New English Art Club Gallery. Nadia designed the costumes and sets for The Sleeping Princess ballet performed at Covent Garden (1939). She was a much admired and exuberant artistic figure. Nadia Benois died (Dec 8, 1975) aged eighty.

Benoist, Marie Gulhelmine Leroulx, Comtesse – (1768 – 1826) 
French painter
Marie Guilhelmine Leroulx was born in Paris, the daughter of an official. A pupil of Marie Vigee-Lebrun, Adelaide Labille-Guiard and Jacques Louis David, she was also a close firend to the poet Demoustier whi acclaimed her beauty and talent in his best-selling work, Lettres a’ Emilie (1786 – 1790). Her work, especially pastel portraits were exhibited at the Exposition de La Jeunsesse in 1784 – 1788, but during the 1790’s she began to specialize in formal, historical and classical works.
Marie then moved on to genre scenes with children, and portraits, undertaking numerous commissions for Napoleon, for which she received a gold medal (1804). After her husband Pierre Benoist, whom she had married in 1793, received the post of conseiller d’Etat she had to withdraw from public exhibition. Her best known work was La negresse, a brilliant portrait which is thought to be a pictorial respresentation of the decree abolishing slavery (1794).

Benoite d’Origny (Benedicta) – (c330 – 362 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian martyr
Benoite was the daughter of a senator, and led a life of religious seclusion within her own home. She travelled to Picardy in France, then residing at St Quentin in Vermandois, before they seperated to spread the Christian faith. Benoite and her foster-sister Leoberia travelled to Origny-sur-Oise (Auriacum) in Laon, where they made many converts. Their cell is believed to have been at Mont d’Origny, a village near Origny.
Refusing to renounce their religion before a local magistrate, she was imprisoned, tortured, and then beheaded. The church honoured her as a saint (Oct 8), and a monastery was later erected over her tomb. A convent was later built at Origny, dedicated in the names of saints Mary and Benedicta.

Benson, Eva Grace – (1892 – 1949)
Australian sculptor
Born in Perth, Western Australia, she was the daughter of John Benson. After winning a scholarship to the Perth Technical College and the Western Australia Art Society prize for drawing, Eva travelled to England, and studied in the Regent Street Polytechnic in London. She exhibited a bust in the Royal Academy in 1915, and also held exhibitions of her work in New South Wales and Victoria.

Benson, Maggie (Margaret) – (1865 – 1916)
British literary figure
Maggie Benson was the sister to Arthur Christopher Benson. Her private correspondence was published posthumously in the Life and Letters of Maggie Benson (1917).

Benson, Stella (1892 – 1933)
British novelist and women’s suffrage campaigner
Benson was born at Much Wenlock in Shropshire, and was educated at home under the care of a governess, and also studied abroad. She operated a chop in the East End of London in order to study the conditions of the poor which resulted in the publication of her first novel entitled I Pose (1915). From 1918 she resided in the USA and wrote her second novel Living Alone (1919). She travelled to China where she was married (1921) to the official John O’Gorman Anderson.
Her novel Tobit Transplanted (1931) was awarded the Femina Vie Heureuse prize and she also received the A.C. Benson silver medal from the Royal Society of Literature. Benson died in China soon after the publication of her anthology Collected Short Stories (1933). Stella Benson was a lifelong friend to the noted psychiatrist Laura Hulton. Part of their private correspondence (1915 – 1919) was edited and published posthumously as Stella Benson: Letters to Laura Hulton (1984).

Benson, Theodora – (1906 – 1968)
British novelist and author
The Hon. (Honourable) Eleanor Theodora Benson was born (Aug 21, 1906). She published the collection entitled Best Stories of Theodora Benson (1940) and Rehearsal for Death (1954). Theodora Benson died (Dec 25, 1968) aged sixty-two, in London.

Benson, Trish – (1956 – 2004)
Australian consumer advocate
Patricia Ruth Benson was born in Armidale, New South Wales, the daughter of a stationmaster. With a clear belief in social justice she quickly qualified as a social worker, and was active in the Women’s Housing Program, the Housing Information and Referral Service, the NSW Council of Social Service, the Disability Council of NSW, and most notably, the Consumers’ Telecommunication Network (CTN) and the Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC). Also active as a co-ordinator of CTN, Trish Benson believed that government regulators, and telecommunications companies should be held accountable to the public that they served. Trish Benson died at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.

Benthall, Clementina – (fl. 1841 – 1856)
Anglo-Indian diarist
Clementina was born in Buckinghamshire, and became the wife of Edward Benthall, a member of the Indian Civil Service, whom she then accompanied to Calcutta, aboard the Southampton (1841). Benthall took up the position of district judge at Icpore, seventy miles from Calcutta, and they were entertained at Government House by Emily Eden, on behlaf of her brother, Lord Auckland. Her first child was born on the voyage out and six more were born in India.  The family returned to England after a sojourn of fifteen years (1856). Clementina’s diaries were preserved in the archives of the Centre for South Asian Studies, at the University of Cambridge.

Bentham, Ethel – (c1863 – 1931)
British physician, child care reformer and politician
Ethel Bentham was born in England but was raised at Dublin in Ireland. She then studied at the London School of Medicine for Women and travelled to Europe for further medical training in Paris and in Brussels in Belgium. After returning to England Bentham established her own practices at Newcastle-upon-Tyne and North Kensington, London. Bentham was a close friend to the child care pioneer, Margaret McMillan with whom Bentham co-published The Needs of Little Children (1912).
Bentham became the organizer of the Margaret O. MacDonald Clinic for Children under School Age in North Kensington, and served as a Justice of the Peace and was a serving member of the Children’s Court. Ethel Bentham was a devoted supporter of the female suffrage campaign, and became a member of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies and the Fabian Society (1907). Ethel Bentham joined the Independent Labour Party and served for over a decade (1912 – 1925) as a member of the Kensington Borough Council. She later stood as the Labour candidate for East Islington for seven successive years (1922 – 1929) until she proved successful. She was elected to the Executive of the Labour Party (1929) and introduced the Nationality of Married Women Bill.

Bentinck, Matilda von Waldeck-Bergheim, Countess von – (1826 – 1899)
German editor
Countess Caroline Matilda von Waldeck-Bergheim was born (June 23, 1826) at Bergheim, the daughter of Karl Christian, Count of Waldeck-Bergheim (1778 – 1849) and his wife Caroline Schilling von Canstadt. Matilda became the wife of Count Karl Anton Ferdinand von Bentinck (1792 – 1864) to whom she bore six children including Count Godard Johann von Bentinck (1857 – 1940) and Helena Agnes von Bentinck (1859 – 1942) whose second husband was Count Alfred von Keyserlingk (1851 – 1929). The countess was the editor of Lettres et Memoires de Marie Reine d’Angleterre (1880). Countess von Bentinck died (Feb 28, 1899) aged seventy-two, at Middachten in Gueldres, Holland.

Bentinck, Countess Naomi Mechtild Henrietta – (1887 – 1959)
Anglo-Dutch Red Cross activist
Countess Naomi was born (July 24, 1887) in England, daughter of Count Henry Bentinck (1846 – 1903) and his British wife, Henrietta Eliza Cathcart McKerrell. She was a twin with her brother Count Arthur Bentinck (1887 – 1962). Naomi never married and resided in England, though like her sister Ursula she was a Countess of the Holy Roman Empire by birth. She served England during WW I with the newly formed physiotherapy unit. During WW II she volunteered with the London Ambulance Auxiliary Service and was then attached to the British Red Cross in Europe (1945). Countess Naomi Bentinck died (July 17, 1959) aged seventy-one.

Bentinck, Norah Ida Emily Noel, Lady – (1881 – 1939)
Anglo-Dutch memoirist
Lady Norah Noel was born (Jan 4, 1881) the elder daughter of Sir Charles William Francis Noel (1850 – 1926), third Earl of Gainsborough and his second wife, Mary Elizabeth Dease. She was married (1915) to Count Robert Charles Aldenburg Bentinck (1875 – 1932), to whom she bore two children, her daughter Countess Brydgytte Blanche Bentinck (born 1916) becoming the wife of Jonkheer adrian Sibble van der Wyck (died 1973), attorney to Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. Norah was known as Lady Bentinck in England and Countess Bentinck in Europe. She attended the Prussian court in Berlin and left the two volumes of memoirs, The Ex-Kaiser in Exile (1921) and My Wanderings and Memories (1924). As a widow she resided in England. Lady Norah Bentinck died (May 23, 1939) aged fifty-eight.

Bentinck de Varel, Charlotte Sophia von Oldenburg, Countess – (1715 – 1800)
German adventuress and diarist
Countess Charlotte Sophia was the daughter and heiress of Antony II, Count von Aldenburg, and his wife Wilhelmina Maria, daughter of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. She married (1733) Wilhelm, Count Bentinck de Varel (1704 – 1774). Prior to her marriage Charlotte had been courted by several high-ranking suitors, including the King of Sweden. Bentinck had been created a count of the Empire to make him a more acceptable husband. She bore her husband two sons, Christian and Johann Albert, but the marriage was not happy and the couple finally seperated (1740). Their parting was followed by a long lawsuit regarding the division of their property, which had great political implications due to the boundaries of the princpalities involved. Her eldest son succeeded her as sovereign lord of Kniphausen and Varel by virtue of a family agreement (1754). The future empress Catharine the Great spent some time with Charlotte during her childhood years, and adored and admired her. A polific letter writer, her biography was later written by her descendent Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, but it was not written in an admirable or professional style, and almost completely ignored the letters written to her by Voltaire from the period (1750 – 1753), when they were intimately connected. The countess died aged eighty-four. Madame von Bentinck was survived by both her sons, the younger of whom was a captain in the British navy.

Bentivoglio, Marchesa Isabella    see    Bendidio, Isabella

Bentley, Anna Briggs – (fl. 1826)
American Quaker traveller, pioneer settler, and letter writer
Anna Bentley travelled to Ohio with her husband by wagon, and left a written account of the trip which was edited and published posthumously as, Correspondence of Anna Briggs Bentley from Columbia County, 1826 (1969).

Bentley, Catherine – (fl. c1630 – 1635) 
English Catholic translator
Catherine Bentley became a member of the Poor Clare Order at Aire, in France as Sister Magdalene Augustine. She translated Francois Hendriques’s extracts from Luke Waddington’s Life of St Clara, which was printed in Douai in 1635, and which she dedicated to Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I.

Bentley, Phyllis Eleanor – (1894 – 1977)
British novelist
Bentley was born in Halifax, the daughter of a cloth merchant. She was educated at Cheltenham Ladies’ College and at London University, where she trained as a teacher. During WW I Phyllis Bentley served as a secretary with the Ministry of Munitions. She later worked as a library researcher and cataloguer in Yorkshire. Bentley’s popular novels included Environment (1922), Inheritance (1932), A Modern Tragedy (1934) and The Rise of Henry Morcar (1946).
Phyllis Bentley was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature (1958) and was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the Roman Empire) (1970) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her contribution to popular literature. Bentley published the autobiography entitled O Dreams, O Destination (1962).

Benyon, Violet Eveline Peek, Lady – (1886 – 1964)
British Red Cross activist and civic leader
Violet Peek was born (Dec 6, 1886), the second daughter of Sir Cuthbert Edgar Peek, second Baronet (1855 – 1901), and his wife Augusta Louisa Brodrick, the daughter of William, eighth Viscount Midleton. She was married (1915) to Captain Sir Henry Arthur Benyon, first and last Baronet (1958 – 1959). The couple remained childless. Widowed (June 15, 1959), she was the Dowager Lady Benyon (1959 – 1964).
During WW I Lady Benyon served at the front with the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment, and was awarded the Silver Jubilee Medal by George V (1935). She became involved in local politics and issues and was elected as county councillor for Berkshire (1934) and later a county Alderman (1949 – 1961). She was appointed as the county president of the Berkshire Branch of the British Red Cross Society (1946 – 1961). For her work with this organization, Lady Benyon was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1947). During the last decade of her life she was chairman of the Reading and District Hospital Management Committee (1954 – 1957). Lady Benyon died (Feb 3, 1964) aged seventy-seven.

Benzoni Querini, Marina – (1757 – after 1824)
Italian salonniere
Contessa Benzoni Querini was famous for her beauty and was the toast of the city of Venice. She one danced around a liberty tree with the poet Ugo Foscolo in a fete inspired by the French Revolution, dressed in an open Athenian petticoat, and a vest which revealed one of her breasts. Lambarti made her the heroine of a popular Venetian ballad La Biondina in Gondaletta, and the diplomat Giuseppe Rangoni gave up his promising career in order to serve the contessa as her cavalier, and remained with her in this capacity for over thirty years, finally marrying her when he was nearly seventy, his love for her never fading. The contessa retained her famous gaiety all her life and established a salon in Venice which attracted the British poet Lord Byron (1818 – 1819). She herself referred to him as a ‘Peer of England and its greatest poet,’ and was disconsolate at his death.

Bera, Leodile    see    Leo, Andre

Berathgit (Berthgith, Berthgyth) – (fl. c710 – c740)
Anglo-Saxon nun and letter writer
Berathgit was the daughter of Cynehild, and was cousin to Lullus, the missionary friend of St Boniface. She is sometimes mistakenly called the daughter of abbess Guntild of Strennesheim in Germany, the patron of Eystadt. Berathgit and her mother went to Germany with Boniface, who appointed them to rule over convents he had established in Thuringia. Three letters from Berathgit, written in Latin, survive. They are addressed to her brother Balthard, and are preserved amongst the collection of Boniface and Lullus. The letters deal with Berathgit’s loneliness after the death of Cynehild, and she exhorts her brother to visit her.

Berberian, Cathy – (1925 – 1983)
American vocalist and composer
Catherine Berberian was born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, of Armenian background. She studied at Columbia University and New York University, and was married (1950) to the composer Lucio Berio who composed many works for her including Circles (1960), Sequenza III (1963) and Recital I (1971). Stravinsky also composed works for her, and Berberian composed Stripsody (1966) for vocalist and Moriscaty (1971) for the piano.

Bercovitch, Hanna Malmquist – (1924 – 1997)
American editor
Hanna Bercovitch was the founding editor of the non-profit publishing house, the Library of America, which produced hardcover editions of the works of famous American authors, and which she joined in 1980, becoming the foundations’ first staff editor, and was later editor in chief until her retirement in 1997. Hanna Bercovitch oversaw the publication of the first ninety volumes in the Library of America including Native Son (1940), the controversial novel by Richard Wright, which Hanna insisted have the original deleted passages returned as they were written by the author, Dust Tracks on a Road (1942) by Zora Neale Hurston, and, The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck. She also assisted Noel Polk in restoring some of the original texts of works written by William Faulkner, such as As I Lay Dying (1930), Sanctuary (1931), and Light in August (1932). Hanna Bercovitch died of lung cancer at Madison, Wisconsin.

Berdt, Esther de    see    Reed, Esther De Berdt

Berengaria I – (1180 – 1246)
Queen regnant of Castile (1217 – 1246)
Infanta Berengaria was born at Burgos the eldest daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and his wife Eleanor Plantagenet, the daughter of Henry II, King of England (1154 – 1189) and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her younger sister Blanche of Castile was the mother of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270). Known by the pet-name of Berenguela within the family the Infanta was married firstly (1188) to Konrad II of Hohenstaufen (1172 – 1196), Duke of Swabia but this marriage remained childless and was annulled after changes in foreign dynastic policy. Berengaria was married secondly (1197) at Vallodolid to Alfonso IX (1171 – 1230), King of Leon as his second wife. This marriage produced Ferdinando III, King of Castile (1201 – 1252), the father of Eleanor of Castile, the first wife of Edward I, King of England (1272 – 1307). Her second marriage ended in divorce (1204) after the union was dissolved by the Pope Innocent III on the grounds of consanguinity. Berengaria served as regent of Castile for her young brother King Enrique I after the deaths of both their parents (1214), and with his death without issue (1217) Berengaria was acclaimed as queen regant of Castile as his chief heiress. Queen Berengaria later passed Castile to her son Ferdinando and assisted him in reclaiming his father’s kingdom of Leon. It was she who arranged her son’s marriage (1219) with the Hohenstaufen princess Beatrice of Swabia. Queen Berengaria died (Nov 8, 1246) aged sixty-six, at the Abbey of Las Huelgas, near Burgos.

Berengaria of Barcelona – (1116 – 1149)
Queen consort of Castile (1128 – 1149)
Berengaria was the daughter of Raymond Berengar II the Great, Count of Barcelona, and his second wife, Dulcia I, countess and heiress of Provence. The assertion that the Infanta Berengaria was married firstly to Bernard III, Count of Besalu is now known to be incorrect. Berengaria was married at Saldanha (1128) to Alfonso VII (1105 – 1157), King of Castile. She became famous for both her extraordinary beauty and for her brave defense of the city of Toledo against the invading Moors (1139). Queen Berengaria died (Feb, 1149) in Valencia, aged thirty-three, and left six children,

Berengaria of Castile(c1205 – 1237)
Latin empress consort of Constantinople (1224 – 1237)
Infanta Berengaria was born, probably at Burgos, the elder daughter of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Castile, and his second wife Berengaria, the daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile.
Through her mother she was the great-granddaughter of Henry II, King of England (1154 – 1189) and the famous Eleanor of Aquitaine. Berengaria was married at Burgos, Castile (1224) to Jean I de Brienne (1144 – 1237), King of Jerusalem and titular Emperor of Constantinople, as his third wife. Empress Berengaria died (April 12, 1237), aged over thirty. Her four children were,

Berengaria of Navarre – (1163 – 1230)
Queen consort of England (1191 – 1199)
Infanta Berengaria was the daughter of Sancho VI, King of Navarre, and his first wife Beatrice, the daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile. Renowned for her beauty and refined manners, Richard I the Lionheart (1157 – 1199) had first met Berengaria whilst he was count of Poitou (1189) and her marriage to him was arranged in 1191, before his departure for the Holy Land on the Third Crusade. She was escorted to Messina for the wedding by Richard’s mother, the redoubtable Eleanor of Aquitaine, the marriage taking place, after some unforseen delays, on May 12 in Limasol Cathedral, Cyprus, she being crowned queen by Nicolas, Bishop of Le Mans. From Oct, 1191 – 1192, the king and queen resided in Rome, where they were received by Pope Celestine III.

Berengaria and Richard were necessarily apart for much of the time they were in the east, and led such separate lives that they had to be formally reconciled at Poitiers (1196), on which occasion Richard assigned her revenues from the tin mines of Cornwall and Devon, with an income of two thousand pounds annually. In France she was endowed with the counties of Bigorre and Le Mans. She was present at Richard’s deathbed at Chaluz (April 6, 1199). Berengaria has the distinction of being the only medieval queen of England never to have set foot on English soil during her reign as royal consort. The couple had remained childless, a factor that was to have profound dynastic consequences after Richard’s death.
In widowhood, the queen retired to Le Mans. She sufferred much financial trouble caused by her brother-in-law, King John, who broke many promises to her concerning her dower. Finally his son Henry III paid her over four thousand pounds. She visited England for the first and only time to attend the translation of St Thomas a’Becket’s remains to Canterbury Cathedral (1220). Berengaria founded the Cistercian monastery at L’Espau, in Maine, and took the veil there as a nun. Queen Berengaria died (Dec 23, 1230) aged sixty-seven. She was portrayed on the screen by actress Paula Raymond in the film King Richard and the Crusaders (1954), with George Sanders as King Richard and Rex Harrison as Saladin.

Berengaria of Portugal – (1194 – 1221)
Queen consort of Denmark (1214 – 1221)
Infanta Berengaria was born at Coimbra, the fifth daughter of Sancho I Martino, King of Portugal (1185 – 1211) and his wife Dulcia of Barcelona, the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. She became the second wife (1214) of Valdemar II the Conqueror (1170 – 1241), King of Denmark. Dark-haired, tall and un-Scandinavian in appearance she was not popular with her Danish subjects. Queen Berengaria died (March 27, 1221) aged twenty-six, at Ringsted. Her children were,

Berengaria Plantagenet – (1276 – before 1279)
Princess of England
Berengaria was born at Kennington Palace, Surrey, the eighth daughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor of Castile, the daughter of Ferdinando III, King of Castile.
The princess died in infancy prior to 1279 and was interred within Westminster Abbey in London.

Berenike I – (c344 – 279 BC)
Ptolemiac queen
Berenike I was the granddaughter of the Greek regent Antipater. She was married firstly to the Thracian prince, Philippus, by whom she left two children, Magas I, king of Kyrene (324 – 259 BC) and Antigone, wife of Pyrrhus I, king of Epirus. With the death of Philippus (322 BC), Berenike accompanied her aunt, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater to Alexandria in Egypt, after her marriage with Ptolemy I (321 BC). Berenike became the king’s mistress, giving birth to their son, Ptolemy II, at Kos (308 BC). Eventually she displaced Eurydice as queen (287 BC), whereupon the king married her and accorded her royal rank, as attested by surviving coinage. Berenike I was treated with great honour as queen mother at the court of her son (283 – 279 BC), and, after her death, she and her late husband were proclaimed Theoi Soteres (Saviour Gods) by their son. Her daughter was Arsinoe II.

Berenike II – (273 – 221 BC)
Ptolemaic queen
Berenike II was the only child and heiress of Magas I, king of Kyrene, and his wife Apama, the daughter of Antiochus I ‘the Great, Seleucid king of Syria. She was already betrothed to Ptolemy II of Egypt (283 – 246 BC) at the time of her father’s death (259 BC). With her marriage in 247 BC, Kyrene was returned to its natural alliance with Egypt, and son valuable was this dowry, that Ptolemy gave his wife the surname of Phernopherus (dowry-bringer). She dedicated a lock of her hair at the temple of Aphrodite, for his safe return prior to a military engagement. This lock of hair was celebrated by the Alexandrian astronomer Conan as the constellation Coma Berenice (hair of Berenice), by which it is still known today. Kallimachus of Kyrene, the famous contemporary poet, wrote a poem concerning the Coma Berenice, which was translated by Catullus into Latin, three hundred years later. Widowed in 221 BC, Queen Berenike initially ruled as regent for her son Ptolemy IV (244 – 205 BC), who married his full-sister, Arsinoe IV. The queen was poisoned with her sons’s consent, by the royal councillor, Sosibus, to prevent her own ambitious plans being fulfilled, and the western city of Euesperides in Kyrenaica was renamed Berenice or Bernicis, in her honour.

Berenike III, Cleopatra – (121 – 80 BC)
Ptolemaic queen
Cleopatra Berenike III was the daughter of Ptolemy VIII, and his wife Cleopatra IV. She was married successively to Ptolemy IX and Ptolemy X, and remained childless. With her father’s death (80 BC), she assumed the government in her own hands, with the consent of the people of Alexandria, and ruled alone for some months. Ptolemy X was sent to marry her by the Roman dictator Sulla, and he was accordingly proclaimed king, but it appears that Berenike retained the real power and actually ruled as sovereign. They were then married to legitimate Ptolemy’s claim, but the morning after the wedding, he had Berenike killed. On the nineteenth day of his reign, Ptolemy X was himself lynched by the city mob, incensed at his murder of their popular queen.

Berenike IV, Cleopatra – (c79 – 55 BC)
Ptolemaic queen
Cleopatra Berenike IV was the eldest daughter of Ptolemy IX Euergetes, and his sister-wife, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. Her father travelled to Rome (59 BC) to gain the support of Pompey, and during his absence, Berenike and her mother ruled Alexandria. With her mother’s death (57 BC), and Ptolemy’s continued prescence abroad, Berenike too the throne for herself, with the collusion of the Roman governor of Syria, Aulus Gabinius. Berenike murdered her first husband, a Seleucid royal bastard, named Seleucus, after three days of marriage, and then remarried to Archelaus of Cappodocia, who was proclaimed king (56 BC). Gabinius later turned on the couple, helped reinstate her father as king, and had Berenike and Archelaus murdered.

Berenike, Julia (28 – 110 AD)
Jewish queen and Imperial mistress
Julia Berenike was the daughter of Herod Agrippa I, King of Judaea, and his wife Kypros. She was married firstly to the Alexandrian alabarch, Marcus Julius Alexander, thirdly to King Polemo II of Pontus, who was forced to convert to Judaism in order to marry her. They were later seperated. With the fall of Jersualem, she and her brother were treated wll by the emperor Vespasian, and Berenike famously became the mistress of the emperor’s elder son and future successor, Titus, ten years her junior. She resided in Rome as his mistress but he couple later seperated due to the general abhorrence of the influence of a ‘foreign queen.’ Her last years were spent with the religious teaching school at Hillel in Palestine.

Berenike of Galatia – (c110 – after 57 BC)
Greek queen consort
Berenike was the wife (c94 BC) of King Deiotarus the Great (c127 – 40 BC), who was defended in Rome by Cicero. Her parentage remains unknown though it is possible that Berenike was of the same family as her husband. The historian Plutarch named her ‘Stratonike’ in his De mulierum virtutibus, but this is an error.  Queen Berenike was living in 57 BC, a few years after Deiotarus had been granted the royal title by Pompey. Her date of death is unknown. Berenike was the mother of the king’s only son Deiotarus (c88 – 43 BC), who ruled jointly with his father, and of two daughters, the elder of whom, whose name is unknown, became the wife of Castor Tarcondarius (c100 – 43 BC), tetrarch of the Tectosages, and was put to death by her father, together with Castor, at the fortress of Gorbeous in Asia Minor after their involvement in a conspiracy against him. Berenike’s younger daughter, Adobogiana, became the wife of her cousin Brogitarus, tetrarch of the Trocmi, and left descendants.

Berenike of Judaea – (c32 BC – 20 AD)
Herodian client princess
Berenike was the daughter of Josephus and Salome, sister to Herod the Great. She was married to her cousin, Herod’s younger son Aristobulos (35 – 6 BC), who was put to death by his father, and to whom she bore five children. Berenike’s second husband Theudion, was also executed for conspiracy (5 BC), and after this, she took her children and resided in Rome near the Imperial court. The Imperial family, especially Livia and Antonia Minor, mother of the emperor Claudius, treated Berenike and her children with great friendship. Her later years were spent worrying over the financial straits of her sons, notably her eldest, Herod Agrippa II, King of Judaea (37 – 44 AD), who was returned to the throne by the Emperor Caligula.

Berenike of Kios – (c95 – 71 BC)
Greek concubine
Berenike was captured with her mother by the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus (86 BC), and taken with her, into the royal harem at Pergamum. She was later removed to the fortress of Pharnakia with the other women of the royal household. With Mithridates’s defeat, and the approach of the Roman army of Lucullus, it was decreed that the women should commit suicide, to spare them the indignity of a Roman triumph. Mother and daughter shared a cup of poison, but Berenike did not drink enough, and writhed in agony until the eunuch Bacchides, moved by compassion, strangled her himself.

Berenike Syra – (c280 – 246 BC)
Seleucid queen
Berenike Syra was the youngest child of Ptolemy II of Egypt, and his first wife, Arsinoe I. She was adopted by her stepmother, Arsinoe II. Antiochus I of Syria divorced his first wife, Laodice I, so that he could marry Berenike, and conclude an important diplomatic alliance with Egypt. Berenike was received in Antioch (252 BC) with great celebrations and was married to Antiochus II (287 – 246 BC). Their only child, a son, whose name remains unknown, was a mere infant at his father’s death (Oct, 247 BC). Berenike and Laodice now fought to promote the claims of their own sons. Laodice’s eldest son, Seleucus II was proclaimed in Asia Minor, whilst in Antioch, Berenike spread the rumour that her rival had murdered the late king. Finally, her stepson Seleucus and his supporters, captured Antioch, and Queen Berenike and her infant son were murdered, though their deaths were concealed, to prevent retaliation from the queen’s brother, Ptolemy III.

Berenson, Berry – (1948 – 2001)
American photographer and actress
Berenson was born in New York and was educated in Europe, and was sister to actress Marissa Berenson (born 1947). She appeared in films such as Remember My Name (1978), Winter Kills (1979) with John Huston, Tony Perkins, and Elizabeth Taylor, and Cat People (1982). Berry Berenson died (Sept 11, 2001) aged fifty-three, aboard one of the planes which crashed into the World Trade Center in New York.

Berenson, Mary Smith Costelloe – (1864 – 1945)
American salon hostess, art critic, letter writer and diarist
Mary Costelloe Berenson was the wife of the noted art critic Bernard Berenson (1865 – 1959). Her correspondence has been edited by Barbara Strachey and published posthumously as Mary Berenson: A Self-Portrait from her Letters and Diaries (1984).

Berenson, Senda – (1868 – 1954)
Amrican physical education instructor
Benson was born in Lithuania, and immigrated to the USA as a child. She became a physical education teacher at Smith College where she introduced the game of basketball to the students. She was the chairman for over a decade of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education Committee on Basketball for Girls and published the firt rule manual on the game for women entitled Line Basket Ball for Women (1901). Senda Berenson was posthumously inducted into the International Women’s Sports Hall of Fame.

Beresford, Mina Gardner, Lady – (1839 – 1922)
British Victorian peeress and courtier
Ellen Gardner was the elder daughter of Richard Gardner, the Member of Parliament for Leicester and his wife Countess Lucy Mandelsohn, the daughter of Count Augustus Mandelsohn.
When aged almost forty, she was finally married (1878) to Lord Charles William de la Poer Beresford (1846 – 1919) the friend of the Prince of Wales, the son of Queen Victoria. She became Baroness Beresford when Lord Charles was created first Baron Beresford of Metemmeh and Curraghmore by Queen Victoria in reward for his military service.
Lady Mina was nicknamed ‘The Painted Lady’ in court circles becaue of her efforts to defy age in order to attract the attentions of her younger husband, who was consistently unfaithful to her. When Lord Beresford became involved in an indiscreet liaison with Daisy Brooke (later the Countess of Warwick) (1885), Lady Brooke went so far as to inform Lady Beresford that planned to elope with Lord Charles. Soon afterwards Lord Beresford broke off this relationship. She later obtained a letter written by Lady Brooke to her husband (1889) in which Daisy reproached Charles and accused him of ‘infidelity’ in returning to Mina. Lady Beresford placed the letter with the solicitor Sir George Lewis, instructing him to threaten Lady Brookw with prosecution for libel if she caused any further disturbance. Mina bluntly refused to return the letter and Lady Brooke asked the Prince of Wales to intercede on her behalf. Instructed by her husband Lady Mina instead gave the letter to her brother-in-law the Marquess of Waterford for safe-keeping. The Prince of Wales and his set then excluded Lady Beresford from their social circle which forced her to complain to Lord Salisbury that the prince had taken up ‘the cause of an ‘abandoned woman’ against that of a perfectly blameless wife.’ Eventually Lord Salisbury was able negotiate a peace and Lady Brooke was temporarily banished from court. The prince wrote a letter of apology to Lady Mina and she returned the letter, but the feud continued for several years until finally being resolved (1897). She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Beresford (1919 – 1922) and died (May 26, 1922) aged eighty-three. Her two daughters were,

Beresford-Ash, Betty Helena Joanna Rous, Lady – (1901 – 1969)
Anglo-Australian Girl Guide leader
Lady Betty Rous was born (April 21, 1901) the third daughter of George Edward John Mowbray Rous (1862 – 1947), the third Earl of Stradbroke, and his wife Helena Alice Violet Fraser, the daughter of Lieutenant-General James Keith Fraser. She was sister to John Anthony Alexander Rous, the fourth Earl of Stradbroke and was married (1930) to Major Douglas Beresford-Ash (born 1887) of Ashbrook, in Drumahoe County in Ireland. Their marriage produced one son. Lady Beresford-Ash was the founder of the Girl Guide movement in the state of Victoria in Australia. Lady Betty died (Nov 4, 1969) aged sixty-eight, at Ashbrook.

Beretrude – (c550 – 589)
Merovingian noblewoman
Beretrude (Beretrudis) was the daughter of Betton, a nobleman and his wife Austregilde (Agia). She was married to Launebod the dux of Toulouse, to whom she bore a daughter. Her niece Berthetrude, the daughter of her brother Count Richomir, became the second wife of Clotaire II, King of Neustria (584 – 629). Duchess Beretrude assisted her husband in building the Church of St Saturninus in Toulouse, which fact was attested by the poet Venantius Fortunatus in his Carmina. Gregory of Tours in his Historia Francorum recorded that Beretrude founded several other religious houses for which she left bequests in her will.

Berg, Gertrude Edelstein – (1899 – 1966)
American actress and radio and television screenwriter
Gertrude Edelstein was born (Oct 3, 1899) in New York, where she attended secondary school prior to her marriage (1918) to a student, Lewis Berg, to whom she bore two children. Her husband was a mechanical engineer and company manager. Gertrude began to work for radio station WMCA in New York, and wrote the famous radio program ‘The Rise of the Goldbergs’ (1929 – 1934), which was based in part upon the Jewish immigrant experiences from within her own family. Berg later wrote screenplays in Hollywood, and her popular ‘Goldberg’ program was carried by two stations, NBC and CBS (1938 – 1945). The series was then adapted for television (1949) by CBS. She received an Emmy award (1950) from the National Academy of Television Arts and Science for her role as Molly Goldberg. Berg appeared on stage in Broadway in the plays, Me and Molly (1948) and, Dear Me, the Sky Is Falling (1963), and also appeared in the film Molly (1951). Gertrude Berg died (Sept 14, 1966) aged sixty-six, in New York.

Berg, Patty – (1918 – 2006)
American golfer
Patricia Jane Berg was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She began her career by playing in amateur competitions, and then won the Minnesota State championships three times (1935) (1936) and (1938), quickly establishing her reputation as the foremost female golfer in the USA. She was the winner of both the Western Open and All-American tournaments (1943), and was three times named as the Outstanding Female Athlete (1938) (1943) and (1955).
Berg was a co-founder of the LPGA (Ladies Professional Golf Association) (1944) of which she served as president (1949 – 1952) and then won the US Women’s Open (1946). Patty Berg was a four time winner of the World Championship (1953) (1954) (1955) and (1957). In total she won 28 amateur championships and 57 professional titles. She was inducted into the International Women’s Sports Hall of Fame (1980). Patty Berg died aged eighty-eight.

Bergen, Charlotte – (1898 – 1982)
American amateur musician and conductor
Charlotte Bergen was born (Feb 3, 1898) the daughter of a lawyer. Charlotte studied the piano and the cello, and forsook enrollment at the prestigious Vassar College in favour of a musical career. After performing chamber concerts and solo recitals in 1965, and now a woman of wealthy means, Charlotte presented her first concert, which featured Lalande’s De Profundis. In 1967 at the age of almost seventy, she presented her first free concert of Monteverdi’s Orfeo, which became a great favourite with audiences, and she also performed at Carnegie Hall. Charlotte Bergen died (July 10, 1982) aged eighty-four, in Bernardsville, New Jersey.

Berger, Erna – (1900 – 1990)
German soprano and operatic performer
Berger was born (Oct 19, 1900) at Cossebaude near Dresden. She studied singing under Melita Hirzel and made her operatic debut with the Dresden State Opera in Saxony and performed there for several years (1925 – 1930). She made her American debut with the Metropolitan Opera in New York in Der Rosenkavalier (1949) in the role of Sophie. She was best remembered for the roles of Gilda in Rigoletto and Rosina in Il Barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville). Berger retired in 1955 and then returned to Germany where she became a voice instructor in Hamburg. She published the autobiography Auf Flugeln des Gesanges (1988). Erna Berger died (June 14, 1990) aged eighty-nine, at Essen.

Bergere, Ouida – (1886 – 1974)
American film actress and screenwriter
Born Ida Berger (Dec 14, 1886), Ouida Bergere appeared as a supporting actress in several silent movies in Hollywood such as At Bay (1915) for which she was also the casting director, Arms and the Woman (1916), The Iron Heart (1917), More Trouble (1918), The Avalanche (1919), Paying the Piper (1921), Six Days (1923) and The Eternal City (1923).
Bergere also wrote the scenarios for quite a number of silent films including The Esterbrook Case (1915), Virtue Triumphant (1916), The Romantic Journey (1916), The Narrow Path (1918), The Witness for the Defense (1919), Idols of Clay (1920) and Peacock Alley (1922). She produced screen adaptations for such films as To Have and To Hold (1922), and The Cheat (1923). Bergere was married three times her last husband (1926) being the actor Basil Rathbone (1892 – 1967) whose second wife she was and whom she survived. Ouida Bergere died (Nov 29, 1974) aged eighty-seven, in New York.

Bergeret, Ida Treat – (1889 – 1978)
American educator, journalist and author
Ida Treat was worked in Paris as the US correspindent for the magazine Paris Vu, and was later a teacher at the prestigious Vassar College. Sometimes using her maiden name only, Bergeret contributed articles to various American periodicals such as Harper’s Bazarr, Nation, and the Saturday Evening Post. In order to obtain factual detail for her non-fiction novel Pearls, Arms, and Hashish, she was onece employed aboard the boat of the infamous smuggler Hendi de Montfried, in the Red Sea. Other works include Primitive Hearths in the Pyrenees and The Anchored Heart. Ida Bergeret died (March 25, 1978) at Poughkeepsie, New York.

Berggolts, Olga Feodorovna – (1910 – 1975)
Russian poet
Berggolts was born (May 3, 1910) in St Petersburg and was married to the poet Boris Kornilov who was murdered on the orders of Joseph Stalin (1937). Olga herself suffered peiords of imprisonment but survived. She achieved national fame during WW II when she organized patriotic radio broadcasts to spur on the Russian soldiers during the Nazi invasion. She survived the blockade of St Petersburg though her second husband died there of starvation. She was awarded the Stalin Prize (1951) and published the prose work entitled Dnevnye zuyozdy (Stars in Daytime) (1959) and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1960). Olga Berggolts died (Nov 13, 1975) in Moscow, aged sixty-five.

Bergman, Ingrid – (1915 – 1982) 
Swedish actress
Ingrid Bergman was born in Stockholm, the daughter of a painter, and attended Stockholm’s prestigious girls’ school, the Palmgrenska Samskolan. Bergman arrived in Hollywood in 1938 to achieve immediate recognition in Intermezzo (1939), Casablanca(1942), and, For whom the Bell Tolls (1945). She appeared in three famous Alfred Hitchcock thrillers, Spellbound (1945), Notorious (1946), and, Under Capricorn (1949). Ingrid won three Academy Awards for best actress in the films, Gaslight (1944) with Charles Boyer, and appeared in the title role of, Anastasia (1956), with Yul Brynner and Helen Hayes. She also appeared in, Murder on the Orient Express (1974), with Peter Ustinov and Bette Davis.
Bergman made the film Stromboli (1949) in Italy, but her much publicized affair with the Italian director Roberto Rossellini (1906 – 1977) caused much damage to her box office appeal, and her career was not entirely resurrected until her appearance in Anastasia in 1956. She later married Rossellini 1950 – 1958, and they were the parents of actress Isabella Rossellini, who was born in Rome in 1952.
Ingrid made many stage appearances in London, notably in a revival of Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler, and she also appeared in composer Arthur Honegger’s opera, Joan of Arc at the Stake (1954) and played Israeli prime minister Golda Meir shortly before her death in the television special A Woman Called Golda  (1981). Her last, and perhaps her most famous film was Autumn Sonata (1978) directed by fellow Swede Ingmar Bergman. She published her autobiography Ingrid Bergman, My Story (1980).

Bergman, Mary Kay – (1961 – 1999) 
American television actress and voice actress
Mary Kay Bergman was best known for her female voice roles for animated characters in films, television and in video games, most notably in the famous South Park television series (1997) and as Daphne Blake in the Scooby-Doo videos. Best known for her talent with voices she began working in radio in the mid 1980’s, but did not perform cartoon voice-overs until she became a regular on the popular televison series Captain Planet and the Planeteers (1991).
Her character voices in films include roles in movies such as, Beauty and the Beast (1991), Hercules (1997), Mulan (1998), Star Wars I: The Phantom Mencace (1999), and, Bigger, Longer and Uncut (1999). She was able to parody voices of famous actresses such as Gillian Anderson and Helen Hunt in the radio serial show, The X-Fools. Mary Kay Bergman committted suicide (Nov 11, 1999) aged thirty-eight, by shooting herself, in Los Angeles, California.

Bergner, Elisabeth – (1897 – 1986) 
Polish-German actress
Elisabeth Bergner made her debut in the role of Ophelia opposite Alexander Moissi in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1916) and worked on the German stage under the direction of Max Reinhardt at the Deutsches Theater in such plays as Peer Gynt and St Joan, and also made several silent films. Elisabeth married the Hungarian film director Paul Czinner, and in 1933 the couple came to England, where she appeared in both stage plays and in films, most notably in Catherine the Great (1934), Escape Me Never (1935) for which she won an Academy Award, and in As You Like It (1936) with Laurence Olivier. She toured Europe, America and as far as Australia, performing in works by Shakespeare, Henrik Ibsen, George Bernard Shaw, Eugene O’Neill, and Sir James Barrie.

Bergroth, Kersti – (1886 – 1975)
Finnish dramatist, novelist and critic
During the 1920’s and 1930’s Bergroth edited two avant-garde literary magazines, and wrote in Swedish as well as Finnish. Bergroth was best known for her series which depicted rural life in Karelia, but also produced several novels including Kiirashnli (1922) and Balaisuntemme (1955).

Berinna (Berenice) – (c287 – 306 AD)
Graeco-Roman virgin martyr
Bewrinna was born in Antioch, Syria, the daughter of a pagan father and a Christian mother, Domnina. She had a sister Prosdoke. Raised as Christians by their mother, during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Galerius, Berinna and her sister tried to flee to Edessa with their mother, but were overtaken by soldiers sent by their father to apprehend them, near Hierapolis. Whilst their captors were otherwise engaged, the three women anticipated their fate, and committed suicide by walking togther into the nearby river, where all were drowned. All three were revered as saints and recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Oct 14).

Berkeley, Anne Savage, Lady – (1506 – 1564)
English Tudor courtier
Anne was the daughter of Sir John Savage of Frodsham in Chester, Sheriff of Worcester and his wife Anne Bostock, and was sister to Sir John Savage of Clifton. Anne became the second wife (1533) of Thomas, sixth Baron Berkeley (1505 – 1534) and became Baroness Berkeley (1533 – 1534). Anne survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Baroness Berkeley (1534 – 1564) and never remarried. She was the mother of Henry (1534 – 1613), seventh Baron Berkeley, and two daughters of whom Elizabeth Berkeley (1534 – 1582) became the first wife of Thomas Butler (1531 – 1614), tenth Earl of Ormonde.
Lady Berkeley attended the court of Henry VIII and was a particular friend to Queen Anne Boleyn, his second wife, whom she attended as lady-in-waiting, and who is said to have arranged her marriage. She is referred to as ‘Nan Cobham.’ With the queen’s execution Lady Berkeley retired from the court to oversee the running of the family estates for her young son. A contemporary recalled of her; ‘She was overpowerful with her husband and seldom at rest with herself…. of complexion of a comely brown, of a middle stature. Betimes in winter and summer mornings, she would make her walks to visit her stables, barns, day house, poultry, swine, troughs, and the like.’ During a family disagreement her park at Yate was invaded and some damage done. She appealed to the king for justice and he appointed Lady Berkeley as a public commissioner with the right to sit in session over cases in Gloucester. In this way she was able to obtain redress legally by imposing fines upon the guilty parties.
John Barlow, the Dean of Westbury College had occasion to complain to Thomas Cromwell of the abusive treatment he received at Lady Berkeley’s hands when he attempted to interfere with her chapel. Henry VIII attempted to arrange a second marriage for her with Edward Dudley, the son of Lord John Dudley, but she could not be persuaded to abandon the freedom of widowhood. The letter in which Dudley speaks of his unsuccessful courtship, addressed to Thomas Wriothesley, was printed in Mary Anne Everett Wood’s volume Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies (1846). Lady Berkeley died (Oct, 1564) aged fifty-eight, at Callowden, Warwick. She was interred within the Church of St Michael at Coventry.

Berkeley, Catherine Stourton, Lady     see    Stourton, Catherine

Berkeley, Elizabeth – (1750 – 1828)
British writer and traveller
Lady Elizabeth Berkeley was the younger daughter of Augustus, fourth earl of Bristol, and his wife Elizabeth Drax, of Dorset. She married (1767) to William, sixth earl of Craven, to whom she bore six children. Elizabeth and Craven later seperated (1783) and Elizabeth left England, travelling through France, Italy, Austria, Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Greece. She wrote the travel memoir, Journey through Crimea to Constantinople (1789), and then visited the German court of Ansbach, where she wrote several short plays for the court theatre, La Folle du Jour and, Abdoul et Nourjad.
With the death of her husband and the margravine of Ansbach (1791), the relationship which had evolved between Elizabeth and the Margrave Karl Alexander (1736 – 1806) was cemented by marriage (Oct 30, 1791). The margrave abdicated (1792) and the couple retired to reside at Brandenburg House in England. Her written works included the plays Somnabule (1778), Modern Anecdotes of the Family of Kinvervanliotsprakengatchdern, A Tale for Christmas, A Silver Tankard (1781), The Provok’d Wife (1796), and, The Princess of Georgia (1799). Berkeley also produced plays such as, The Yorkshire Ghost (1794), Puss in Boots (1799), and Love in a Convent (1805). After her husband’s death Elizabeth wrote memoirs, and died at Naples, in Italy (Jan 13, 1828).

Berkeley, Jane Temple, Lady    see   Portland, Jane Martha Temple, Countess of

Berkeley, Mary – (fl. c1520 – 1530)
English Tudor courtier
Mary Berkeley was born a gentlewoman and became the mistress of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). As a young woman at court, perhaps in the household of the queen, Catharine of Aragon, Mary was briefly the king’s mistress, around the time that he was also involved with Mary Boleyn. When she became pregnant she was sent to Haroldston St Isells, near Haverfordwest, in Wales, perhaps the home of her family, where she was quickly married off to Thomas Perrott a gentleman from Pembrokeshire.
Her son was born there and took his stepfather’s name, becoming Sir John Perrot (1527 – 1592) knighted by his half-brother, Edward VI (1547). He was said to resemble his royal father, though he was not officially recognized by Henry. Perrot later served rather unsuccessfully as Lord Deputy of Ireland (1570 – 1573) under his half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I. Further details of the life of Mary Berkeley are unrecorded.

Berkeley, Maud – (1859 – 1949)
British diarist
Her personal journal formed the basis for Maud: The Diary of a Victorian Woman (1985), which was adapted by author Flora Fraser. The introduction was written by Elizabeth, Countess of Longford the noted biographer.

Berlaymont, Adrienne de – (c1418 – 1493)
Flemish mediaeval heiress
Adrienne de Berlaymont de Floyon was daughter of Jacques de Berlaymont de Floyon by his wife Catherine de Robersart. She became the second wife (1434) of Baldwin Le Begue de Lannoy (1388 – 1474) Seigneur de Molembais and governor of Mortagne, Lille and Douai, to whom she bore nine children. Adrienne was heiress of the lordship of Solre-Le-Chateau which she brought to her husband Baldwin who held it in her right. With Baldwin’s death Adrienne survived him for two decades as the Dowager Dame de Molembais (1474 – 1493). She died (April 29, 1493) when Solre-Le-Chateau then passed to her son Baldwin and his descendants. Her children were,

Berlepsch, Caroline Albertine von – (1820 – 1877)
German courtier
Caroline von Berlepsch was born at Hersfeld (Jan 9, 1820), the daughter of Baron Ludwig Hermann von Berlepsch, and his wife Juliane Christine von Kruse. She was married (1843) at Wilhelmsbad, near Hanau, to elector William II of Hesse-Kassel (1777 – 1847) as his third wife. They were married morganatically and Caroline was created Baroness von Bergen (1844) and then Countess von Bergen (1846) in the Austrian peerage. The marriage remained childless, and four years after the elector’s death, Caroline remarried (1851) at Frankfurt-am-Main to Count Karl Adolf von Hohenthal, by whom she left issue. Widowed in 1875, the countess died at Knauthayn, aged fifty-seven (Feb 21, 1877).

Berlepsch, Emilie von – (1755 – 1830)
German essayist and travel writer
Emilie von Oppel was born (Nov 25, 1755) at Gotha in Thuringia, the daughter of an official from the court of Saxe-Altenburg. Emilie was the wife of the Baron von Berlepsch, who was attached to the Hanoverian court from whom she was later divorced (1787). She published unsigned essays concerning marriage, misogyny and the status of women, but was best known for her work Caledonia (1802 – 1804), an account of her travels in Scotland.

Berlinda of Ortenburg – (c950 – before 994)
German mediaeval heiress
Berlinda was probably the daughter of Konrad II, Duke of Swabia and his first wife Judith of Marchthal. She was the heiress of the important fief of Ortenburg, near Staden in western Germany, which passed at her death to her brother Count Konrad of Ortenau (died 994) which indicates that she survived her husband Hugh V (c946 – 984), Count of Egisheim. She was the mother of Hugh VI (c971 – 1049), Count of Egisheim and Nordgau, and was the paternal grandmother of Pope Leo IX (1049 – 1054). Other sources place Berlinda as the probable daughter of Count Aribo IV of Loeben (died 973) and of his wife Guntperga but this lineage remains suspect.

Berlingham, Margaret    see    Stodeye, Margaret

Bernadette of Lourdes – (1844 – 1879)
French visionary and saint
Born Bernadette Soubirous, at Lourdes, she was the daughter of poor peasants. Though she survived asthma attacks and a cholera epidemic, her health always remained weak, and early in 1858 she began to have visions of the Virgin Mary, her transfigurations being witnessed by thousands. When she had her eighteenth vision (July 16, 1862) whilst tending the sheep, the Virgin requested that a chapel be built near a grotto at the River Gavre at Lourdes, whilst leading Bernadette herself to find a spring that had become forgotten there. This spring was responsible for cures almost immediately, and after evidence had been accumulated for seven successive healing miracles, the Catholic Church declared Bernadette’s visions to be authentic.

The news of her visions made Bernadette the focus of unbearable celebrity, so to protect her from the public, in 1866 she joined the Sisters of Charity at Nevers, in Burgundy. Her life there was not easy, as she sufferred from the resentment of some of the other sisters, who thought her a fraud, and health continued to decline, but she continued her religious austerities, being given extreme unction four times before she finally died. Beatified in 1925, she was canonized (1933) and honoured annually by the church (April 16).

Bernadotte, Jeanne – (1728 – 1809)
French royal matriarch
Born Jeanne de Saint-Vincent (April 1, 1728) at Boeil-Bezing, she was the daughter of Jean de Saint-Vincent (c1692 – 1762) and his wife Marie d’Abbadie de Sireix, the daughter of Doumenge Habas d’Arrens. She became the wife (1754) at Boeil-Bezing of Jean Henri Bernadotte (1711 – 1780), lawyer from Pau in Navarre whom she survived for three decades. Her son was the famous Napoleonic military commander General Jean Baptiste Bernadotte (1763 – 1844) who became king of Sweden as Karl XIV (1818 – 1844) and through whom she was ancestress to the current ruling Bernadotte dynasty of Sweden. Madame Bernadotte died (Jan 8, 1809) aged eighty, at Pau, during her son’s protracted absence from France.

Bernak, Dame Mary     see    Engaine, Mary

Bernard, Elizabeth Hall, Lady    see   Hall, Elizabeth

Bernard, Henriette Rosine     see     Bernhardt, Sarah

Bernard, Jessie Shirley Ravitch – (1903 – 1996)
American sociologist and feminist
Jessie Ravitch was the daughter of immigrant Romanian shopkeepers, and was educated in Minneapolis, and graduated from the University of Minnesota. She married her sociologist professor, Luther Bernard. Bernard accompanied her husband on his various academic postings, including to Argentina in South America.  She continued her education and began to teach (1940).

Widowed in 1950, she began writing on women’s issues and feminism, and produced several works such as The Sex Game, The Female World, The Future of Marriage, and The Future of Motherhood, which literary output did much to establish Bernard as a major scholar of the women’s movement. She died in Washington, aged ninety-three. She left memoirs, Self Portrait of a Family (1978).

Bernardino, Minervina – (1902 – 1998) 
Dominican feminist
Minervina Bernardino was born in Seibo, Dominican Republic, the granddaughter of a provincial governor. Originally employed in the civil service, by 1929 Minervina was active in the women’s rights movement, and became a leader of the Accion Feminisia Dominicana, which was at the forefront of the fight for expanded rights for women under the 1942 Constitution.
Appointed official representative of the Dominican Republic to the United Nations in 1950, she was one of only four women to sign the United Nations Charter in 1945. One of the five women delegates to the first united Nations General Assembly in 1946, from 1944 – 1949 Minervina also served as chairman of the Inter-American Commission on Women. Miss Bernardino later retreated into self-imposed exile to protest against the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. In 1995 she was awarded the Hispanic Heritage Award in Washington for her contributions to education. She remained unmarried.

Bernasconi, Gladys May – (1896 – 1938) 
Australian violinist and teacher
Gladys Bernasconi was born in Newcastle, New South Wales, the daughter of Mark Bernasconi, a funeral director of Wickham, NSW, and his wife Ellen Therese Mulqueeny. Educated by the Sisters of Mercy and at the Hamilton Conservatorium of Music, where she studied violin under Cyril Monk, Gladys received the Silver Medal of the Associated Board of Music (1910 – 1911), and organized public concerts in Newcastle to help with the war effort during WW I. From then she taught violin at Wickham until forced to retire because of ill-health (1930). Gladys Bernasconi died at Little Bay, Sydney.

Bernauer, Agnes – (1410 – 1435) 
German heroine
Agnes Bernauer was the daughter of a baker in Augsburg, Bavaria. She attracted the romantic attentions of Prince Albert (1401 – 1460), the son and heir of Ernest, Duke of Bavaria, and the couple were married secretly (1432). Ignorant of their clandestine union, Duke Ernest urged his son to marry a suitable princess, and reproached him for his illicit connection with Agnes. Albert then confessed that he and Agnes were legally married. Soon afterwards, during an absence of the prince from the city, Duke Ernest had Agnes arrested and imprisoned. Condemned to death for witchcraft, she was drowned in the Danube river, near Straubing (Oct 12, 1435).  This tragic romance lived long in the collective memory of the Bavarian people, and afforded material for several dramatic works. Adolf Bottger, Christian Friedrich Hebbel (1813 – 1863) and Otto Ludwig (1813 – 1865) have each written a play entitled Agnes Bernauer.

Berndt, Catherine Helen – (1918 – 1994)
Australian anthropologist
Berndt was born (May 8, 1918) in New Zealand and wrote Women’s Changing Ceremonies in Northern Australia (1950). Catherine Berndt died (May 12, 1994) aged seventy-six, in Perth, Western Australia.

Bernelle, Agnes – (1923 – 1999) 
German actress and vocalist
Born Agnes Bernauer in Berlin, Prussia, she was the daughter of a wealthy theatre owner. In 1936 the family moved to London and Agnes performed in the Freier-Deutscher Kulturband (Free German League of Culture). She married (1945) a British RAF fighter pilot, Desmond Leslie, from whom she was eventually divorced (1969). Under the direction of Orson Welles, Agnes became the first non-stationary nude to appear on a British stage. From 1963 she performed in Soho, London, her show being based on the songs of Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht. She produced the musical album, Father’s Lying Dead on the Ironing Board (1985), and her final screen performance was Still-Life (1998). Agnes left memoirs entitled The Fun Palace (1996).

Berner, Sara – (1912 – 1969)
American radio and film actress and voice actress
Sara Berner was born (Jan 12, 1912) in Albany, New York. She was employed with Warner Brothers, where she worked eith Mel Blanc, on cartoon voices, though she received no screen credit for her work. These included such animated works as, Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid, and The Bashful Buzzard. Her radio work included the character ‘Mabel Flapsaddle’ in, The Jack Benny Show. Her best known supporting roles in film were as the upstairs neighbour in, Rear Window (1954), and as the telephone operator in North by Northwest (1959), both directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Sara Berner died (Dec 19, 1969) aged fifty-seven, at Van Nuys in California.

Berner-Ib    see     Benerib

Berners, Juliana (Julyan) – (c1388 – c1450) 
English author
Dame Juliana was supposedly the daughter of Sir James Berners, of Essex, and became prioress of the convent of Sopwell, near St Albans.  Juliana is believed to have been the author of the prose and verse treatises on the subject of hunting, hawking, heraldry, and angling, collected in The Boke of St Albans, first published in 1486. However, much controversy surrounds her identity and authorship, the details of both of which are much disputed.

Berners, Lady Margaret – (c1415 – 1475)
English Plantagenet courtier
Margaret Bourchier was the daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Berners, of West Horsley, Surrey, and his wife Philippa Dalyngridge, the daughter of Sir Edward Dalyngridge. She was married firstly to John Ferreby (died 1441) but this marriage remained childless. She was then remarried to Sir John Bourchier (1408 – 1474) who was later created first Baron Berners by Henry VI (1455) and was summoned to attend Parliament as ‘John Bourchier de Berners, Chevalier’ in his wife’s right. Lady Berners was appointed (1466) by Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and his wife Elizabeth Woodville to be the governess to their two elder daughters, the princesses Elizabeth and Mary of York. She received a salary of one hundred pounds a year for this position. Lady Margaret survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Berners (1474 – 1475). Lady Berners died (Dec 18, 1475) aged about sixty. She left five children,

Bernhardina Sophia of Ostfriesland – (1654 – 1726)
German ruler
Countess Bernhardina Sophia was the daughter of Johann IV, Count of Ostfriesland (East Friesland) and his wife Countess Anna Katharina von Salm-Reifferscheidt. She never married and was appointed as sovereign ruler of the medieval abbey of Essen, and independent enclave within the kingdom of Prussia. The countess ruled for thirty-five years (1691 – 1726), and during her reign she limited the political power of the estates and promoted the religious Order of the Congregatio Baetae Mariae Virginis. She was succeeded in office by her niece, Countess Maria Ernestine Franziska von Ostfriesland (1690 – 1758).

Bernhardt, Sarah – (1844 – 1923) 
French actress, author and theatrical director
Born Henriette Rosine Bernard in Paris, she was the daughter of a Frenchman and a Jewish-Dutch courtesan. An extremely beautiful, talented and versatile actress, her popular accolade of ‘the divine Sarah,‘ was an honour accorded her for the rest of her career. Educated in a convent, and at the Paris Conservatoire, she made her debut at the Comedie Francaise (1862). She first gained recognition whilst performing at the Theatre de l’Odeon, in Francois Coppee’s comedy Le Passant (1869), and was recalled to the Comedie Francaise in 1872, where she played the role of the queen in Ruy Blas (1872), and then the lead role in Phedre (1874). These roles added to the great public acclaim being accorded her, as did her rendition of the role of Dona Sol in Hernani (1877).
However, the restrictions imposed by her being a member of such a troupe as that of the Comedie Francoise, proved a continual source of annoyance to her, and she left the national theatre in 1880 and formed her own company with which she travelled, appearing regularly in London and New York. From 1899 she controlled and ran her own theatre, the Theatre Sarah Bernhardt. Madame Bernhardt toured wideley, and was particularly admired and acclaimed in Britian and America, as well as in France. Her performances in such classical roles, such as Racine’s Phedre, and in the younger Alexandre Dumas’s La Dame aux camelias gained her world wide triumphs, but she was equally versatile playing comic roles in the plays of Moliere, and the author Victorien Sardou created the title roles for her in his works, Fedora (1882) : La Tosca (1887) and Cismonda (1894).
Madame Sarah was also known for performance in male impersonations, in such roles as Shakespeare’s Hamlet, and as Napoleon Bonaparte’s young son in Edmond Rostand’s L’Aiglon (1900). Though she had a leg amputated in 1915, Sarah continued to act, and roles were successfully redirected to take her condition into account. Known for her many eccentricities, such as travelling with an enormous menagerie of pets, and sleeping in her own coffin, she left a volume of reminiscences entitled Memoirs: My Double Life (1907).

Bernstein, Aline Frankau – (1881 – 1955)
American theatrical designer and author
Aline Frankau was born in New York and married to Theo Bernstein, to whom she bore two children. She became famous for her romantic liasion with the American writer Thomas Clayton Wolfe (1900 – 1938) the author of, Look Homeward, Angel (1929), who was twenty years her junior. The affair lasted six years. When it ended Aline attempted suicide, but the couple remained attached until Wolf’s early death from tuberculosis (1938). Their personal letters (1925 – 1932) were later published.
Bernstein wrote several novels such as Three Blue Suits (1935), The Journey Down (1938) and Miss Condon (1947). Bernstein wrote an autobiography, An Actor’s Daughter (1941), and was the author a volume concerning the history of the highlights of women’s attire from the previous two centuries, entitled Masterpieces of Women’s Costume of the 18th and 19th Centuries (1959), whichw as published posthumously. She suffered frequent ill-health from 1951 until her death. Aline Bernstein died (Sept 7, 1955) aged seventy-four. 

Bernstein, Blanche – (1912 – 1993)
American social reformer and economist
Blanche Bernstein was born in New York, the daughter of Henry Bernstein, a clothing manufacturer, and his wife Annie Goldstein. Graduating from Hunter College (1933) she later attended Columbia University. A senior economist during WW II with the War Production Board in Washington, Blanche’s interest in bettering the conditions of the poor led her to organize extensive research into welfare administration. She desired that the under privileged should be actively assisted with practical self-help ways of improving their own economic situations. From 1961 – 1968 she was the officer in charge of education and social affairs at the Bureau of International Organization Affairs, and was editor of the City Almanac periodical from 1969 – 1975. From 1978 – 1979 she served as commissioner and administrator of the Department of Social Services. Accused by her opponents of taking an anti stance against the welfare dependant, Blanche constantly maintained throughout her long career that the motivation for much of her work was the sincere desire to see the poor break away from welfare dependancy, which had been fostered by the liberal politics and ideals of the 1960’s and 1970’s. Blanche Bernstein was the author of The Politics of Welfare: The New York Experience (1982).

Berny, Laure de – (1777 – 1836)
French literary patron
Louise Antoinette Laure de Hinner was born (May 24, 1777) at the Chateau de Livry, the daughter of Philip Joseph Hinner (1754 – 1784) the court harpist to Queen Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI, and his wife Margeurite Quelpee de Laborde. Her stepfather was Philippe Rene Pelisson (1745 – 1822) the Chevalier de Jarjayes, author of the abortive attempt to rescue Marie Antoinette from her imprisonment. She bore her husband five children. Madame de Berny was admired by Honore de Balzac, some of whose work was inspired by her. Madame de Berny died (July 27, 1836) aged fifty-nine.

Berriault, Gina – (1925 – 1999)
American novelist and short story writer
Born Arline Shandling, in Long Beach, California, to Latvian emigrant parents, she was educated in Los Angeles. She later took over her father’s magazine editorship to support her family. She married John Berriault and settle in San Francisco. Her first works were, The Descent (1960), and, Conference of Victims (1962) (later republished as Afterwards, 1998). Her novel, The Son (1966), dealt with an incestuous relationship between a mother and her son, whilst, The Lights of Earth (1984), dealt with the relationship of woman with a married man. She produced two collections of short stories, The Mistress (1965), and, The Infinite Passion of Expectation (1982). Her story, The Stone Boy, was filmed with Robert Duvall and Glenn Close (1984) whilst her later collection of short stories, Women in Their Beds (1996), was awarded the National Book Critics Circle Award (1997). Gina Berriault died (July 15, 1999) in Greenbrae, California.

Berroa, Catalina – (1849 – 1911)
Cuban pianist, composer and teacher
Born in Trinidad, Cuba, Berroa organised and directed the chorus at the churches of San Francisco de Asis and Santissima Trinidad in Trinidada, where she also officiated as the organist. Apart from being a talented harpist, violinist and guitarist, she composed masses and devotional songs such as the famous Salve Regina and La Trinitaria. Catalina Berroa died (Nov 23, 1911) aged sixty-two, in Trinidad.

Berry, Agnes – (1764 – 1852)
British letter writer
Agnes was born in Yorkshire, and was the younger sister of Mary Berry. Agnes and Mary were raised by their grandmother from 1770, after which their education was supervised by a governess at Chiswick in London. They never married and remained lifelong companions. Together with Mary, Agnes was also a friend and correspondent of the noted antiquarian Horace Walpole from 1788, he affectionately referring to the sisters as his ‘twin wives,’ and they later resided at his estate of Strawberry Hill. Walpole wrote his Reminiscences for them and introduced the sisters into literary society, though Agnes remained more or less in her elder sister’s shadow for their entire lives.

Berry, Dame Alice Miriam – (1900 – 1978)                                               
Australian CWA activist
Alice McKenzie was born in Sydney, the daughter of Charles R. McKenzie, a mining engineer, and was married (1921) to Henry Berry (1895 – 1948). In 1927 the family moved to rural Queensland, where Alice became a founding member of the Mount Abundance branch of the Country Women’s Association in 1928. During World War II, Mrs Berry was actively involved in the Red Cross Society, and was a commissioner of the Girl Guides’ Association. Widowed in 1948, Mrs Berry was appointed State international officer of the CWA, and was president of the State CWA in 1953. That same year she was the first Australian to be elected president of the Associated Country Women and the World (ACWW) and served in that capacity until 1962. Appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) in 1954, she was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE) in 1960. Retiring in 1963, she organized the archive department of the Queensland CWA. Dame Alice Berry died in Brisbane.  

Berry, Caroline de Bourbon-Sicily, Duchesse de – (1798 – 1870)
Italian-French political activist
Princess Caroline was born (Nov 5, 1798) in Naples, was the daughter of Francis I, King of Naples and his first wife Clementina, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (1790 – 1792). She was married (1816) to Charles Ferdinand de Bourbon, Duc de Berry (1778 – 1820), the younger son of Charles X (1824 – 1830), who was later assassinated at the opera in Paris. With the death of Louis XVIII (1824) the duchess acquired prestige as the mother of the heir to the throne, Henri, Comte de Chambord (1820 – 1883) who had been born posthumously, but her hopes were destroyed by the unpopularity of the rule of Charles X.

The result was the 1830 Revolution. Charles X abdicated in favour of Caroline’s ten year old son, and appointed his cousin Louis Philippe d’Orleans as regent. However, Louis Philippe quickly took the throne for himself, and the duchesse, with her son and King Charles, fled to England. The duchesse attempted to raise a revolt in favour of her son, who was recognized by French Royalists as Henri V. In 1832 she reached the Vendee, but was captured at Nantes in Brittany, and was imprisoned for a period. For fear of a public uprising, Louis Philippe dared not put Caroline on trial, and on learning of her liasion and secret marriage with the Italin Count Ettore Lucchesi-Palli (1806 – 1869) whose child she was expecting, used this information to discredit her as an immoral woman. The damage done to her son’s cause was irrepairable, and her supporters deserted him.

The duchesse retired from public life, and died of typhoid fever, at Brunsee, in Austria (April 16, 1870) forty years later, aged seventy-one. Her daugher Louise Therese Marie de Bourbon (1819 – 1864) became the wife of Carlo III, Duke of Parma and Caroline was the great-grandmother of Zita of Bourbon-Parma, the last Holy Roman Empress, consort of Karl I.

Berry, Jeanne d’Armagnac, Duchesse de – (1348 – 1387)
French princess
Jeanne d’Armagnac was the daughter of Jean I, Comte d’Armagnac. She became the first wife (1360) of Jean I (1340 – 1416), Duc de Berry and became the Duchesse de Berry (1360 – 1387). Duchesse Jeanne died (March, 1387) aged thirty-eight,

Berry, Jeanne d’Auvergne, Duchesse de – (1378 – 1424)
French princess
Jeanne was the daughter and heiress of Jean II, Comte d’Auvergne, and his wife Eleanor de Comminges. She became the ward of Gaston Phoebus of Foix who arranged for her to become the second wife (1389) of the elderly widower Jean I (1340 – 1416), Duc de Berry. The Duchesse de Berry served at the French court as lady-in-waiting to Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of Charles VI, and saved the king’s life during a court entertainment (1392) during which the king and several others dancers accidentally became engulfed in flames. Madame de Berry, then only fourteen saved the king’s life by throwing her robe over the him and smothering the flames. Jeanne bore no children and survived her husband as the Dowager Duchesse de Berry (1416 – 1424) and remarried secondly to Seigneur George de La Tremoille.
She inherited the county of Auvergne at the death of her father (1394) but as both her marriages remained childless the Duchesse left her titles and lands to her cousin Marie de Montgascon, widow of Bertrand IV, Seigneur de La Tour, whose descendants finally passed Auvergne to the royal family (1606). However, this arrangement led to war with the de La Tremoille family. Finally Marie’s son Bertrand I, Comte d’Auvergne married Louise de La Tremoille to heal the rift between the families. Duchesse Jeanne also inherited the county of Boulogne from her father and held that county until 1422 when it was seized by Philip III of Burgundy, whose son Charles the Bold kept it until his death (1477).

Berry, Kate – (c1865 – after 1937)
Scottish-Australian political activist
Kate Macintosh was born in Glasgow, the daughter of John Macintosh, and married (1888) Benjamin Berry. Arriving in Bendigo, Victoria (1889) Kate joined the Bendigo branch of the Australian Women’s National League, of which organization she served as president for three years. In 1910 Kate served as organizing secretary for the Ballarat Federal elections and toured Tasmania for the State elections (1912). Appointed honorary secretary of the Ballarat Empire Trade defence Association (1916) she wrote a history of the Australian Women’s National League, and was still politically active in 1937.

Berry, Marie Louise Elisabeth d’Orleans, Duchesse de – (1695 – 1719)
French princess
Princess Marie Louise was born (Aug 20, 1695) at Versailles, the eldest daughter of Philip II, Duc d’Orleans, later Regent of France (1715 – 1723) for Louis XV, and his wife Francoise Marie de Bourbon, the daughter of King Louis XIV and his mistress Athenais, Marquise de Montespan. She became the wife (1710) of her cousin Charles de Bourbon 91686 – 1714), Duc de Berry, the third son of Louis le Grand Dauphin, the eldest son of Louis XIV. Their three children all died in infancy.
The duchesse de Berry led a life that was just as scandalous as that led by her father. When she caught her husband in the act with a mistress she made him promise to allow her such liberites, to which he agreed. Possessed of a haughty temperament the duchesse took full advantage of her prominent position at court, and kept a lavish and extravagant household at the Luxembourg Palace. She shocked the court by her flagrant immorality, drunkenness and indecent language. She shared her father’s wit and intelligence and was his favourite child. Such was their closeness that gossip accused them of incest. Some of these rumours were begun by the circle which surrounded the Duchesse du Maine at Sceaux, but the Duc de Saint-Simon in his Memoires rejected the accusation as baseless.
Later she strayed from her father’s affection to become enslaved with passion for one Sicaire Armand Antoine d’Aydic (1692 – 1741), the Comte de Rion. She became pregnant and withdrew to the Luxembourg Palace where her daughter was born. Soon afterwards the couple married in secret. The Duchesse begged her father to announce the marriage but he refused. She then fell ill and her health rapidly declined. The duchesse de Berry died (July 21, 1719) aged twenty-three. Her death was said to have been caused by a purgative administered by her doctor, and an autopsy revealed some malformation in her brain. No bishop would agree to officiate at her funeral, and her father Orleans was humbly grateful when the monks of St Denis at Rheims allowed her remains to be deposited in the royal vault of their abbey church.

Berry, Mary – (1763 – 1852)
British letter writer and society figure
Born in Yorkshire, Mary and her younger sister Agnes Berry were educated at Chiswick in London. They became the close friends of the noted antiquarian, Sir Horace Walpole, whom they attended at his estate of Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, near London. Both remained unmarried, travelled extensively throughout France, and kept up a voluminous correspondence throughout their long lives. Mary’s correspondents included Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales (wife of George IV), Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, Lady Elizabeth Stuart, and Madame se Stael, amongst others. She wrote the play Fashionable Friends and published Social Life of England and France, from Charles II to 1830 (1828 – 1831).

Berry, Pamela Margaret Elizabeth Smith, Lady (Lady Hartwell) – (1914 – 1982)
British society hostess
Lady Pamela Smith was the younger daughter of Sir Frederick Smith, first Earl of Birkenhead, and his wife Margaret Eleanor Furneaux, and sister to the novelist, Lady Eleanor Smith. Her marriage (1936) to Hon. (Honourable) Michael Berry (later Lord Hartwell), the son of Lord Camrose, was a celebrated society event, and Pamela quickly established herself as a popular London hostess, receiving constant parties of guests at her husband’s home at Kidmore End, near Reading. The friend of authors Nancy Mitford and Evelyn Waugh, Pamela’s correspondence with Mitford over the six year period 1948 – 1954 numbered several hundred letters. Though the friendship with both Mitford and Waugh had completely expired by 1955, the letters survived.

Bersabeh – (fl. c1743 – c1750)
Ethiopian empress consort
Bersabeh was the daughter of Amitzo, leader of the Edjaw tribe of the Toluma Gall region. Originally named Wobit, she assumed the name Bersabeh when she became the second wife (c743) of the Emperor Tyasu II (1723 – 1755). Empress Bersabeh was the mother of the emperors Iyoas I (c1744 – 1769) and Hizekeyas (c1747 – 1816).

Berswinda of Neustria – (c648 – c691)
Merovingian princess
Berswinda was the daughter of Sigebert III, King of Neustria and Austrasia and his wife Immachilde (Himnechilde), the daughter of Bodilon and the niece of St Leger of Autun and Count Guerin of Poitiers. Berswinda became the wife (c662) of Eticho (Adalric) (c640 – 690), Duke of Alsace (666 – 690), and was the direct connection between the Merovingian dynasty and their Etichonid descendants. Her marriage and family connectionw were recorded by the Chronicon Hohenburgensis which styled her Berswindam … filiam sororis sancti Leodegarii episcope … et Garini comitis Pictariensis sorerem videlict regina. Duchess Berswinda held court at Oberenheim Castle near Strasbourg in Alsace, and bore her husband four sons, Adalbert, Batticho, Hugo and Haicho, of whom the eldest succeeded his father as Duke Adalbert I of Alsace (690 – 722). Her only daughter was St Odilia (c665 – 723) the blind Abbess of Hohenburg.
According to unreliable legend when her daughter was born blind Duke Eticho was so enraged and ashamed that her order public proclamation by trumpet that the duchess’s child had been born dead, whilst she was secretly sent to the convent of Eberheim to be cared for by nuns. This same legend also states that when her son Hugo found his sister Eticho became enraged at his disobedience and killed him. Neither of these stories was true. In actuality the Duke and Duchess granted their daughter the Castle of Hohenburg to establish a convent there. Berswinda’s granddaughters Attala, Eugenia and Gerlinda all became nuns there. The couple also assisted Odilia in founding the Church of Nieder Hohenburg which was later called Niedermunster. Berswinda did not long survive her husband.

Berta of Burgundy – (fl. 626)
Merovingian duchess
Berta was the wife of the Burgundian duke Warnacharius, The chronicler Fredegarius in his Chronica recorded that after the death of Warnacharius (626) Berta was remarried to her stepson Godinus. Because of their uncanonical marriage the couple fled to the court of Dagobert I, King of Austrasia, after Clotaire III of Neustria ordered that Godinus be put to death. When godinus returned ti Burgundy after being assured of his life, perhaps in an effort to salvage her own reputation, Duchess Berta treacherously informed Clotaire that Godinus intended to kill him. Godinus was put to death at Chartres but Berta’s subsequent fate remaind unrecorded.

Bertana – (fl. c680 – c720)
French nun
Bertana was the niece of St Vulmar (Wulmar), abbot of Silviac (Samer-en-Calais), near Boulogne. Bertana, whose name is variously given as Eremberta and Irembertana, was appoined as abbess by Vulmar at Wierre-aux-Bois, near Silviac. Bertana was revered as a saint in the Acta Sanctorum (Oct 15).

Bertelson, Emily Marie    see    Windsor, Marie

Bertha of Arles (1) – (c913 – after 965)
Carolingian noblewoman
Bertha was the daughter of Boso of Arles, Marquis of Tuscany and his wife Willa of Burgundy, the daughter of Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy and his wife Adelaide of Auxerre. Bertha was married firstly (c927) to Count Boso II of Avignon and Provence (c909 – 947) as his second wife and became countess consort of Avignon. Soon after Boso’s death Bertha was remarried (c948) to Raymond I of Rouergue (c907 – 961) the Marquis of Gothia and Duke of Aquitaine, to whom she bore several children.
Bertha survived her second husband as the Dowager Duchess of Aquitaine and was living (Aug 18, 965) when she witnessed a surviving charter. She died sometime after this date. Bertha was the maternal grandmother of Grimoard de Mucidan, Bishop of Brantome, Perigord and Angouleme, and Abbot of St Cybard, the founder of the monastery of St Asterius, and of Islo de Mucidan (c979 – 1040) the Bishop of Saintes. One of her Mucidan granddaughters became the wife of Count Maurice of Anjou (980 – after 1031) and left descendants.

Bertha of Arles (2) – (c933 – 949)
Byzantine Augusta (944 – 949)
Bertha was the illegitimate daugher of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, and of the courtesan Pezzola. Recognized by her father at birth, she was brought up in the royal household. The Byzantine emperor Romanus I arranged for his namesake and grandson, Romanus II (936 – 963) to marry Bertha (944), and she was escorted to Constantinople by the Bishop of Parma. The emperor was prepared to overlook Bertha’s illegitimacy, as she was a descendant of the western emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). The reason for the marriage was purely political. Romanus was viewed as a usurper by the Byzantines, and had needed an alliance with the west to strengthen his position. He chose Bertha because her father was themost powerful western ruler at that particular time. Bertha was educated in the household of the Empress Helena, mother of Romanus II, and was crowned with her youthful husband, when she was converted to the Greek Orthodox religion, and took the Greek name of Eudocia. She was empress for five years, but the marriage was never consummated as she died aged about fifteen. Her father-in-law, Emperor Constantine VII devoted an entire chapter in his treatise, De administrando imperio, to proving Bertha’s descent from Charlemagne.

Bertha of Aumale – (c1010 – c1050)
French mediaeval heiress
Bertha was the daughter of Guenfroi, Seigneur of Aumale in Normandy. She became the wife (before 1030) of Hugh of Ponthieu (c1010 – 1052) who succeeded his father Enguerrand I as Count Hugh II of Ponthieu and Montreuil (1045 – 1052). Countess Bertha bore her husband at least three children, but it seems unlikely that she survived him. She was interred within the Abbey of St Ricquier. The county of Aumale was later granted (1069) to Bertha’s grandson Eudes III (c1045 – 1118) by his maternal uncle William I the Conqueror of England. Her children were,

Bertha of Autun (Bertana) – (c761 – after 804)
Carolingian princess
Bertha was the daughter of Theodoric I of Autun, Duke of Septimania, and his wife Alda of Austrasia, the daughter of Duke Karl Martel, and aunt of Pepin III (751 – 768). Bertha was married (c775) to her cousin Pepin the Hunchback (c762 – 811), the eldest son of Charlemagne by his first wife Himiltrude. She may have been the mother of Raedburh (Redburga), the wife of Egbert, the Anglo-Saxon king of Wessex (802 – 839) who has been called a granddaughter of Charlemagne. If this relationship is correct then Pepin and Bertha would be the ideal parents of Redburga and Bertha would be the great-grandmother of King Alfred the Great.
When her husband was imprisoned and forced to become a monk at the Abbey of Prum after his rebellion against his father failed (792) Bertha retired to the court of her brother Duke Guillaume in Toulouse, where she became a nun at the Abbey of Gellone founded by her brother. The surviving foundation charter reveals that Bertha was living at this date (Dec 14, 804). Her son Bernard (died after 792) was also forced to become a monk, and thus rendered ineligible to weat the crown.

Bertha of Bavaria – (831 – 877)
Carolingian princess
Bertha was the second daughter of Louis the German, King of Bavaria, and his wife Emma, the daughter of Welf II, Count of Altdorf, and sister to the Empress Judith, the second wife of Louis I the Pious (816 – 840). She was sister to King Carloman of Bavaria (876 – 880), aunt to the Emperor Arnulf (893 – 899), and first cousin to the Emperor Charles II the Bald.
Princess Bertha remained unmarried, and became a nun at the Abbey of Schwarzach in Zurich, under the rule of her elder sister Hildegarde. She succeeded her sister in office as abbess for two decades (856 – 877). Princess Bertha died (March 26, 877).

Bertha of Bingen – (c770 – c840)
Carolingian countess and saint
Bertha of Hannonia was the younger daughter of Count Witbert of Hannonia and his wife Ada of Neustria, the daughter of the first Carolingian king Pepin III (751 – 768) and his wife Bertrada of Laon, and sister to the emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). Her brother Guntard became a monk whilst her elder sister Hiltrude became a nun at the Abbey of Liessies which had been founded by their parents. Bertha became the wife (before 790) of Rodold (Hrodold) (c762 – c798), Count of Hornbach, who owned extensive estates along the Rhine River including Alzey, Bingen, Taunus and Fulda, and was the mother of an only child St Rupert (c795 – May 15, c815).
With the death of her husband in battle (c798) Bertha devoted herself to raising her son. She founded several hospitals for the poor and made a pilgrimage to Rome. After their return Bertha and Rupert gave away all their possessions and lived as hermits near Bingen (later called Rupertsberg) in Germany. With the death of Rupert at the early age of twenty, Bertha devoted the remainder of her long life to good works, fasting, almsgiving and prayer. She survived her son for twenty-five years and was interred in the same grave with him in the convent which they had built beside the Nahe River at Bingen. Regarded a saint her feast was observed on the same day as that of her son (May 15). Bertha is sometimes referred to incorrectly as the ‘duchess’ of Bingen.

Bertha of Blangy – (c659 – 725)
Merovingian abbess and saint
Bertha was the daughter of Count Rigobert, mayor of the Palace in Neustria, and his wife Ursana, who was the natural daughter of Earconbert, the Anglo-Saxon king of Kent (640 – 664). She was married to Siegfried, count of Pontivy, to whom she bore five daughters, two of whom died young, before his early death (c688). The ancient story of her pursuit by the amorous Count Roger, who wished to marry her after Siegfried’s death, is fictitious. Bertha then established the abbey of Blangy in Artois, becoming the first abbess of that house (c692 – 725). Two of her daughters, Deotila and Gertrude, succeeded her as abbess. Her feast was observed (July 4).

Bertha of Brittany – (1122 – before 1167)
Hereditary duchess
Bertha was the only daughter of Conan III, Duke of Brittany and his wife Matilda (Maud) Fitzroy, an illegitimate daughter of Henry I Beauclerk, King of England (1100 – 1135). Her only brother Count Hoel of Nantes was disowned by their father and accordingly Bertha became the heiress of the dukedom of Brittany. She was married (c1137) to Alan II Niger (c1100 – 1146), the Count of Ponthieu, to whom she bore three children. Alan was styled duke of Brittany in Bertha’s right, despite the fact that her father was still alive. Count Alan died (Sept 15, 1146) and the chronicle of Geoffrey de Vigeois states that his death was brought about by Bertha by evil means, but the passage is confused and full of errors and no such crime is attributed to the duchess in the Breton chronicles.
In order to protect her rights and ensure the succession, Duke Conan arranged for Bertha to remarry (1147) to a second husband Eudes III, Vicomte de Porhoet. With the death of Duke Conan soon afterwards (1148) Eudes was recognized as duke of Brittany in Bertha’s right as Eudes II. They were referred to in surviving charters as Ego Eudo dei gratia dux Britanniae et Bertha comitissa uxor mea. This marriage remained childless. When Conan IV, Bertha’s son from her first marriage came of age (1156), he deprived Eudes of the dukedom and Bertha appears to have accompanied her husband to reside in England, where she Cotessy and other lands in Norfolk as part of her dower. Sources which place her death in 1154 remain incorrect for Bertha is attested by charter evidence as living in 1159, and she is known to have been alive in 1162. The duchess died died sometime prior to 1167, when her husband Eudes then remarried to the granddaughter of Viscount Hervey of Leon. There is also the suggestion that she may have separated from her second husband and become a nun before her death. She left three children from her first marriage,

Bertha of Burgundy (1) – (967 – after 1017)
Queen consort of France (996 – 1002)
Bertha was the daughter of Conrad I the Peaceful, King of Burgundy (937 – 993) and his second wife Matilda of France, the daughter of Louis IV d’Outremer, King of France (936 – 954). She was married firstly (c983) to Eudes I (c947 – 996), Count of Blois to whom she bore several children including Count Eudes II of Blois (990 – 1037). With the death of Count Eudes Bertha quickly became the second wife (Oct, 996) at Tours, of Robert II the Pious (972 – 1031), King of France (987 – 1031) and was proclaimed queen.
There were no children of the marriage, which was not recognized by the church despite the efforts of the king. Eventually Robert was eventually forced to put Bertha aside as his consort (c1002) and make a third marriage with Constance of Provence. Despite their being children borne of this last marriage, the king appears to have continued in his adulterous liaison with Bertha until at least 1010. She later retired from court and became a nun.

Bertha of Burgundy (2)(c1075 – 1099)
Queen consort of Castile (1095 – 1099)
Bertha was the daughter of William I Tete-Hardi, Count of Burgundy and Macon, and his wife Stephanie of Metz, the daughter of Adalbert III of Metz (c1000 – 1048), Count of Longwy and Duke of Upper Lorraine. Bertha became the fourth wife (1095) of Alfonso VI the Great (1040 – 1109), King of Castile, being first recorded as queen in a surviving charter (April 28, 1095). Bertha had been chosen by Alfonso himself in a deliberate move to consolidate the Burgundian influence at his court, and this marriage was followed by that of his daughter Urraca with Raymond of Burgundy, the nephew of his third wife Constance of Burgundy.
The marriage remained childless and Queen Bertha died young, during the late summer or early fall of 1099, aged about twenty-four. She was last mentioned in documents dated (Nov 17) of that year. King Alfonso referred to her death in a donation (Jan 25, 1100) made to the abbey of Sahagun, where she was most probably buried. Sources which place her death at an earlier date (May 19, 1097) remain incorrect. Spanish sources also caused some confusion by referring to Bertha as an Italian, but this was because her father also had pretensions to the ancient throne of Lombardy.

Bertha of Clavesana – (c1180 – before 1250)
Italian mediaeval marchesa
Bertha was the daughter of Bonifacio, Marchese di Clavesanan, and was a descendant of Anselmo I, Marquis of Montferrato. She became the second wife (c1200) of Guglielmo VIII (William) (1171 – 1225), and became marchesa consort (1207 – 1225). She survived her husband as the Dowager Marchesa of Montferrato, but died sometime prior to 1250. Her children were,

Bertha of Este – (c990 – 1037)
Italian medieval princess
Bertha was the daughter of Oberto II of Este, Margrave of Tuscany, and his wife Railinda, the daughter of Riprando (Wiprando), Count of Piacenza and Como.
Bertha was married (c1010) to Odalrico Manfredo II (c980 – 1035), Margrave of Susa and Turin, whom she survived as Dowager Margravine (1035 – 1037).
Bertha of Este died (Dec 29, 1037). She left three daughters,

Bertha of Friuli – (c885 – after 952)
Carolingian princess
Princess Bertha was the daughter of Berengar I of Friuli, Holy Roman emperor, and his first wife Bertilla of Spoleto. Her father became king in 898, and emperor (905) and Bertha became a nun at the Abbey of San Giulia at Brescia (previously known as San Salvatore). This was a period of dangerous Magyar incursions into Italy, and in 915 and 916 the emperor issued a decree to Bertha, which enabled her to fortify the abbey and its environs, as well as to construct a castle with ramparts, towers, and other fortifications in Sclararia, over the Ticino river, to ensure the safety of herself, her dependants and the local community from the Magyar hordes. Later Berengar also granted Bertha the rule over the abbey of San Sisto, in Piacenza, and she was still ruling that house in 952.

Bertha of Geneva – (c987 – c1033)
German dynastic heiress
Bertha was the daughter and heiress of Matilda, the daughter of Conrad I, King of Burgundy. Her father remains unidentified by contemporary sources but was most probably Count Manasses II of Geneva. Count Manasses was succeeded by his nephew Robert (c970 – c1016) as he lacked a male heir, and marrying Bertha to his nephew (c1005) consolidated his eventual succession to Geneva as Count Robert I. Her son Count Gerald I of Geneva (c1010 – c1070) is described as the son of Bertha, niece of Rudolph III, King of Burgundy. Bertha later remarried to Count Eberhard V of Nordgau.

Bertha of Hannonia    see   Bertha of Bingen

Bertha of Holland (Berthe de Frise) – (1055 – 1093)
Queen consort of France (1072 – 1092)
Countess Bertha of Frisia was the daughter of Floris I, Count of Holland and his wife Gertrude of Saxony. She was the sister of Count Dirk V of Holland, and was the stepdaughter of Robert I the Frisian, Count of Flanders. Bertha became the first wife (1072) of Philip I (1052 – 1108), King of France (1060 – 1108) and was crowned as queen consort at the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris. The Historia Francorum recorded the marriage of filiam Florentii ducis Frisonum Bertam with Philip of France, as did the Chronologia Johannes de Beke, though this work mistakenly called the bride Matilda. The marriage was a political alliance designed to secure Philip the support of the Flemish counts and their forces, as his own position in France was rather weak. In return he recognized Bertha’s stepfather as Count of Flanders. The marriage produced several children including a son and heir the future Louis VI (1081) but remained one of political and dynastic expedience. Philip had already considered repudiating Bertha before the birth of her son.
When the king abducted Bertrada of Montfort, the wife of Fulk of Anjou from Tours (May, 1092), he demanded that his marriage with Queen Bertha and Bertrada’s with Fulk to be annulled so that he could then marry Bertrada and make her queen in Bertha’s place. The queen was in a helpless position dynastically. Her brother Dirk had died (1091) and her nephew Floris II, either could not, or would not do anything to save his aunt’s dignity. However, the queen did have the support of the clergy such as St Ivo, the influential Bishop of Chartres. Some French bishops became complaisant with the king’s wishes, and before the end of 1092 Philip and Bertrada went through a form of marriage and she was accorded the title of queen. The Norman chronicler William of Malmesbury stated that Philip divorced Bertha because she had become too fat.
Queen Bertha was ordered to leave the court of Melun and was forced to retire to the dower estate of the Chateau of Montreuil-sur-Mer. There she was kept as a prisoner to prevent her escaping to Holland. Bishop Ivo and others strongly onjected to these proceedings but in the meantime Bertha died (July 30, 1093) at Montreuil aged thirty-eight. She was interred within the royal abbey of St Denis but her tomb was destroyed during the Revolution. Philip was later excommunicated by the Council of Clermont (1095) when he refused to separate from Bertrada.

Bertha of Hungary – (c1054 – before 1132)
Arpad princess
Princess Bertha was the fifth daughter of Bela I, King of Hungary (1060 – 1063) and his wife Richesa of Poland. She was sister to kings Geza I (1074 – 1077) and St Ladislas I (1077 – 1095). She was married firstly to the German Count Hartwig of Bogen (died 1074) and secondly to the Hungarian nobleman Count Lambert de Hont-Pazmony (c1055 – 1132) whom she predeceased.

Bertha of Kent (Adilburga, Aethelbertha) – (c559 – 612)
Anglo-Saxon queen
Bertha was the daughter of the Merovingian king, Charibert I of Paris and his first wife Ingoberga, whom he later divorced. Overtures for Bertha’s ahand ahd been received from the kingdom of Kent prior to 567, but had been refused on account of the paganism of King Aethelbert I (c552 – 616). Her mother finally consented to the marriage on condition that Bertha was allowed to practice the Christian religion, and that a bishop, Luidhard of Senlis, be permitted to accompany her to England. These conditions were agreed, and Bertha travelled to England and married Aethelbert (c578), as his first wife.

Bertha and Aethelbert welcomed St Augustine to Kent (596) and the king and many of his subjects were converted in 597. Pope Gregory I sent her a letter (601) in which he praised Bertha for her efforts in introducing the Christian religion, comparing her with Helena, the mother of the emperor Constantine I. He also stated that the emperor Maurice in Constantinople had also heard of efforts in this area, and implored her to keep strengthening her husband’s new faith. At her death the queen was interred in the porch of St Martin, in the Church of St Peter and St Paul, at Canterbury, where Aethelbert was later laid beside her. Bertha and Aethelbert, standing between Augustine and Luidhard, are depicted in the windows of the nave of Canterbury Cathedral, among the early English saints. Her two surviving children were Aethelbert’s successor, King Eadbald (579 – 640) and Aethelberga, second wife of Edwin of Deira, King of Northumbria, and founder of the Abbey of Lyming in Kent.

Bertha of Lorraine (1) – (863 – 925)
Carolingian princess
Bertha was the daughter of Lothair II, King of Lorraine (855 – 869) and his second wife, and former concubine, Waldrada of Nordgau. She was married firstly to Count Theobald of Arles and Vienne and was the mother of Hugh of Arles (c880 – 947), King of Provence and of Italy. With Theobald’s death Bertha was remarried to Adalbert II, Duke of Tuscany, to whom she bore several children. As the granddaughter of the Carolingian emperor Lothair (840 – 855) Bertha encouraged and supported her husband’s pretensions to gain the crown of Italy. She arranged the marriage of their daughter Ermengarde to Adalbert, Marquis of Ivrea in pursuance of this aim, and became a figure of great political importance. With Adalbert’s death Bertha ruled as regent for their son Marquis Lambert of Tuscany. Lambert was later blinded and exiled by his half-brother King Hugh. Her granddaughter Willa of Arles became the wife of Berengar II, King of Italy whilst her great-granddaughter Bertha of Tuscany, became the wife of Ardoino, King of Italy (1002 – 1013). Duchess Bertha died (March 8, 925) and was interred with her second husband in Lucca Cathedral.

Bertha of Lorraine (2)(c1110 – after 1162)
French princess
Bertha was the daughter of Simon I, Duke of Lorraine (1116 – 1138) and his wife Adelaide of Hainault. She was married (c1130) to Hermann III der Grosse (the Fat), Margrave of Verona (1130 – 1160) whom she survived as the Dowager Margravine of Verona. Bertha was interred with her husband in the Abbey of Backnang in Sulichgau. Her elder son Hermann IV (c1134 – 1190) became Margrave of Verona and Baden (1160 – 1190) and was killed in battle in Palestine whilst engaged on Crusade. Her younger son Heinrich became Margrave of Hachberg as Heinrich I (c1150 – 1231). Both of her sons left numerous descendants.

Bertha of Maurienne – (1051 – 1087)
Holy Roman empress (1066 – 1087)
Countess Bertha was born (Sept 21, 1051) the daughter of Otto I (Odone), Count of Maurienne, and his wife Adelaide, the daughter of Otto Manfredi II, marchese of Susa. She married (1066) the emperor Henry IV (1050 – 1106) as his first wife, having been betrothed to him from early childhood (1055), and their children included the emperor Henry VI (1081 – 1125). Despite her beauty and amiable character, the marriage was not easy, the emperor was highly suspicious by nature, and suspected Bertha of being the tool of his enemies.
The couple lived apart from 1069 and the emperor declared his intention of divorcing her at an assembly of German princes at Worms. He was overruled by the papal legate Peter Damian, who had been sent to Germany to negotiate the case by Pope Alexander II, and compelled, almost by force to return Bertha to court, but eventually became devotedly attached to her.  Bertha accompanied Henry on his trip to Canossa (1076), and was later entered Rome in triumph with him (March 21, 1084) after the deposition of Pope Gregory VII, and the couple took up residence at the Lateran Palace. Bertha was then crowned as empress in the Basilica of St Peter by the anti-pope Clement III (March 31). Empress Bertha died (Dec 27, 1087) aged thirty-six, at Mainz.

Bertha of Neustria – (779 – 823)
Carolingian princess
Bertha was the daughter of the Emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814) and his third wife Hildegarde of Vinzgau, the daughter of Gerald I, Count of Vinzgau. She was carefully educated and when her brother Charles (772 – 811) asked for the hand in marriage (787) of the Anglo-Saxon princess Eadburh, daughter of Off II of Mercia, Offa greed on the condition that Bertha should be married to his own son Egfrith. Charlemagne refused this condition and the negotiations fell through.
The emperor was disinclined to send his daughters to uncertain futures in foreign courts and preferred to keep them about him. Bertha consoled herself with the favours of the king’s kinsman Angilbert (died 814). The chronicler Einhard recorded that Charlemagne became aware of their liaison but refused to consider punishment as that would only bring the couple disgrace. Instead he insisted that they be married, though this may have been some time after the birth of their two sons (c800). Angilbert received the abbacy of St Ricquier with revenues to support Bertha and her children. Sometime prior to the deaths of her father and Angilbert (Jan, 814) Bertha had separated from her husband and retired to enter a convent, where she died (Jan 23, 823) aged forty-two. Her two sons were the famous historian Nithard (795 – 844) who was killed by the Normans, and Hatrnid who became a cleric.

Bertha of Ravenstein – (c1120 – c1180)
German saint
Bertha was the wife of an unidentified Count of Ravenstein and was either the foundress or the restorer of the Abbey of Elchingen. Little is known of this lady except that she was honoured by the people of Bavaria for driving away the wild geese from the banks of the Upper Danube. She was revered as a local saint but the date of her feast has now been lost.

Bertha of Rouergue – (c1030 – 1066)
French mediaeval heiress
Bertha was the daughter of Hugh I, Count of Rouergue and his wife Foie of Cerdagne. She became the first wife (c1050) of Robert II (c1022 – 1096), Count of Auvergne but their union remained childless. With her father’s death (1054) Bertha succeeded as sovereign countess of Rouergue and Gevaudan. At her death the counties of Narbonne, Agde and Beziers were inherited by her kinsman William IV, Count of Toulouse.

Bertha of Savoy – (c1075 – before 1111)
Queen consort of Aragon (1097 – 1104)
Bertha was the younger daughter of Pierre I, Count of Savoy (Maurienne) and his wife Agnes of Poitou, the widow of Ramiro I, King of Aragon, and daughter of William VII of Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine. When the German emperor Heinrich IV captured Tuscany (1092) Bertha was sent to the court of Poitiers in Poitou for safety. There her marriage was arranged by her maternal kinsmen and she became the second wife (1097) at Huesca of Pedro I (1068 – 1104), King of Aragon (1094 – 1104). His late wife, another Agnes of Poitou had been the first cousin of Bertha’s mother. There were no surviving children. Bertha survived Pedro as Queen Dowager of Aragon. As a widow she held and governed the region of Los Mallos as her own state. This was composed of several important fiefs and included those of Ayerbe, Sangarren, Murillo and Riglos. Queen Bertha died sometime prior to 1111 when Los Mallos lost its former autonomy.

Bertha of Sulzbach – (1124 – 1160)
Byzantine Augusta (1143 – 1160)
Countess Bertha was the daughter of Berengar II, Count of Sulzbach, and his wife Adelaide, daughter of Count Otto II of Diessen. Her marriage (1143) to the emperor Manuel I Komnenus (1120 – 1180) was arranged by Manuel’s father, the Emperor Johannes II, and the German king Conrad III, husband of her sister Gertrude, in an attempt to promote an alliance against the Normans. Tall and attractive, but lacking in elegance, the empress took the Greek name of Irene after her marriage, which proved to be uncongenial, and she bore Manuel only two daughters. She adopted the role of mediator in political negotiations with Germany, which prevented the successful alliance of Louis VII of France and Roger II of Sicily against Manuel (1150). The empress had no love of luxury, or the elegant court life, and devoted herself to the practice of religious observances, her children, and the patronage of Greek literature. The grammarian Tzetzes dedicated two works to the empress Chiliades (1146) and his Allegories on the Iliad (1147).  Contemporaries commented favourably on her simplicity of manner and bearing, in contrast to the more sophisticated Byzantine ladies. Empress Bertha died of a malignant fever at the Blachernae Palace, Constantinople aged thirty-five. Her funeral oration was spoken by Basil of Achrida, Archbishop of Thessalonika.

Bertha of Susa     see    Bertha of Maurienne

Bertha of Swabia (1)(c907 – 966)
Queen consort of Burgundy and Italy
Princess Bertha was the daughter of Burchard I, Duke of Swabia, and his wife Reginlinda of Lahngau (Nellenburg), later the wife of Herman I, Duke of Swabia. She was married firstly (922) to Rudolf II, King of Burgundy (889 – July 12, 937), to whom she bore three children, including Adelaide of Burgundy, wife of the Holy Roman emperor, Otto I. A month after Rudolf’s death, Queen Bertha remarried, becoming the fourth and last wife of Hugh of Arles, king of Italy (880 – April 10, 947), who betrothed his son Lothair II to her daughter Adelaide at the same time, as a double dynastic alliance.
King Hugh believed that the wardship of his stepsons would give him access and influence in Burgundy. The emperor Otto, fearing the growth of Hugh’s power and influence, marched into Burgundy and forcibly took over the tutelage of the heir, Conrad I, Bertha’s stepson. Thus deprived of his hoped for influence, chroniclers allege that King Hugh came to hate his wife, and their union remained childless. Finally, Hugh repudiated Bertha (c945) and she returned to the Burgundian court, finally entering the abbey of Peterlingen, being granted her dower lands by her stepson. Queen Bertha died in her convent, aged in her late fifties (Jan 2, 966). She was interred in the church of St Maria at the Paterniae monastery in Burgundy, which had been founded by her daughter, the Empress Adelaide.

Bertha of Swabia (2) – (1123 – 1195)
German Imperial princess
Bertha was the daughter of Friedrich II, Duke of Swabia and his first wife Judith of Saxony, the daughter of Heinrich III, Duke of Saxony. She was sister to the Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa (1155 – 1190). She was married (1138) to Matthew I (c1117 – 1176), Duke of Lorraine and became his duchess consort for almost four decades (1138 – 1176). Bertha survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Lorraine (1176 – 1195) and ruled the dukedom as regent for her son Duke Simon II. She was capable ruler and administrator and had coins minted with her name and portrait. Bertha later refused to hand over power to Simon and enlisted the help of his younger brother Frederick (Fierry) in a rebellion against his authority. This conflict last some years before the duchess finally arranged peace between the two rival factions. Duchess Bertha died (April 4, 1195) aged seventy-one. She left seven children,

Bertha of Tours – (c805 – 877)
Carolingian countess
Bertha was the daughter of Hugh II, Count of Tours and Orleans and his wife Ava of Hamelant, whilst her sister Ermengarde became the wife (821) of the Emperor Lothair I (840 – 855). She was married (819) to Gerard II of Rousillon (c800 – 874), Count of Vienne. Their son Gerard died young whilst their only surviving daughter and heiress, Ava of Vienne, became the wife of Guerri I, Count of Morvois, and their daughter Bertha of Morvois became the wife of Herbert I (died 902), Count of Vermandois. Through Bertha of Morvois, Bertha of Tours was the great-great-grandmother of Hugh Capet, King of France (987 – 996), the first ruler of that dynasty.
Bertha actively supported her husband to maintain his position in Vienne against the claims of the Emperor Charles II, and on one occasion she herself took charge of the defence of the capital of Vienne. Eventually however the emperor bribed some of the defenders and Bertha was forced to surrender to city of Vienne to the emperor and his forces. A surviving letter from Pope John VIII (872 – 882) recalled Bertha and her husband as joint founders of a monastery. She survived her husband Gerard, who was buried at Avignon in Provence. Bertha died (Nov 6, 877) her death being recorded in the Chronico Vezeliacensis.

Bertha of Turin – (c1020 – after 1064)
Italian mediaeval princess and dynastic figure
Bertha was the third daughter of Odalrico II Manfredo, Marchese of Turin and Susa and his wife Bertha d’Este, the daughter of Oberto I d’Este, Marchese of Tuscany. Like her two elder sisters Adelaide and Irmengarde Bertha inherited vast estates from her parents prior to 1040. Bertha was married (c1035) to Teto II del Vasto, Marchese of Savona, and became the mother of Anselmo del Vasto, Marchese of Savona, whose daughter Adelaide of Savona became the ill-fated wife of Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem. Through her son Bertha was ancestress to most of the royal and aristocratic families of later and modern Europe. Her husband died in 1064 and Bertha survived him.

Bertha of Tuscany – (c961 – c1012)
Queen consort of Italy (1002 – c1012)
Princess Bertha was the daughter of Humberto, Duke of Tuscany and Spoleto, and his wife Gisela, the daughter of Bonifacio I, Duke of Spoleto and Marquis of Camerino. Bertha was the granddaughter of Hugh of Arles, king of Italy, and a descendant of the Emperor Charlemagne through Lothair II, king of Lorraine (855 – 869). Bertha became the wife of Arduino of Ivrea (c960 – 1015), King of Italy, whom she predeceased, and was the mother of three sons. Queen Bertha was an ancestress of the Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, and all the succeeding dynasties of the British royal family. Her husband was deposed after her death (1013) and retired to the Abbey of Fruttaria where he became a monk. Her children were,

Bertha of Willich – (fl. 1056 – 1057)
German nun and hagiographer
Bertha was a Benedictine nun at the Abbey of Willich (Bellich). she wrote the life of the abbey’s first abbess Adelaide (died 1015), the daughter of Count Megingoz of Gueldres entitled Vita Adelheidis Abbatissae Vilicensis.

Bertha of Zutphen – (c1035 – c1080)
Flemish mediaeval noblewoman
Bertha was the daughter of Werner, Count of Zutphen and his wife Bertha of Nordgau, the daughter of Eberhard V, Count of Nordgau, and niece of Hugh VI, Count of Egisheim. She became the wife (c1050) of Dietrich Flamens (c1030 – 1092), Count of the Velue and Teisterbant whom she predeceased. Through both of her parents Bertha was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). Through her son Gerard I Flaminius (c1054 – c1139), Count of Wassenberg and Gueldres countess Bertha was the ancestress of Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377), and of her many descendants throughout the royal and aristocratic families of Europe.

Bertheflede – (c566 – after 589)
Merovingian princess
Princess Bertheflede (Berthefledis) was the daughter of Charibert I, King of Paris (561 – 567), probably by his third wife Queen Marcoveifa. With her father’s death Bertheflede was sent to the Abbey of St Martin at Tours where she was educated and it was intended that she should become a nun. She was however unhappy with her convent life and later escaped and fled to Le Mans (589). The historian Gregory of Tours recorded in his Historia Francorum that, ‘the princess had no vocation for the religious life, and lived solely for the pleasures of eating and sleeping.’

Berthegundis – (c540 – after 590)
Merovingian noblewoman
Berthegundis was the daughter of Ingeltrude and the sister of Bertchrammus, Bishop of Bordeaux (577 – 585). They may have been descendants of King Baderic of Thuringia. She was married but apparently childless, and the identity of her husband remains unknown. From about 580 her mother Ingeltrude wanted Berthegundis to become abbess of her convent adjoining the monastery of St Matin at Tours, but her married state prevented this. Several years afterwards Berthegundis quarreled violently with her mother over her father’s estate, and after her death (590), and in defiance of her mother’s will, she obtained all the property which had belonged to her parents from King Childebert II of Austrasia, that her mother had previously granted to her convent. According to Gregory of Tours in his Historia Francorum Berthegundis stripped the convent of all its moveable wealth.

Bertheida – (fl. c960 – 989)
With the death of her mother Bertha of Munster, Bertheida claimed the nunnery of Borghorst as her own property. She went to plead her case before the Emperor Otto III at the Imperial court and the case was decided in her facour (989), despite opposition from the Archbishop of Borghorst and the nuns themselves.

Bertheida of Italy – (d. after 818)
Carolingian princess
Bertheida was the second daughter of Pepin I, King of Italy (781 – 810) and his second wife Gundrada of Austrasia, the daughter of Count Bernard of Austrasia. She was the granddaughter of the Emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814) and was half-sister of Bernard, King of Italy. With the death of her father, Bertheida and her sisters, together with their mother Queen Gundrada returned to the Carolingian court, where they were raised and educated.
Bertheida is said to have become the wife, sometime after the murder of her brother Bernard (818), of Alfonso II (c765 – 842), King of the Asturias in Castile, though there remains some doubt if this marriage really took place. If the marriage did happen it remained childless and Bertheida would appear to have predeceased her elderly husband, despite the forty year age difference.

Berthemy, Claire Felicite Greswold, Baronne – (1798 – 1875)
Flemish memoirist
The baronne’s private journal was edited and published posthumously by Rene Trochon de Loriere in the Bulletin de la Societe Historique de Hte-Picardie under the title of Quelques pages sur Filain.Les souvenirs de Claire Felicite Caroline Greswold, baronne de Berthemy (1934).

Berthetrude – (c585 – 618)
Merovingian queen consort (c600 – 618)
Berthetrude was the daughter of Count Ricomer of Ostrevant and his wife Gertrude of Scheldt, later the first Abbess of Hamage. She became the second wife (c600) of Clotaire II (569 – 629), King of Neustria. She is attested by the Gesta Dagobert I, Regis Francorum as the mother of Dagobert I (602 – 639) and with the removal of the king’s first wife Haldetrude (604) she became Clotaire’s chief wife.
Queen Berthetrude may also have been the mother of two other of Clotaire’s children, Prince Balderic (died c672) who became a monk, and Bova (died c673), who was appointed as Abbess of St Pierre at Theims, near Paris. When the nobleman Alethius planned to assassinate Clotaire and take his crown (613) Queen Berthetrude appears to have been somehow involved. The plot was uncovered by the queen was apparently forgiven by her husband for no action was taken against her, and at her death five years later he was inconsolable. Berthetrude was interred within the Abbey of St Pierre at Rouen in Normandy.

Berthgith, Berthgyth   see   Berathgit

Berthichildis (Berthechilde) – (fl. c560 – c600)
Merovingian noblewoman or princess
Berthichildis was the subject of a verse by the port Venantius Fortunatus in his Carmina. This reveals that she was a nun and possessed of great wealth. The poem occurs amidst a group of others devoted to royal personages which would seem to indicate that berthichildis was a member of the royal family. If this was trude she was perhaps one of the daughters of Charibert I, King of Paris (561 – 567), and a half-sister to Bertha of Paris, the wife of the Anglo-Saxon king Aethelbert I of Kent.

Berthoara (Berhtrada) – (c535 – 614)
Merovingian queen and nun
Berthoara was the daughter of Theudebert I, King of Austrasia (534 – 548), and his first wife Deoteria. She was married as a young girl (549) to Totila, King of the Goths. His death (552) left Queen Berthoara a childless widow and she returned to France. The poet Venenatius Fortunatus recorded in his Carmina that Berthoara was pious and devoted to charitable works. At her instigation Bishop of Sidonius of Mainz built a baptistery. She later became a nun under the Columban rule and was appointed as abbess (612) of the convent of Notre-Dame-de-Sales in Bourges, Berry. Berthoara died in office and was venerated as a saint (Dec 4). Her feast is recorded in the French Martyrology.

Berthold, Paul    see   Pappenheim, Bertha

Berti, Marina – (1924 – 2002)
British actress
Born Elena Maureen Bertolini in London, Marina worked if films and television in Italy, France and America. Her first appearance was in, La Fuggitiva (1941), in the role of Lucia, and her career continued for five decades until her retirement in 1992. She emerged to perform her last role as the princess in, Amen (2002) shortly before her own death in Rome, after a long illness. Marina is perhaps best remembered as the beautiful Spanish slave girl Eunice, who falls in love with the cynical Roman senator Petronius in, Quo Vadis? (1951). They committed suicide together at a banquet to thwart the revenge of emperor Nero. Marina Berti was married the Italian actor Claudio Gora (1913 – 1998) and was mother to the actor Andrea Giordana (born 1946).

Bertie, Catharine – (1519 – 1580)
English Tudor courtier and leading Protestant figure and exile
Catharine Willoughby was born (March 22, 1519) the only surviving child and heiress of William Willoughby, the eleventh Baron Willoughby d’Eresby and his Spanish wife Maria de Salinas, former lady-in-waiting and friend to Catharine of Aragon, the first queen of Henry VIII. With her father’s death Catharine became the twelfth Baroness Willoughby d’Eresby which title she held for over five decades (1526 – 1580). Catharine became the ward of Sir Charles Brandon (1484 – 1545), first Duke of Suffolk, brother-in-law of Henry VIII, who betrothed her to his son Henry Brandon (1516 – 1534), Earl of Lincoln. However with the death of Suffolk’s third wife Queen Mary Tudor, the king’s sister (1533) the duke married Catharine himself. Despite the thirty-seven year age difference the Duke and Duchess of Suffolk had a relatively happy marriage. With her husband the duchess officially welcomed Anne of Cleves, the king’s fourth wife after her arrival in England (1539).
Duchess Catharine bore her husband two sons, Henry and Charles Brandon who both died of the plague (1551) within a few days of each other, and for whom their tutor Thomas Wilson composed an epitaph which was printed in his Arte of Rhetorique (1553). With Brandon’s death (1545) Catharine became the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk. She was a supporter of the reformer Hugh Latimer and was a firm friend to King Henry’s last wife Catharine Parr, like herself an avowed Protestant but when the queen aroused the king’s wrath because of her religious beliefs (1546), it was gossiped that Henry was considering the duchess as a possible seventh wife. With Catharine’s death in childbed (1548) the duchess cared for her infant daughter Mary Seymour in her household but the child died young. Like Queen Catharine the duchess was also an avowed enemy of the Catholic Bishop of Winchester Thomas Gardiner, and named her pet dog ‘Gardiner’ openly displaying her hostility.
During the reign of Edward VI the Duchess of Suffolk remarried (1552) to Richard Bertie, a Protestant scholar. Their daughter Susan Bertie later became the wife of Reginald Grey, Earl of Kent and secondly of Sir John Wingfield. After Bertie was summoned before Gardiner in the reign of Mary I to explain his wife heretical beliefs, they decided to go into exile. Together with her husband and infant daughter the duchess left England for Germany, and her son Peregrine Bertie was born in Wesel. When Queen Mary sent an envoy to Weinheim in Germany to recall them to England, the duchess’s household attacked the man. After this the party retired to Samogitia in Poland where they remained until the accession of Elizabeth I and it was safe to return to England (1559). The Bertie’s then resided at Grimsthorpe Castle in Lincolnshire.
The duchess supported the religious reforms espoused by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, and Augustine Bernher twice dedicated his collection of Hugh Latimer’s sermons to her (1562) and (1578). She was later appointed as the keeper of the Lady Mary Grey, her stepgranddaughter, after her unsuitable marriage with Thomas Keys was revealed. Catharine Bertie died (Sept 19, 1580) aged sixty-one. She has been suggested as the model for the character Paulina in William Shakespeare’s play The Winter’s Tale.

Bertie, Lady Priscilla     see    Burrell, Priscilla Elizabeth Barbara Bertie, Lady

Bertilla of Jouarre – (c640 – 702)
Merovingian nun and saint
Bertilla was born into a noble family in Soissons. Her wish to become a nunwas at first opposed by her parents, but they eventually relented and Bertilla entered the Abbey of Joarre, near Meaux, under the rule of Abbess Theudichilde. She was later chosen as prioress and sent to the Abbey of St Marie at Chelles on the Marne River, which had been established by Queen Balthild, the wife of Clovis III. During her rule at Chelles the convent became famous for the education and training its nuns extended to many royal and aristocratic ladies who in turn, returned to their own countries to implement these rules in foreign religious houses. Bertilla was revered as a saint (Nov 5) and (June 27).

Bertilla of Spoleto – (c863 – 915)
Queen consort of Italy (888 – 915)
Bertilla was the daughter of Suppo II, Marquis of Spoleto in Perugia, Italy and Count of Turin in Piedmont, and the granddaughter of the Count Palatine Maurin who held lands in Parma, Piacenza and Reggio. She became the second wife (c880) of Berengar I of Friuli (843 – 924) to whom she bore several daughters including Bertha of Friuli (died after 952) who became an abbess and Gisela of Friuli (c880 – 910) the wife of Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea and mother of Berengar II of Ivrea, King of Italy.
The marriage was a political one and Bertilla’s Supponide kinsmen assisted Berengar to gain the crown of Italy (915). Queen Bertilla is said to have perished during a palace revolution prior to her husband becoming Holy Roman Emperor, which was organized by her brothers but they were defeated by Berengar and driven from the court in disgrace. Queen Bertilla is thought to have been involved in this rebellion and was condemned on a charge of adultery (Dec, 915). Many of the facts surrounding her death remain a mystery.

Bertin, Rose – (1744 – 1813)
French coutouriere and milliner
Born Marie Jeanne Rose Bertin at Amiens, she trained as a milliner and worked for Madamoiselle Pargelle in Paris, whose customers included members of the royal houses of Europe. According to tradition a fortune teller had predicted her great rise in the world (1760). Her talent was discovered by the elderly Princess de Conti (1765) which led to her entrée to aristocratic and royal patronage at court. Her early patrons included the Duchesse de Chartes (later the Duchesse d’Orleans) and the Princesse de Lamballe. This led to her being consulted by Queen Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI for whom she created some of her most expensive and elaborate gowns and head-dresses with ‘scaffoldings’ of gauze, and she was then officially appointed as dressmaker and milliner to the queen.
The net and gauze business alone was said to have led to the employment of ten thousand people, and Madamoiselle Bertin’s customers gave from all over Europe. Prior to the queen’s execution (1793) Bertin, who had decided to seek safety in England, burnt all records of debts owed her by the queen, so that information could not be used as propganda by her enemies. Rose Bertin returned to France after the Revolution and retired to live in obscurity at Epinay, where she died.

Bertken, Sister    see   Jacobs, Bertha

Bertrada of Austrasia – (c660 – after 721)
Carolingian progenatrix
Bertrada was a descendant of Dagobert I, King of Neustria and Austrasia (629 – 639) and was the wife of Martin of Austrasia, Count of Laon, a younger son of Anisegal and Bega, the daughter of Pepin I of Landen. Her husband was later murdered (680) and she never remarried. She was the mother of his son Count Carobert of Laon (c678 – c747) who was married to Princess Bertrada, the daughter of the Merovingian king Theuderic III of Neustria.
Their daughter, Bertrada of Laon, became the wife of Pepin III, the first Carolingian king and mother of the famous Emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). Bertrada was living in 721 when she made a donation by charter to establish the famous abbey of Prum in Austrasia. This charter was signed in the prescence of her son Carobert and of several other relatives. Another charter dated from the same year reveals that Countess Bertrada, again in the prescence of her son, made a donation to the abbey of St Marie aux Grenier at Oeren, founded by her kisnwoman Irmina. Her estates of Rommersheim and Rumbach were later held by her son Carobert and granddaughter Queen Bertrada respectively.

Bertrada of Gueldres – (c960 – 1012)
Carolingian noblewoman
Bertrada was the daughter of Megingoz, Count of Gueldres and Zutphen and his wife Gerberga of Metz, the daughter of Godrey of Metz, Duke of Lorraine and his wife Ermentrude of Neustria, the daughter of Charles III the Simple, King of France (893 – 922). Like her elder sister Adelaide Bertrada never married and became a Benedictine nun, being appointed as the Abbess of the convent of Notre Dame du Capitole in Cologne (Koln). With her death her sister Adelaide of Bellich succeeded as abbess of Notre Dame.

Bertrada of Laon – (c725 – 783)
Carolingian queen consort and regent
Bertrada was the daughter of Caribert, Count of Laon, and his wife Bertrada, the daughter of Theuderic III, Merovingian king of Neustria. She was the wife (743) of Pepin III (714 – 768) who was declared king (750) by papal decree. Bertrada was crowned with her husband by Pope Stephen III (752), and was the mother of his sons Charlemagne (748 – 814) and Carloman II (752 – 771). With Pepin’s death, he appointed Bertrada to rule for their two sons. During her regency, the queen mother maintained her late husband’s foreign policy, and arranged the brief Lombard alliance with King Desiderius, that was so abhorrent to the papacy. However, it proved short-lived, and the marriage of Charlemagne with the Lombard princess Gepurga (Desiderata) ended in repudiation (770) and Bertrada was forced from power. Honoured as the king’s mother, she lead a more retired life and her grandson, the displaced Pepin the Hunchback, was raised in her household at Annecy. Queen Bertrada died (July 12, 783) at the palace of Choisy. Her children were,

Bertrada of Montfort – (1070 – 1117)
Queen consort of France (1092 – 1108)
Bertrada was the daughter of Simon I, Seigneur of Montfort, and his wife Agnes d’Evreux, and sister of Amaury de Montfort, Comte d’Evreux. She married firstly (1089) Fulk V, Count of Anjou (1043 – 1109), as his fifth wife, and was the mother of Fulk V of Anjou, King of Jerusalem (1131 – 1143). Bertrada was abducted from her husband’s castle at Tours (May, 1092) by Philip I of France, while he was a guest, and with Bertrada’s full complicity. The king then demanded the annulment of his own first marriage to Bertha of Holland and of Bertrada’s with Fulk. Some bishops took a complaisant attitude, and before the end of Oct, 1092, the couple had gone through a form of marriage. Bishop Ivo of Chartres and other bishops strongly objected to the proceedings, and when Philip organized a council of Rheims to ratify his designs, after the death of Queen Bertha (1093), Hugh of Die, leaget to Pope Urban II, ordered a counter council, and had the king excommunicated. The pope reinforced this excommunication at the Council of Clermont (1095).
Philip resolved to separate from Bertrada and was absolved by the council of Nimes (1096), but the couple resumed relations togther, and eventually both were excommunicated by Pope Paschal II at the council of Poitiers (1100). Finally, with Philip promising to abstain from carnal intercouse with Bertrada, and to see her only in the prescence of reliable witnesses, he was formally reconciled to the church at the council of Beaugency (1105). From this time onwards the pope ignored the existence of Bertrada, who continued to style her queen. She was antagonistic towards her stepson, Louis VI, and she tried to persuade Philip to substitute one of her own sons as the heir, but the king opposed this plan absolutely. With Philip’s death (1108), Queen Bertrada encouraged her sons, Philip and Florus to rebel against their half-brother, and she quarrelled with Louis over her dower (1110). She was eventually forced from the court, and retired to the Abbey of St Marie, at Fontevrault, where she became a nun before her death. Queen Bertrada died (Feb 14, 1117) aged forty-six.

Bertrada of Norway – (c950 – c980)
Scandinavian princess
Bertrada Haraldsdotter was the daughter of Harald II Graypelt (died 970), King of Norway, the granddaughter of King Erik I Blood Axe (930 – 935), and the great-granddaughter of Harald I Haarfager, King of Norway. She became the first wife (c965) of Bernard I (c940 – 1011), Duke of Saxony and was his duchess consort (c965 – c980). She left three daughters,

Bertrada of Sjaelland – (c840 – c880)
Scandinavian queen
Bertrada was perhaps the daughter of Harald Klak (c800 – 844), King of Norway and Jutland. She became the wife of Harald II (c835 – 899), King of Sjaelland in Denmark and was the mother of Gorm Haraldsson the Old (c865 – c950), King of Denmark. Old genealogies give her the Anglo-Saxon name of Aelfgyva (Elgiva), and place her as the daughter of Aethelred I, King of Wessex (866 – 871). This identification remains uncorroborated and appears to have arisen from confusions in ancient sources who believed that King Gorm was descended the Anglo-Saxon royal house. In actuality it was Gorm’s wife Thyra who was most likely Anglo-Saxon, a daughter of Edward the Elder.

Bertrana, Aurora – (1899 – 1974)
Spanish novelist
Aurelia Bertrana was born at Gerona in Aragon, the daughter of the Catalan writer Prudenci Bertrana. Aurelia travelled extensively all around the world and during the Spanish Civil War she worked as a volunteer. This experience led to the writing of Tres prisoners (Three Prisoners) (1957) and Entre dos silences (Between Two Silences) (1958). her other works included the psychological study entitled La nimfa d’argila (The Clay Nymph) (1959) and Fracas (Failure) (1966) which ridiculed the hypocritical respectability of the upper classes. Aurora Bertrana died in Bercelona.

Bertrand, Francoise Elisabeth Dillon, Comtesse – (1785 – 1836)
French courtier and Bonapartist loyalist
Francoise Dillon was the only child of Comte Arthur Dillon, and his second wife Marie Laure Francoise de Girardin de Longpre, Comtesse de La Touche. Her mother was a distant cousin to the empress Josephine, and Fanny, as she was generally known, married General Comte Henri Gratien Bertrand (1773 – 1844) the famous royalist general, who became Napoleon’s grand marshal. They had five children. In 1814 she and her husband accompanied Napoleon on his first exile to Elba and formed part of his reduced household there.

It was Mme Bertrand who broke the news of Josephine’s death to the emperor, and the comtesse is said to have acted as hostess during the visit of the empress Marie Louise and of Countess Walewska not long afterwards. They were distinguished by their fidelity to the fallen emperor and they were both with him when he died at St Helena (1821). With his death the family returned to France. Her second son Napoleon (1810 – 1881) succeeded as second Comte Bertrand, but he died unmarried and the title with him, hehaving survived his three younger brothers. Her only daughter Hortense Bertrand (1809 – 1886) became the wife of Amadeus Thayer, the French director of Posts.

Bertrudis (Bertrude) – (c820 – before 836)
Carolingian noblewoman
Bertrudis was the only recorded child of Wala, Abbot of Corbie and his wife Rotlinda of Toulouse, the daughter of St Guillaume of Toulouse, Duke of Septimania. Through her father she was the great-granddaughter of Charles Martel, Duke of Austrasia, being the granddaughter of his illegitimate son Count Bernard and his second wife Gundelenda of Alsace. She died unmarried (Aug 13) sometime prior to the death of her father. The death of Bertrut filia Walonis comitis was recorded in the necrology of the Abbey of St Germain-des-Pres in Paris.

Bertswindiana – (c725 – before 777)
Carolingian nioblewoman
Bertswindiana was the wife of an unidentified Count in the Bidgau. The countess was the mother of Giselbert (c745 – c802) who held lands in the Bidgau region, and was the grandmother of Rainer of Bidgau (died after 813), a benefactor of the Abbey of Echternach. Bertswindiana’s great-grandson Giselbert II (c810 – c885) abducted and married Princess Ermengarde, the daughter of the Emperor Lothair I (840 – 855) and established the line of the counts of Hainault. Through this genealogy Bertswindiana was an ancestress of Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377).

Berwick, Anne Bulkeley, Duchess of – (1674 – 1751)
British Jacobite peeress
Anne was the daughter of Walter Bulkeley and his wife Sophia Stewart, the sister of Frances Theresa Stewart, Duchess of Richmond the favourite of King Charles II. She was raised at the Jacobite court at St Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. She was married (1700) to James Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick as his second wife. Berwick was the illegitimate son of King James II (1685 – 1688) and his mistress Arabella Churchill, the sister of John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough. The duke was killed at the battle of Philippsburg (June 12, 1734) and Anne survived him as the Dowager Duchess of Berwick (1734 – 1751). The duchess died (June 12, 1751). She left ten children,

Berwick, Mary    see    Proctor, Adelaide Ann

Besant, Annie Wood – (1847 – 1933)
Anglo-Indian politician, educator and theosophist
Annie Besant was born (Oct 1, 1847) in London. Besant seperated from her clergyman husband, becoming an active free-thinker, and being closely associated with the radical politician Charles Bradlaugh (1833 – 1891). The couple worked togther from 1874 – 1885, but were arrested and tried together for immorality, after they reprinted a pamphlet on birth control. Becoming an ardent advocate of socialism, Annie’s oratorial skills were praised by none other than George Bernard Shaw himself, who considered her the finest public speaker he had ever heard.
Her meeting with the Russian mystic Elena Blavatsky in 1889, turned Annie towards theosophy, and from 1895 she resided in India. There she became closely interested and associated with efforts to help the education for women, and having taken up the cause of Indian nationalism, she became president of the Indian National Congress (1917). Towards the end of her life Annie’s mysticism became more pronounced and she identified a young Indian named Jiddu Krishnamurti, as a new messiah.

Besma    see   Pertevniyal

Bess of Hardwick     see     Hardwick, Bess

Bessborough, Henrietta Frances Spencer, Countess of – (1761 – 1821)
British socialite and beauty
Lady Henrietta Spencer was born (June 16, 1761) at Wimbledon, near London, the younger daughter of the Earl Spencer and his wife Margaret Poyntz. She became the wife (1780) of John Frederick Ponsonby (1758 – 1844), third Earl of Bessborough, to whom she bore four children including John William Ponsonby (1781 – 1847), fourth Earl of Bessborough (1844 – 1847) and Lady Caroline Lamb, the mistress of Lord Byron. Her elder sister was Georgiana Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire and both women were famous beauties and prominent in fashionable society. She conducted a lengthy liaison with Lord Granville Leveson-Gower (1773 – 1846), later first Earl of Granville, over ten years her junior, and bore him two illegitimate children of whom Harriet Arundel Stewart (1800 – 1852) became the wife of George Osborne (1802 – 1872), second Baron Godolphin (later the eighth Duke of Leeds). Lady Bessborough was mentioned in the letters of Horace Walpole. Lady Bessborough died (Nov 14, 1821) aged sixty, near Florence, Italy. Her body was returned to England and interred in the Cavendish vault at Derby.

Bessborough, Roberte de Neuflize, Countess of – (1890 – 1979)
French-Anglo peeress and Vicereine of Canada (1931 – 1935)
Roberte de Neuflize was born in Paris, the only daughter of Baron Jean de Neuflize (1850 – 1926) and his wife Madamoiselle Dolfus-Darillier. Her beauty attracted much comment when she first appeared in society and Madamoiselle de Neuflize was admired by the novelist Marcel Proust. She became the wife (1912) of Vere Brabazon Ponsonby (1880 – 1956), Lord Duncannon, the son and heir of the British eighth Earl of Bessborough and became the Viscountess Duncannon. During WW I Lady Duncannon organized nursing and ambulance units to assist the wounded and was appointed G.C. St J. (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St John of Jerusalem).
With the death of her father-in-law (1920) her husband succeeded as the ninth Earl of Bessborough and she became the Countess of Bessborough (1920 – 1956). When her husband served as Viceroy of Canada (1931 – 1935) Lady Bessborough accompanied him there and fulfilled her duties as the vice-regal consort. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Bessborough (1956 – 1979) and resided mainly at her London residence in Onslow Square, officiating as a Justice of the Peace. Her four children included Frederick Edward Neuflize Ponsonby (born 1913) who succeeded his father as the tenth Earl of Bessborough (1956), and Lady Moyra Ponsonby (born 1918), the wife of Sir Denis John Browne, KCVO (Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order).

Bessela – (c1100 – c1153)
Swiss religious founder
Bessela was the wife of Folcold (died c1153), count of Bern, near Bois le Duc and Teisterband. Once prior to an important battle the count had made a vow to the Virgin Mary that if he was saved from harm, he would build a monastery. This favour being received, Folcold, with consent of Countess Bessela, turned their castle in Bern into a monastery of the Praemonstratensian Order (1134). Folcold lived as a lay brother in this community until his death, whilst Bessela became a nun and founded the Praemonstratensian abbey of Wert, situated between the Meuse and Waal rivers, over which she ruled as the first abbess. Bessela died around the same time as her husband, and was revered as a saint (March 24).

Bessemers, Marie – (c1520 – c1600)
Flemish painter and miniaturist
Marie Bessemers was the wife of the artist Pieter Coeck van Aelst.

Bessia – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Bessia perished at Laodikeia in Phrygia, Asia Minor, during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Diolcetian. She was venerated as a saint, her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (July 28).

Bessmertnova, Natalia Igorevna – (1941 – 2008)
Russian ballerina
Natalia Bessmertnova was born (July 19, 1941) in Moscow, the elder daughter of a physician she was trained at the Bolshoi ballet school and later joined the company (1961). She performed the lead roles in such ballets as Swan Lake and Les Sylphides before appearing in the title role of Leonid Lavrovsky’s production of Giselle (1963). Bessmertnova later became the leading ballerina with the Bolshoi under the direction of the director Yuri Grigorovich (born 1927), whom she later married, and her repertoire included classics to contemporary pieces, all of which she performed with effortless technical skill, which was combined with her extraordinary dark beauty. Other operas in which she performed included Grigorovich’s The Legend of Love (1965), Spartacus (1968) and Raymonda (1984). Natalia Bessmertnova visited Australia with the Bolshoi Company (1992) and later a teacher after her retirement from the stage. She was appointed a representative on the Supreme Soviet (1979) and received the Lenin Prize (1986). Madame Bessmertnova died (Feb 19, 2008) aged sixty-six, in Moscow.

Best, Edna – (1900 – 1974) 
British stage and film actress
Edna Best was highly acclaimed for her portrayal of Tessa in The Constant Nymph (1926). She then appeared in Broadway plays such as Shaw’s Captain Brassbound’s Conversion and S.N. Behrman’s Jane. Edna also worked in radio and films from 1923 till the 1950’s. Edna Best was remembered fondly in the role of Martha, the devoted housekeeper to Gene Tierney in The Ghost and Mrs Muir (1947) with Rex Harrison.

Best, Sophia Amelia – (c1866 – 1922)
Australian nurse
Born in South Australia, she trained as a nurse at the Adelaide Hospital (1895 – 1897) before traveling to London and Edinburgh to study obstetrics She remained unmarried. Nurse Best was instrumental in establishing maternity homes for young mothers. Sophia Best died (Feb, 1922) at Mt Lofty, near Adelaide.

Betham, Mary Matilda – (1776 – 1852)
British writer, poet and miniaturist
Mary Betham was the eldest daughter of William Betham, Rector of Stoke Lacey, who supervised her education. She remained unmarried being determined to support herself, and taught herself miniature painting. Her portraits were exhibited at the Royal Academy but she was better known for her poetry such as The Lay of Marie (1816) which was considered her finest work. A friend to Samuel Coleridge and Robert Southey, Mary Betham also published A Biographical Dictionary of the Celebrated Women of Every Age and Country (1804).

Betham-Edwards, Matilda Barbara – (1836 – 1919)
British author and traveller
Betham-Edwards was cousin to Amelia Blandford Edwards. She toured through both Africa and France and produced, Through Spain to the Sahara (1868). She was born in Suffolk and was best known for her writings and novels which depicted daily life in France, for which she was granted the rank of Officier de l’Instruction Publique de France (1891). An example of this was Literary Rambles in France (1907). Her other works included, Kitty (1870), A Japanese Bride (1881), the sentimental Exchange no Robbery (1882) and The Lord of the Harvest (1889). Matilda Betham-Edwards died (Jan 5, 1919) aged eighty-two.

Bethia     see    Bithiah

Bethlen, Kata – (1700 – 1759)
Hungarian writer
Kata Bethlen was born (Nov 25, 1700) at Bonya in Transylvania, to a Protestant family. Well educated and a noted collector of books, she wrote two religious works Bujdosasnak emlekezet kove (Memorial of exile) (1733) and Vedekezo eros pais (Strong Shield and defence) (1759). Kata Bethlen died (July 29, 1759) aged fifty-eight, at Fogaras.

Bethune, Basile de – (1714 – 1736)
French nun
Basile de Bethune was born (Dec 2, 1714), the youngest daughter of Paul Francois de Bethune, Duc de Charost and d’Ancenis, and his wife Julie Christine Regine, the daughter of Pierre George d’Antraigues. Basile became a nun and at the age of sixteen (1731) was appointed as abbess of Notre Dame at Jouy. She held this position until her death five years later (April 7, 1736) at the age of twenty-one. Her eldest sister, Christine Marie Julie de Bethune, became a nun in Paris, whilst her two remaining sisters were Marie Francoise, Duchesse de La Vauguyon, and Marie Charlotte, Comtesse de Tesse.

Bethune, Jennie Louise Blanchard – (1856 – 1913)
American architect
Jennie Blanchard was born in Waterloo in New York, and her education took place at home. She gave up the chance to study architecture at Cornell University in order to go straight into practice with architect Richard Waite whose assistant she became. She later established her own practice in Buffalo (1881) and married a former colleague Robert Blanchard, with whom she went into business. Jennie Blanchard was admitted to the Western Association of Architects (1885) and became the first woman to become a fellow of the American Institute of Architects (1888).

Bethune, Margeurite Angelique de – (1652 – 1711)
French nun
Margeurite was born the second daughter of Francois de Bethune, Duc d’Orval, and his first wife Jacqueline, the daughter of Jacques Nompar de Caumont, Duc de La Force, and his wife Charlotte de Gontaut-Biron. Her elder sister Marie Angelique became a nun at the abbey of Port Royal in Paris. Margeurite also took holy orders, and was then appointed as abbess of St Pierre at Rheims, near Paris. Margeurite de Bethune died there (Feb 28, 1711) aged fifty-seven.

Bethune, Mary McCleod – (1875 – 1955)
Black-American educator and author
Mary McCleod Bethune was born in Maysville, South Carolina, the daughter of former plantation slaves. Bethune was the founder of the Bethune-Cookman College (1904), where she worked as a lecturer and administrator. Bethune was the founder of the National Council of Negro Women and served as the first president (1935 – 1949) of this organization. Bethune was also the co-founder of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs and her work in this field was recognized by the award of the Springarn Medal (1935).

Bethune-Charost, Julie Christine Regine George d’Antraigues, Duchesse de – (c1690 – 1737)
French literary figure
Julie George d’Antriagues was the daughter of Pierre George d’Antraigues, and became the wife (1709) of Paul Francois de Bethune (1682 – 1759), Duc de Bethune-Charost, to whom she bore six children including Francois Joseph de Bethune (1719 – 1739), Duc de Ancenis, Marie Charlotte de Bethune (1713 – 1783), the wife of Rene de Froulay, Comte de Tesse, and Basile de Bethune, who died a nun. The philosopher Voltaire, who knew her, implored the duchesse to be kinder and less religiously devout, and penned to her his, Epitre a une dame un peu mondaine et trop devote (1715), in which he told her that wisdom arrives with age, and that she should make love during her youth and then seek salvation in old age. The duchesse died (Aug 24, 1737) aged in her late forties.

Betterton, Mary – (c1637 – 1712)
English Stuart actress
Born Mary Saunderson in Cripplegate in London, prior to the restoration of Charles II (1660) she had resided as aboarder in the house of Sir William Davenant. She made her first appearance on the English stage as Ianthe in Davenant’s play The Siege of Rhodes (1661), and her resounding success was recorded by Samuel Pepys. Shortly afterwards Mary became the wife (1662) of the actor, dramatist and theatre manager Thomas Betterton. They had no children. As Mrs Betterton she became one of the lirst leading ladies of the English theatre.
Possessed of both beauty and talent, and a kindly temperament, Mary Betterton was also admired for her scandal free life, and was appointed to provide deportment lessons to the princesses Mary and Anne Stuart, nieces of Charles II. Betterton played many Shakespearean roles and Colley Cibber thought her to be far superior to Elizabeth Barry in the role of Lady Macbeth. Mary Betterton retired in 1695 and with the death of her husband (1710) she was granted a pension by Queen Anne. She was buried beside her husband in Westminster Abbey.

Betti, Laura – (1934 – 2004)
Italian actress
Betti made her film debut in Federico Fellini’s classic film, La Dolce Vita (1959). She became a close friend to the famous homosexual poet and director, Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922 – 1975). After his tragic murder she produced a documentary of his career. Laura Betti died (July 31, 2004) aged seventy.

Bettis, Valerie – (1920 – 1982)
American dancer and choreographer
Bettis was born in Houston, Texas, and studied dance in New York with Hanya Holm, whose troupe she joined (1937 – 1940). Her first husband was the pianist Bernardo Segall. Bettis established herself as a choreographer by producing such works as The Desperate Heart (1943) and As I Lay Dying (1948), which was based on a novel by William Faulkner. Her production of The Golden Round was based on Shakespeare’s Macbeth, and she created Virginia Samper for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo (1947). She also directed a dance version of Tennessee Williams’s play A Streetcar Named Desire (1952) with the Slavenska-Franklin Ballet. Bettis portrayed the evil seductress in the play Inside USA, for which she received two Donaldson Awards. She later played the serpent in Margaret Webster’s revival of George Bernard Shaw’s Back to Methuselah (1958), and later worked with actress Rita Hayworth, choreographing her songs in the films Affair in Trinidad (1952) and Salome (1953). She was the first modern dancer to choreograph for a ballet company. Valerie Bettis died (Sept 26, 1982) in New York.

Bettle, Jane – (1773 – 1840)
American Quaker journal writer
Jane Bettle was a resident of the state of Pennsylvania. Her personal diary formed the basis of the posthumous memoirs Extracts from the Memorandums of Jane Bettle, With a Short Memoir Respecting Her (1843), which was published in Philadelphia.

Betzon, Therese de – (c1850 – c1912)
Haitian Creole novelist
Therese de Betzon was born in Martinique. She is sometimes known as Melle de Solms or by her married name, Therese Blanc. She is best remebered for her novel Yvette, histoire d’une jeune creole (1888) which was published in Paris, and went through several editions, being the first Haitian novel to study the daily life of Creole women.

Beutler, Margarete (Margit) – (1876 – 1949)
German poet, novelist and autobiographer
Margarete Beutler was born (Jan 13, 1876) at Gollnow in Pomerania, the daughter of the local mayor. She trained as a school teacher and her first collection of verse was published as Gedichte (1902), whilst other verses appeared in the popular Simplicissimus journal (1907). She worked on the staff of the journal Jugend at Munich in Bavaria, and she became a friend to such writers as Frank Wedekind and Christian Morgernstern, who intrduced Margarete to her future husband the writer Friedrich-Freksa.
Margaret Beutler translated the works of such famous French writers as Moliere, Clement Marot and Beaumarchais into German. Her unpublished works included two plays, a novel and the autobiographical piece entitled Kindheit. Margarete Beutler died (June 3, 1949) aged seventy-three, at Gammertingen, near Tubingen.

Bevagna, Contessa Finalteria da – (c1483 – c1566)
Italian religious patron
Finalteria di Calamo was the daughter of Domenico di Calamo da Bavagna, and was the wife and widow of the Conte Ser Bonifacio da Bevagna. She commissioned a fresco for the Franciscan nuns of Santa Anna at Foligno (1544) for the altar wall of the choir, whilst her own votive portrait by Dono Doni entitled Crucifixion with the donatrix Finalteria da Bevagna (1559 – 1561) was placed in the refectory of the Franciscan monks of Santa Maria degli Angeli at Porziuncula. Finalteria also donated an altarcloth which depicted the martyrdom of St Catherine to the Church of Santa Caterina in Foligno.

Bevan, Alfreda – (c1870 – 1933)
Australian actress
Bevan was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of Charles Bevan. She was married (c1893) to James Greenshields. She began her stage career in childhood, appearing in, Squatter’s Daughter, Sentimental Bloke and, On Our Selection. Alfreda also appeared as ‘Mum’ in the film version of, On Our Selection. Alfreda Bevan died in Sydney, New South Wales.

Bevan, Janet     see     Lee, Jennie

Bevans, Margaret Van Doren – (1917 – 1993)
American children’s writer and illustrator
Margaret Van Doren was born in New York City, the daughter of critic and historian Carl Van Doren, and she studied art in Manhattan. She was married to Tom Torre Bevans, with whom she co-founded The Cornwall Chronicle, a monthly community newspaper in West Cornwall, Connecticut. Bevans was best known for her illustrations for Pat the Bunny (1940) by Dorothy Merserve Kunhardt, which was published by Golden Books, and she co-edited Danny Kaye’s Around the World Story Book, which was published by Random House (1960). She was the author and illustrator of the childrern’s book Thomas Retires (1939). Margaret Bevans died (July 14, 1993) aged seventy-five, in Torrington, Connecticut.

Beveridge, Ada – (1875 – 1964) 
Australian civic activist
Ada Beardmore was born in Townsville, Queensland, the daughter of Joshua Frederick Beardmore. University educated, Ada married (1904) and became involved in various community causes, becoming vice-president of the New South Wales Country Women’s Association (CWA) from c1923 – 1937, and later as president (1938 – 1941). Ada was actively involved with the Bush Nursing Association and with the flying doctor service of NSW. Prominent within the YWCA, she was appointed the first director of the Women’s Land Army in NSW and was the first chairman of the Women’s National Services of NSW. In later years she was much occupied with CWA work. Ada Beveridge died in Roseville, Sydney.

Beveridge, Annette – (1842 – 1928)
Anglo-Indian social reformer
Annette Ackroyd was the daughter of William Ackroyd, of Stourbridge, Worcester and received an excellent education. Ackroyd became a teacher at the Working Women’s College, London (1871).  Her interest in India arose from her family’s Unitarian interest in colonial reform, and she travelled to Calcutta (1872) where, despite much opposition, she succeeded in establishing the Hindu Mahila Bidyalaya (Hindu Ladies’ School) (1873), in Baniapookur Lane. She was married (1876) to Henry Beveridge, of the Indian Civil Service, in a civil ceremony only. They were the first couple to be married under Act Three of 1872, declaring they professed no particular religion, which then became popularly known as the ‘Beveridge Act.’ Her husband worked as a district judge in India until his retirement (1893), and Annette followed him on his postings throughout the country. She entertained native gentlemen and their families in her home, and was enlightened in her treatment of the Indian people, in particular women, whose education and freedom from sexual discrimination, she fought for tenaciously all her years in India. The couple later retired to England with their children.

Bevington, Helen Smith – (1906 – 2001)
American poet, scholar and essayist
Helen smith was born in Afton, New York, the daughter of a clergyman and was raised in Worcester. She studied philosophy at the University of Chicago and was married (1928) to fellow academic Merle Bevington (died 1964). She and her husband were both English lecturers at Duke University and Helen’s career there spanned three decades (1943 – 1976). Her literary notebook for the years (1960 – 1969) was published as Along Came the Witch: A Journal of the 1960’s (1976). This was followed by The Journey is Everything: A Journal of the Seventies (1983) which was published by Duke University. She wrote articles which were published in The New Yorker and The American Scholar and was awarded the Roanoke-Chowan Award for Literature (1956) and the Mayflower Cup (1974). Her published work included the collections of verse entitled Dr Johnson’s Waterfall, and Other Poems (1946) and A Change of Sky, and Other Poems (1956) and the works, Beauty Lofty People (1974) and The Third and Only Way: Reflections on Staying Alive (1996). Helen Bevington died (March 16, 2001) aged ninety-four, in Chicago, Illinois.

Bevington, Louisa Sarah – (1845 – after 1895)
British poet and journalist
Born in Battersea, London, she was the daughter of Alexander Bevington, and had Quaker connections. Louisa published her first collection of poems in 1876 under the pseudonym, ‘Arbor Leigh’, but her next collecgtion, Key-Notes (1879) appeared under her own name. In 1882 she published, Poems, Lyrics and Sonnets. She was married (1882) to Ignatz Guggenberger, the German painter. In 1895 she had moralistic fables and tales published in the Liberty press of James Tochetti.

Beyhan Osmanoglu – (1645 – 1700)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Beyhan was one of the daughters of the Sultan Ibrahim Deli (the Mad) (1640 – 1648) by an unidentified concubine. She was called ‘Bibi’ by her family. Princess Beyhan was married four times, all for reasons of state. Firstly, as a mere infant, she was wed to Kucuk Hasan Pasha (died 1647). Her second husband whilst an infant, the Grand Vizier Pasha Hezarpare, was executed a few months after the wedding (1648). She was married thirdly to Uzun Ibrahim Pasha, who was executed at the sultan’s order (1683) and fourthly (1689) to Biyikli Mustafa Pasha, who alone of all her husbands, died a natural death (1699). The princess did not long survive him and died (Dec 15, 1700) aged sixty-five.

Bhadda Kapilani – (fl. c500 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Bhadda Kapilani was born into the wealthy Kosiya clan, and resided in the city of Sagala, in the kingdom of Madda. Her family arranged her marriage to Kassapa, but the two were possessed of religious inclinations, and their marriage remained unconsummated at their own desire. The couple renounced the comforts of their lives, freed their slaves, and commenced a life of homelessness, but soon parted direction. Kassapa was ordinated by Buddha, whilst Bhadda resided at Savatthi, becoming a Buddhist nun under the direction of Pajapati. One of her poems survives in the Therigatha.

Bhadda Kundaleska – (fl. c500 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Bhadda Kundaleska was born into the family of a financier at Rajagaha. She fell in love with a robber who was being led to his execution. His life was spared at her request, but his only interest was her jewels. Requesting one last embrace after he had forced her to remove her jewels, Bhadda pushed him over the cliff at their secret meeting place. Bhadda then became a Jainist nun, of the order of Svetambra, and lived a life of severe ascetism. A scholar of Jainist teachings, she wandered from the convent and gave teaching in various villages. Arriving at Savatthi she was converted by Buddha. Her surviving poem appears in the Therigatha, and tells of her former ascetism and then her conversion as a Buddhist almswoman.

Bhadra – (fl. c550 – c570)
Indian queen
Bhadra was the wife of Harichandra, King of Mandor, and she was by birth a member of the ancient Ksatriya family. She was probably the mother of Harichandra’s four sons Bhogabhata, Kakkuka, Rajjila and Dadda, who made themselves rulers of Mandor, which they caused to be fortified. She was the female ancestress of the Pratiharas Rajput royal house of Mandor, as extant inscriptions clearly state.

Bhrikuti Devi – (fl. c620 – c650)
Queen consort of Tibet
Bhrikuti was born into the dynastically important Licchavi family of Nepal, probably daughter to King Udavadeva. She became the wife (before 624) of Songstan Gampo (c605 – 650), the thirty-third ruler of the Yarlung dynasty of Tibet in an important state union. Her Nepalese subjects referred to the queen as Khri bTsun (Royal lady). The famous Red Palace on Marpo Ri (Red Mountain) was built to according to her specifications by Nepalese craftsmen brought from her homeland. Songstam Gampo’s other chief wife was the Chinese princess Wencheng. Both queens were devout Buddhists and encouraged the spread of that religion in Tibet. Together they established the famous Jokhang Temple, near Lhasa, which was filled with statues of Buddha placed there by each successive royal bride and paid for from her own dowry.

Bhutto, Benazir – (1953 – 2007)
Pakistani politician and two-term prime minister
Benazir Bhutto was born (June 21, 1953) in Karachi, the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928 – 1979), who served as prime minister (1971 – 1977), and his wife Begum Nusrat. She attended Catholic convent schools, and attended Oxford University in England, as well as Radcliffe College and Harvard University in the USA, being receptive of western culture from an early age.
Bhutto eventually returned to Pakistan (1977), but after the coup which saw the removal, and then execution of her father, organized by General Zia ul-Haq (1979), she and her mother lived several years under house arrest (1977 – 1984). Later permitted to go into exile, Bhutto and her mother returned to England, where Benazir became the joint leader in exile of the PPP (Pakistani People’s Party). With the removal of martial law, Bhutto returned to Pakistan where she began to campaign for open and democratic government elections (1986).
Bhutto was married (1987) to Asif Ali Zardari, a wealthy landowner, to whom she bore several children. With the death of General Zia ul-Haq (1988), Bhutto was elected as prime minister, becoming the first woman prime minister of a Muslin nation. The following year returned Pakistan to the Commonwealth. Bhutto was then removed as prime minister by presidential decree (1990), and was defeated at subsequent elections. She was returned a second term as prime minister (1993 – 1996), but her government did little to assist the conditions of Pakistani women, and was beleaguered by claims of financial corruption, much of which stemmed from the activities of her husband, who was mocked in the press and media as ‘Mr 10 per cent.’
After losing office the second time, the family eventually went to live in Dubai in Saudi Arabia and England for several years. Her corruption conviction, imposed during her absence, was quashed during her exile. Bhutto returned to Pakistan (Oct, 2007), after President Pervez Musharaf granted her amnesty from further charges. She intended to assist with the organization the new democratic elections sanction by Musharaf, but the two leaders could not broker a successful power-sharing deal.
Benazir Bhutto was assassinated at Rawalpindi (Dec 27, 2007) by a terrorist. Al-Qaeda was blamed but did not take responsibility, which led to many unfounded rumours concerning her convenient death, which was said by some to have been ordered (or at least quietly encouraged) by Pervez Musharaf. Her nineteen year old son, Bilawal Bhutto Zardari (born 1988) was then put forward as her successor as leader of the PPP, with his father Ali Zardari as interim leader, whilst he completed his law studies in England. Musharaf was finally forced out of office and was then replaced by her husband as prime minister (2008).

Bhuyikadevi – (fl. c750 – c770)
Indian queen consort
Bhuyikadevi was the wife of King Devaraja who established his capital at Jalor. She was the mother of King Vatsaraja who ruled Jalor from at least 778 until his death (c794).

Biadumis – (1094 – c1115)
Scandinavian queen consort
Princess Biadumis was the daughter of Muirchertach, King of Connaught in Ireland. She was given by her father in a political and dynastic marriage to Sigurd I (1090 – 1130), King of Norway whose first wife and queen she became at the age of eight years old (1102) the marriage and the name of the bride being recorded in the Orkneyinga Saga. The marriage remained childless and the young queen died aged around twenty.

Biagota – (c905 – c967)
Bohemian duchess
Biagota was born into the noble family of the counts of Stockau, and was married (c920) to Duke Boleslav I the Cruel (935 – 972), whom she predeceased, and was sister-in-law to St Wenceslas (Wenzel). The duchess left four children,

Bianca    see also     Blanca, Blanche

Bianca Maria of Savoy – (1333 – 1388)
Italian countess of Milan
Bianca Maria of Savoy was the eldest daughter and second child of Count Almaric of Savoy and his wife Yolande Palaeologina, the daughter of Theodore I Palaeologus, Marchese di Montferrat, and was sister to Count Amadeo VI of Savoy. Bianca Maria was married at Rivoli (1350) to Galeazzo Visconti, Count of Milan bringing the siegneurie of Yenne in Savoy as her dowry. This fief later passed to the Sforza family and later to the Barbanera de Val Sesia. The new countess then presented her new husband and subjects with a son and heir, Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti (1351).
The countess and the entire Visconti court received Princess Isabelle de Valois, the daughter of Jean II, King of France, to Milan as the bride for her son (1360). With her husband and family countess took up residence at the newly built Castle of Pavia (1365), and was present at the signing of the peace treaty between her husband and brother Amadeo. Bianca Maria survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Milan (1378 – 1388) and commanded dutiful respect and affection from her son, and was treated with honour at his court. The Dowager’s last years were devoted to the raising and education of her granddaughter Valentina Visconti (later Duchesse d’Orleans), to whom she passed on her religious piety. Countess Bianca Maria died (Dec 31, 1388) aged fifty-five.

Bianca Maria Sforza – (1472 – 1510)
Holy Roman empress (1494 – 1510)
Bianca Maria sforza was born (April 5, 1472) at Milan in Lombardy, the daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and his wife Bona of Savoy, the daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne of Lusignan. Bianca Maria was betrothed firstly to Philibert, Duke of Savoy, but with his untimely death she was then betrothed to Prunce Janos Corvinus (1473 – 1504), the only son of Matthias I Corvinus (1440 – 1490), King of Hungary. However when Jan was deprived of his inheritance the betrothal was broken off.
Bianca Maria became the second wife (March 16, 1494) at Ala, near Innsbruck in Austria, of the Emperor Maximilian I (1459 – 1519), who then gave the dukedom of Milan to her uncle Lodovico Sforza for himself and his heirs. Bianca Maria brought a dowry of three hundred thousand ducats in gold, along with large amounts of gold, silver, jewels and rich fabrics, and the famous inventor Leonardo da Vinci had been entrusted by the emperor with organizing the wedding celebrations.
The empress accompanied her husband on a visit to the Low Countries (1496) but her household remained in continuous debt, and the empress was forced on one occasion to pawn her elaborately wrought under-linen, in order to provide necessities for her household during the emperor’s abscence. Though her husband ensured that she was treated with all the respect due to her Imperial rank, Maximilian appears to have had little personal interest in her and the marriage remained childless. Empress Bianca Maria died (Dec 31, 1510) aged thirty-eight, at Innsbruck, after several weeks of failing health. In a letter to his daughter Margaret of Austria the emperor referred to Bianca Maria ‘our very dear and much-loved companion.’ but the phrase was a mere formality. The empress was buried at Innsbruck. She was portrayed, together with Maximilian’s first wife, Marie of Burgundy, in a relief at the Golden Dome in Innsbruck.
Empress Bianca Maria was a woman of quiet and retiring nature, and made little impact on her own time. Her marriage was important solely for the prestige it gave to the House of Sforza. Her virtues, attested by the emperor himself, were religious ones.

Bibesco, Helene Costaki Epurano, Princess – (1849 – 1902)
Romanian salonniere
Helene Epurano was married Prince Alexander Bibesco, and was the mother of princes Emmanuel (1877 – 1917) and Antoine Bibesco (1878 – 1951). A talented pianist, the princess knew Franza Liszt, Richard Wagner, Ernst Renan, Puvis de Chavannes, and many other musicians, artists, and literary figures of the day. The French writer Marcel Proust was a close friend to her son, and admired the princess greatly. Princess Bibesco died (Oct 31, 1902) in Bucharest, before her devoted sons could reach her bedside.

Bibesco, Marthe Lucie Lahovary, Princess – (1886 – 1973)
Romanian-French biographer and memoirist
Marthe Lahovary was born in Bucharest, and was closely related to Anna de Bassaraba de Brancovan, Comtesse de Noailles, the famous author, as well as to the famous and socially prominent Montesquiou, Greffuhle, and Guiche families. She was married (1905) to her cousin, Prince George Bibesco. The princess became a close friend to the writer Marcel Proust and to the abbe Mugnier. Her correspondence with the abbe was later published in three volumes entitled La Vie d’une amitie (1951) and she wrote three volumes of memoirs concerning her friendship with Proust Au bal avec Marcel Proust (1928), Le Voyageur voile (1947), and, Le Confesseur et les poetes (1970). Madame Bibesco wrote a popular biography of Queen Marie of Romania entitled, The Madonna of Romania (1928) and several volumes of memoirs, Royal Portraits (1928), and Some Royalties and a Prime Minister (1930). Princess Bibesco died (Nov 28, 1973) aged eighty-seven, in Paris.

Bibi Shah – (c1240 – 1316)
Mongol queen
Bibi Shah was the daughter of Rukri al-Din Khwaja Juq, the Salghurid King of Kirman (1236 – 1251). She was married to Mengu-Temur as a secondary wife and died at Tabriz.

Bibi Terken – (c1231 – 1289)
Mongol queen
Bibi Terken was the daughter of Qutbal-Din and Qutlugh Terken. She ruled with some degree of autonomy in Kirman region (1288 – 1289).

Biblias – (d. c177 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian
Biblias was one of the martyrs of Lyons, killed during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Biblias initially refused to renounce her religion, and was arrested. However, in prison she apostasized, but was condemned to death anyway. Because she was a Roman citizen, she was beheaded, her remains burned, and the ashes thrown into the Rhone River. All the martyrs of this persecution were honoured collectively by the church (June 2).

Bicester, Sybil Mary MacDonnell, Lady – (1876 – 1959)
British feminist and suffragette
Lady Sybil MacDonnell was born at St James’s Palace, London (March 26, 1876), the only daughter of William Randal MacDonnell, sixth Earl of Antrim (1851 – 1918) and his wife Louisa Grey, the daughter of General Charles Grey, and lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra. Beautiful, eccentric, and musically talented, being an accomplished amateur singer, Sybil was married (1897) at St Margaret’s Church, Westminster, to Vivian Hugh Smith (1867 – 1956), from a prominent banking family, despite the disapproval of her father, who was later created first Baron Bicester (1938) by George VI. Something of an intellectual, she was denied a college education, and in later years became a strong supporter of the suffragette movement and the Moral Rearmament movement. Smith was later created first Baron Bicester by George VI (1938), and Sybil became in turn Baroness Bicester (1938 – 1956). She survived Vivian for three years as Dowager Baroness (1956 – 1959), and died aged eighty-three (April 16, 1959). Her seven children included,

Biddle, Esther – (fl. 1629 – 1696)
English Quaker writer
Born at Oxford Esther became the wife of Thomas Biddle, a cordwainer of London. Mrs was converted to the Quaker faith by Francis Howgill and worked as a missionary in Newfoundland and in Barbados (1656 – 1657). She was imprisoned after the publication of The Trumpet of the Lord Soundeth Forth unto these Three Nations, as a Warning from the Spirit of Truth (1662). Later arrested for street preaching in London (Nov, 1665) she was roughly manhandled by the guard.
Queen Mary LL later granted Esther Biddle permission to leave England and retire to France. She was granted an audience with King Louis XIV and during her later years she suffered greatly from poverty, this being alleviated only by the help of other Quakers. Her other published works were Wo to Thee, City of Oxford, thy wickednesse surmounteth the wickednesse of Sodome (1655) and A Warning from the Lord God of Life and Power unto thee O City of London (1660).

Biddlecombe, Janet – (1866 – 1954)
Australian pastoralist
Janet Russell was the daughter of George Russell and married (1900) John Biddlecombe (1869 – 1929). Privately educated, Janet inherited the family estate of Golf hill, Shelford, Victoria (1898). On this estate she establsihed a major stud for Hereford cattle, the management of which was eventually taken over by her husband (1905). She financed the publication of the Narrative of George Russell and the Clyde Co. Papers. She sold off the estate shortly before her own death.

Bieber, Margarete – (1879 – 1978)
German-American archaeologist, art historian, author and teacher
Bieber was born (July 31, 1879) and studied archaeology becoming a specialist in the field of classical Greek and Roman art. She published works including The History of the Greek and Roman Theatre and Copies of Greek Art. Margaret Bieber died (Feb 25, 1978) aged ninety-eight in New Canaan, Connecticut.

Biermann, Aenne – (1898 – 1933)
German photographer
Anna Sibilla Sternefeld was born in Goch am Niederrhein. She became the wife (1920) of the businessman Herbert Biermann to whom she bore two children. Her interest in photography led Aenne Biermann to work with the geologist Rudolf Hundt with whom she photographed minerals. Her best known works were childhood studies, and portraits and photographs of various natural and man-made objects in the popualr ‘new objectivity’ style. Biermann’s photographic work was exhibited at Stuttgart in Wurttemburg (1929) and at Basle in Switzerland (1930). An account of her work entitled Fototek 2: Aenne Biermann (1930) was published by Franz Roh.

Biffin, Harriet Eliza – (c1867 – 1939) 
Australian physician
Biffin was born in Sydney the daughter of James Biffin. Graduating from Sydney University with her batchelors of medicine and surgery (1898), Harriet began private practice at Lindfield (1904). After her retirement from public practice (1929) she remained honorary physician at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Sydney, and was active in the foundation of the Rachel Forster Hospital, for which services she was made MBE (Member of the British Empire). She remained unmarried. Harriet Biffin died (Sept 22, 1939) in Sydney.

Biffin, Sarah – (1784 – 1850)
British miniature painter
Sarah Biffin was born at East Quantoxhead, near Bridgewater (Oct 25, 1784). She learned to become an accomplished painter, despite being only three feet high, and having been born with no limbs, using her mouth to control the brush, pen, and even scissors. Biffin drew landscapes and painted miniatures on ivory, and was carried around the country by her drawing master, where she exhibited her work to audiences.  She later received the patronage of the royal family, which enabled Biffin to become financially independent and self-supporting. She was awarded a medal by the Society of Artists (1821). Sarah Biffin died (Oct 2, 1850) aged sixty-five, at Liverpool.

Bigelow, Glenna Lindsley – (b. 1876)
American diarist
Glenna Bigelow was born (Sept 22, 1876) the youngest child of George Bigelow (1832 – 1928) of New Have, Connecticut, and his second wife Maria Lindsley (1834 – 1903). She never married and travelled extensively in Europe. Miss Bigelow was residing at Liege in Belgium when it was overrun by the German army. She survived this experience and after her return to the USA she wrote a memoir of entitled Liege, On the Line of March: An American Girl’s Experience When the Germans Came to Belgium (1918) which was published in New York.

Biggs, Rosemary – (1912 – 2001)
British haematologist
Rosemary Biggs was born in London, and studied mycology at the University of Toronto in Canada. She then trained as the London School of Medicine for Women. Biggs was employed as an assistant pathologist at Oxford (1944 – 1959) before being appointed as the deputy director and then director (1967 – 1977) of the Oxford Haemophilia Centre. She wrote various articles and texts concerning blood disorders and was associated with the discovery of the clotting disorder known as Christmas disease. Rosemary Biggs died (June 29, 2001).

Bigland, Eileen – (1898 – 1970)
British traveller and writer
Eileen Bigland was born (May 29, 1898) and trained as a dancer and later worked as a journalist, becoming a fervent convert of Communism. She wrote several romantic novels, using the pseudonym ‘Anne Carstairs,’ but decided that travelling to exotic, but troublesome parts of the world was her true vocation. Bigland travelled through Germany, Poland, and Russia by railway, where she spent time in the Black Sea region and the Caucasus (1936). She visited Spain during the Civil War where she was employed as a journalist, and then visited Zambia in Africa (1938), after which she produced her political study of the native Africans in her Pattern in Black and White (1940). During W W II she visited China via Burma, where she earned her keep by escorting wounded soldiers back to their families. She later visited Egypt and the Sudan and went on the lecture circuit. Her other written works included Laughing Odyssey (1937), The Lake of the Royal Crocodiles (1939), Into China (1940), Journey into Egypt (1948) and Russia Has Two Faces (1960). Eileen Bigland died (April 11, 1970) aged seventy-two.

Bigolina, Giulia – (c1518 – c1569)
Italian prose writer, poet and story writer
Giulia may have been born in Padua, and was the daughter of Girolamo Bigolin, a minor aristocrat, and his wife Alvisa Soncino. She became the wife (1534) of Bartolomeo Vicomercato, to whom she bore a son. Her major work was the novel Urania (c1556 – c1558) whilst her only surviving poem appears at the end of her novella entitled Giulia Camposampiero e Tesibaldo Vitaliani, Enigma (1794) which was first published only two hundred and twenty-five years after her death (1794).

Biheron, Marie – (1719 – 1786)
French anatomist
Marie Biheron produced life-like models from 1760, which were much admired by her contemporaries for their attention to detail. She supported herself by giving lessons in modelling, and allowed private viewings of her work, charging a small fee.

Bihruza Khanum – (d. after 1514)
Muslim princess
Bihruza Khanum was born (c1490) the daughter of Hulefa, Vali of Baghdad. She became one of the wives of Ismail I (1487 – 1524), Emperor (Shah) of Persia. When her husband was defeated by the Turks at the battle of Chaldiran (Aug 23, 1514) Bihruza was captured. She was taken to the harem of Sultan Selim I (1467 – 1520) and was later given by him to Tacizade Calefer Celebi.

Bijns, Anna – (1493 – 1575)
Flemish poet
Anna Bijns was born in Antwerp and worked as a schoolteacher. She produced Catholic devotional poetry (1528) and was the first major female poet to write in Dutch or Flemish.

Bilchilde of Austrasia (1) – (c586 – 610)
Merovingian queen consort
Bilchilde was of lowly origins and was purchased by Queen Brunhilda of Austria, the grandmother of King Theudebert II (586 – 612), from a passing slave trader. She was raised in the royal household Brunhilda permitted Bilchilde to become Theudebert’s second wife (601), and her lack of important family connections meant that the elderly queen mother’s hold on power would not be challenged.
According to the chronicler Fredegar there was no affection lost between the two women as Brunhilda took great delight in reminding Bilchilde of her former origins. He also recorded that Bilchilde was a worthy woman and was popular with the Austrasians because she endured with patience the simple-mindedness of her husband. The two women arranged to meet in order to bring peace to the country but the meeting never occurred and insults and incriminations followed by letter between the two. Queen Bilchilde was later murdered possibly due to her lack of providing a royal heir, but the exact reason for her death remains unknown. Her lack of powerful relatives rendered her an easy target in such circumstances.

Bilchilde of Austrasia (2) – (c655 – 675)
Merovingian queen consort
Princess Bilchilde was the daughter of Sigebert II, King of Austrasia and his wife Immachilde. She was married (c668) to her first cousin, Childeric III, King of Neustria, their union being the only instance of close royal intermarriage within the Merovingian dynasty. The queen died tragically, being assassinated with her husband (Sept/Oct, 675), with the privity of his brother Theuderic III, who coveted the throne. Childeric had caused a noble called Bodille to be publicly whipped, and the aristocracy, backed by Theuderic, rebelled. One day whilst out hunting, Bodille and some companions killed the royal couple, despite the fact that Bilchilde was heavily pregnant. They were interred together within the Church of St Germanus, in Paris. They were the parents of Chilperic II of Neustria (674 – 722).

Bilchilde of Maine (Bilchildis) (1) – (c790 – after 839)
Carolingian noblewoman
Bilchilde became the wife (after 800) of Count Roriko I of Maine (c765 – 840), formerly the lover of Princess Rotrude, the daughter of Emperor Charlemagne. Her own antecedents remain unrecorded. Surviving charter evidence recorded her as Bilchildis uxorious eius of Count Roriko and reveals that she was living (March 1, 839) on which date she confirmed a charter of her husband which donated estates to the Abbey of Saint-Maur-sur-Loire. Bilchilde left four children,

Bilchilde of Maine (Bilchildis) (2) – (c815 – before 866)
Carolingian noblewoman
Bilchilde was the only daughter of Roriko I, Count of Maine and his wife Bilchilde. She was the paternal half-sister of Louis of Maine (c800 – 867), archchancellor to Charles II the Bald, whose mother was Rotrude, the daughter of Charlemagne. Bilchilde was married firstly (c830) to Bernard I of Gothia, Marquis of the Breton March, who was killed in battle (844) and indirectly referred to by the historian Flodoard in his Historia Remensis Ecclesiae as nephew to Gauzlin, Abbot of St Germain in Paris. She was the mother of Bernard, Marquis of Septimania and was named in the record of the excommunication of her son sent by Pope John VIII (879) whom he described as ‘Bernardum filium Bernardi et Belihildis.’ Bilchilde was married secondly (c845) to Ranulf I (819 – 866), Count of Poitiers and Duke of Aquitaine, whom she apparently predeceased. The children of her second marriage were,

Bilhilda (Bilhildis) – (c630 – c710)
Merovingian nun and saint
Bilhilda was born at Hochheim, the daughter of a nobleman named Iberim and his wife Mechtrida. She was brought up ay Wurzburg, and was married whilst very young to Hottan, count of Thuringia. Her husband was killed in battle when Bilhilda was only eighteen (c648) and their only child died. The countess then founded and built the nunnery of Altmunster at Mainz. She was veiled as a nun by her uncle, Sigebert, Bishop of Mainz, and was installed as abbess of Altmunster, ruling over a large community of nuns. She died at a great age. This convent was later popularly known as ‘Albas Dominas’ or ‘White Ladies’ and stood until the end of the eighteenth century. Bilhilda was venerated as a saint (Nov 27) and her name appears in the German, French, and Benedictine martyrologies.

Bilhilda of Burgundy – (c610 – c670)
Merovingian nun and saint
Bilhilda was the wife of the Burgundian count Faro (died c672), who was a courtier of Clotaire II, King of Neustria. They later separated in order to pursue religious careers (637) and the countess took the veil and settled as a solitary on one of their estates, supposed to be Champigny. Her husband later regretted their separation and three times sent for Bilhilda to visit him. She finally agreed and in order that he might not be tempted, she cut off her hair, and wore unbecoming clothing. Faro admired her courage but shuddered at the sight of her, and sent her to the Abbey of Faremoutier, where she lived as a nun under his sister St Burgundofara. Bilhilda was venerated as a saint (Feb 15) and jointly with her husband Faro (Oct 28).

Bill, Charlotte Jane – (1875 – 1964)
British royal governess
Charlotte ‘Lalla’ Bill was employed in the household of the Duke and Duchess of York (later George V and Queen Mary) as an under nurse to their children. When her superior was dismissed (1897) Lalla was appointed as her successor. She was the especial nurse to Prince John (1905 – 1919), the royal couple’s youngest son, who suffered from epilepsy. Lalla supervised his life at York Cottage until 1917 when she transferred with her charge to his own establishment at Wood Farm, on the Sandringham royal estate in Norfolk. She nursed him devotedly until his death there (Feb, 1919) and she personally informed Queen Mary of the child’s death. Lalla attended his funeral in Sandringham Church. She never married and maintained by the royal family until her death. In the film The Lost Prince (2003) she was portrayed by actress Gina McKee.

Billington, Elizabeth – (1768 – 1818)
British soprano and composer
Born Elizabeth Weichsel in Soho, London, she was the daughter of musician Carl Weichsel from Freiberg in Saxony. Her mother was a popular vocalist at the Vauxhall Gardens whilst her brother Carl Weichsel was a noted violinist. She was trained as a singer and played the harpsichord and violin with talent. She was married (1783) to her vocal instructor James Billington, at the age of fifteen and against the wishes of her family. The marriage quickly broke down due to Elizabeth’s adultery and Billington abandoned her, refusing to be culpable for her debts. Reconciliation soon followed and they performed together on stage at Smock Alley in Dublin.
Elizabeth Billington was best remembered for roles such as Polly Peachum in The Beggar’s Opera, Eurydice in Orpheus and Eurydice, and Queen Mandane in Artaxerxes. Mrs Billington and her husband then came to London (1786) where she appeared as Rosetta in Love in a Village, and performed in the popular pleasure gardens of London such as Vauxhall, and also performed ballad operas, working also in Edinburgh in Scotland. The publication of her scandalous Memoirs (1794) caused the Billingtons to leave England and retire to Naples in Italy. Francesco Bianchi wrote the opera Inez di Castro (1794) especially for her, and she appeared in the premiere performance at the San Carlo Theater. With the death of James Billington Elizabeth performed in opera with her brother Carl throughout the country (1796). A second marriage with a Frenchman named Felissent failed and Mrs Billington returned to England (1801).
Mrs Billington now performed alternately at the Covent Garden and Drury Lane Theatres and became the leading London actress (1802 – 1806). She appeared at a concert at Whitehall Chapel (1814) for the benefit of victims of the Napoleonic wars in Germany. She later returned to Venice with her estranged second husband (1817) and died there soon afterwards (Aug 28, 1818). Her portrait was painted by Richard Cosway, Sir Joshua Reynolds and George Romney.

Billington-Greig, Teresa – (1877 – 1964)
British suffrage campaigner and author
Teresa Billington was born in Lancashire, the daughter of a shipping clerk, and was educated by Catholic nuns. She became a teacher through Manchester University and then married Frederick Greig. Billington-Greig became a member of the Women’s Social and Political Union (1903). She was one of the first militant suffragettes in the mold of the Pankhursts, and was sent to Holloway Prison (1906). She then removed herself from the policies eschewed by the Pankhursts and assisted with the establishment of the Women’s Freedom League (1907). Her published works included The Militant Suffrage Movement (1911) and The Consumer in Revolt (1912).

Bilqis – (fl. c950 BC)
Sabaean ruler, the fabled Queen of Sheba
Sometimes called Makeda, she was the contemporary of King Solomon of Israel, whom she visited to test his wisdom with hard questions, and later admitted that ‘the half was not told me.’
Bilqis presented Solomon with one hundred and twenty talents in gold, in addition to other precious gifts, and Solomon, in his turn, bestowed rich presents upon the queen prior to her departure to her own land. Her appearance in the biblical book of Kings I is intended to glorify the figure of Solomon rather than provide information concerning Bilqis, who is otherwise unknown in the Old Testament. Evidence from archaeological work begun in 1762, have revealed that Bilqis was a ruler of the Sabaean peoples in Yemen in south-west Arabia. The Sabaeans trade of rich spices, gold, and precious stones, was known to such biblical writers as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, where Sheba accurs as the Hebrew spelling of the south Arabian name Saba. In Islamic legend, this lady became Solomon’s mistress, or wife, and bore him a son. The emperors of Ethiopia claimed descent from Solomon and Bilqis, as do the Falasha Jews of Ethiopia.

Bilqis of Yaman – (fl. c270 – c300 BC)
Arab queen and heiress
Bilqis was probably the youngest daughter of Il-Shah Yahdib, King of Yaman in Arabia. She succeeded her father on the throne (c270 AD) and was married to Dhu Bata Yanuf, King of Hamdan with whom she then ruled jointly. Surviving inscriptions reveal her royal birth and also record her marriage. This Bilqis is historically attested by inscriptions and surviving genealogies, and appears to be the person confused with the much earlier Queen of Sheba, a contemporary of King Solomon, whom tradition also accorded this name. Arab legens survive concerning this lady, but are highly romantic and revela little evidence concerning her life.

Bilton, Belle – (1866 – 1906)
British Victorian actress and peeress
Isabel Maud Bilton was born in London, the daughter of John George Bilton, a sergeant in the Royal Engineers and a worker at the Woolwich dockyard. Flawlessly beautiful she appeared in music hall revues from the early age of fourteen (1880). She then performed in variety theatres with her siblings billed as the ‘Bilton Sisters.’ She bore an illegitimate child from a liaison with the self-styled Baron de Loandra who turned out to be secretly married. She returned to the stage where she met William Frederick Le Poer Trench (1868 – 1929), Viscount Dunlo, the son and heir of the fourth Earl of Clancarty. He married Belle at the Registrar’s office in Hampstead (1889) to the fury of his father Lord Clancarty.
Her husband’s action for divorce was fuelled by his outraged father the old Lord Clancarty who used every means at his disposal to besmirch Belle’s character but to no avail. Lord Dunlo’s action was dismissed (July, 1890) and Lady Dunlo was completely exonerated. Their relationship then improved as it was later recorded in the Daily Telegraph (Jan, 1907) which recorded ‘The wedded life of Lord and Lady Dunlo, thus inauspiciously begun, was destined however to ripen into an affectionate and tender comradeship, the two, since the time of the divorce proceedings, which ended in the wife’s favour, being rarely separated.’ When Dunlo succeeded his father as the fifth Earl of Clancarty Belle became the Countess of Clancarty (1891 – 1906) the couple resided at the family estate in County Galway.
Belle Bilton died (Dec 31, 1906) aged forty at Garbally, and was buried within the Church of St John there. Her five children were,

Binder, Pearl (Polly Elwyn-Jones) – (1904 – 1990)
British author and artist
Pearl Binder was born in Manchester, Lancashire, the daughter of a Jewish tailor, and attended the Manchester School of Art, the Central School of Art and Design in London, and did further study at the Academie Colarossi in Paris. She was married (1937) to Frederick Elwyn-Jones, a barrister and Labour Lord Chancellor (1974 – 1979), who was made a life peer (1974), and who encouraged her to pursue her own career. Binder began her career as a magazine illustrator for publications such as Le Rire in Paris (1926), Bed and Breakfast (1926) by Coralie Hobson, Vogue, and Harper’s Bazaar (1927).
An illustrator for the BBC from 1939, she also had an impressive career as a radio broadcaster and television presenter. A talented scultpr and lithographer, her work was exhibited in London, Moscow, Sydney, Moscow, Paris, and Hong Kong, and executed over twenty memorial windows in stained glass. Examples of her work are preserved in the British Museum and in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Binder’s written works, which were all illustrated by her included Odd Jobs (1935), Misha and Masha (1936), Misha Learns English (1942), Muffys and Morals (1953), The Peacock’s Tail (1958), The English Inside Out : An Up-to-Date Report of Morals and Manners in England (1961), Magic Symbols of the World (1972), The Pearlies : A Social Record (1975), and Treasure Islands : The Trials of the Ocean Islanders (1977). She also illustrated several works for Josephine Marquand including Chi Ming and the Tiger Kitten (1965), Chi-Ming and the Lion Dance (1969) and Chi-Ming and the Jade Earring (1970). Pearl Binder died (Jan 26, 1990) at Brighton, East Sussex, having survived her husband by only a few weeks.

Bindi, Daisy – (c1904 – 1962)
Australian Aboriginal leader
Daisy Bindi was born on a cattle station near the Jigalong Aboriginal reserve in Western Australia, her indigenous name being Mumaring. She worked hard as a domestic servant and this led to her involvement in strikes organized by aboriginal workers for decent pay and conditions. Bindi organised the walk-off by aboriginal workers at the Roy Hill station (1946), which ultimately led to an improvement in both pay and conditions for aboriginal workers in Western Australia. During the latter part of her life Bindi went to reside on the first Aboriginal co-operative at Pindan. Daisy Bindi died (Dec 23, 1962) aged almost sixty, at Port Headland.

Bing, Gertrud – (1892 – 1964)
German historian, academic and author
Bing was born in Hamburg (June 7, 1892). She worked as a school teacher before studying German literature and philosophy at the universities of Munich and Hamburg. She became a librarian (1922) at the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg (Warburg Institute) and then served as the assistant director of the Institute for almost three decades (1927 – 1955). During WW II the Institute and the staff removed to the safety of London (1944) and the organization was then incorporated into the University of London. She was later asppointed as the director and professor of the History of the Classical Tradition at the Warburg (1955 – 1959). Gertrude Bing died (July 3, 1964) aged seventy-two, in London.

Bing, Ilse – (1899 – 1998)
Gewrman photographer
Ilse Bing was born (March 23, 1899) into a comfortable background in Frankfurt. She studied art history at the University of Frankfurt, and photography under the architect Friedrich Gilly. She went to Paris to concentrate on photography (1930) and her avant-garde work was published in Vu, Le Monde Illustre and Metiers Graphiques. She also did work for Elsa Schiaparelli and Harper’s Bazaar magazine. Bing held the first photography exhibition at the Louvre in Paris (1936) and had many exhibitions of her work in the USA, including ‘Photography, 1839 – 1937’ at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
After her marriage with the pianist Konrad Wolff they immigrated to the USA (1941). Two major retrospectives of her work were later held in New York (1976), whilst a third ‘Ilse Bing: Vision of a Century’ was held two weeks after her death. She published the work Words as Visions (1974) and was awarded the first gold medal for photography by the National Arts Club in Manhattan. Ilse Bing died (March 10, 1998) aged ninety-eight, in Manhattan.

Bingham, Madeleine – (1911 – 1988)
British author and dramatist
Madeleine Ebel was born the daughter of Clement Ebel, of Copyhold Place, Cuckfield, Sussex, in East Anglia, and his wife Lottie, the daughter of William Henry Collins, a sergeant with the Royal Engineers. She was married (1934) to John Michael Ward Bingham, Lord Clanmorris. She wrote using the pseudonym, ‘Julia Mannering’ and her married name. Under this published the autobiographical account, Peers and Plebs: Two Families in a Changing World (1975). Other works include the biographies, Princess Lieven: Russian Intriguer (1982), Sheridan, The Track of a Comet, The Great Lover, The Life and Art of Herbert Beerbohm Tree, and, Earls and Girls: Drama in High Society, a collective biographies of stage actresses who married into the British aristocracy. Bingham was the mother of noted author and novelist Charlotte Bingham (born 1942). Madeleine Bingham died (Feb 16, 1988) aged seventy-six.

Bingying, Xie – (1906 – 2000)
Chinese soldier and autobiographical writer
Formerly known as Hsieh Ping-Ying, Xie was born (Sept 5, 1906) in Hunan. She participated in the Northern Expedition of the 1930’s and she left written diariy accounts of her military activities. Xie was later arrested in Japan for subversive activities (1935) and eventually moved to Taiwan in order to escape living under Communist rule (1948). Several decades later she immigrated to the USA where she became a citizen and remained for the rest of her life. Her journal was edited, translated and published in London as Autobiography of a Chinese Girl: a Genuine Autobiography (1943). Xie Bingying died (Jan 5, 2000) aged ninety-three.

Bing Xin – (1900 – 1999)
Chinese poet
Born Xie Wanying in Fuzhou and was educated at the University of Yenching in Beijing and at Wellesley College in America. She later taught at the Chinese universities of Yanjing and Qinghua, and also worked for a year in Tokyo after WW II (1949 – 1950). She was later appointed as vice-chairwoman of the Federation of Literary and Art Circles and as delegate to the National People’s Congress. Her collections of verse included, Chunshi (Spring Water) (1923), and, Fanxing (A Myriad Stars (1923), whilst seventy years later she produced, The Photograph (1992). Bing Xin died (Feb 28, 1999) aged ninety-eight.

Binh, Nguyen Thi – (1927 – 1992)
Vietnamese patriot and leader
Nguyen Thi Binh was born in South Vietnam, into family of political activists. She suffered imprisonment (1951 – 1954) for her agitation against French rule, and also opposed the dictator Diem. She served as Foreign Minister with the provisional government (1969) and was the chosen representative that signed the treaty that ended the Vietnam War (1973). She later served as minister of Education with the United Government (1979 – 1992) and briefly served as vice-president of Vietnam before her death.

Binns, Elizabeth – (fl. 1882 – 1893)
British Victorian painter
A native of Worcester, Miss Binns specialized in flower paintings. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Binstead, Mary – (c1856 – 1928)
British journalist
Mary Openshaw was born in Kendal, Westmorland and was educated at Brondesbury Park. She became the wife of Edward Arthur Binstead. Her published works included the historical novels The Cross of Honour, Madame Lucifer, and Little Grey Girl which she published as Mary Openshaw. Mrs Binstead was the secretary of the Femina via Heureuse and of the Bookman Prizes committee and served for a decade as the secretary of the Society of Women Journalists (1917 – 1927). Mary Binstead died (Sept 28, 1928) in London.

Bintanath – (c1270 – c1205 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Bintanath was the eldest daughter of King Ramesses II and his second chief queen, Isitnofret. With the death of her mother (c1244 BC), Bintanath was married to her father and served as ‘Great Royal Wife,’ and was represented as such on a number of monuments which have survived from Ramesses’s reign. She survived into the reign of her brother, King Merenptah, and was interred within the Valley of the Queens.

Biota of Maine – (c1032 – 1063)
Norman mediaeval heiress and countess
Biota was the daughter of Herbert I, Count of Maine. She was married (c1048) to Count Walter III of the Vexin (c1025 – 1063), the nephew of Edward the Confessor, King of England (1042 – 1066) but their marriage produced no surviving heirs. With the death of Biota’s nephew Herbert II of Maine without issue (1062), a strong party in Maine led by the powerful border lord Geoffrey of Mayence, became determined to resist the claims of William of Normandy (the Conqueror) to the county. They then put forward Count Walter as the next heir to Maine by right of his wife Biota, the legal heiress. Duke William attacked the rebel forces but according to the chronicler Ordericus Vitalis Walter and Biota then died after being poisoned by their enemies. In a later rebellion against William (1075) several rebellious lords made the declaration against King William that, ‘ he caused to perish by poison on one and the same night, Walter, count of Pontoise, nephew of King Edward, and Biota, his wife, and this while they were both his guests at Falaise.’ This accusation has never been properly poven and never will be, though several of King William’s biographers have accepted the story and his complicity at face value.

Birch, Harriet – (1810 – 1892)
Anglo-Indian society figure
Harriet Birch was the daughter of a British mercenary and an Indian mother. Harriet eloped with the brother of the Nawab of Farukkhabad in 1832, becoming his second wife. Her family accused the prince of abduction and the whole affair caused a grave scandal amongst the British residents in that city.  Her family eventually declined to pursue the matter further, as Harriet flatly refused to leave the prince’s harem. Harriet survived the horrors of the Indian Mutiny (1857) and till her death resided at Fategarh, being granted a small pension by the British government to provide for her needs.

Birchall, Emily Jowitt – (1852 – 1884)
British rural gentlewoman, letter writer and diarist
Emily Birchall was the wife (1872) of Dearman Birchall. Her private diary and personal correspondence (1873 – 1884) were later published posthumously as The Diary of a Country Squire : Extracts from the Diaries and Letters of Dearman and Emily Birchall (1983).

Birchenough, Mabel Charlotte Bradley, Lady – (1860 – 1936)
British novelist
Mabel Bradley was the daughter of Reverend George Granville Bradley, Dean of Westminster, and his wife Marian Philpot. She was married (1886) to Sir Henry Birchenough, a prominent railway magnate in Rhodesia and South Africa, and had two children. With her sister she produced The Deanery Guide to Westminster Abbey (1885) which went through nearly twenty reprints. Although she wrote literary criticisms which were published in various periodicals, Lady Birchenough is remembered chiefly for her novels, Disturbing Elements (1895) and Postherds (1898). Both of these works are notable for their strongly anti-feminist theme, the heroines eventually coming to realize that marriage and children were the more life fulfilling of the roles offerred to women.

Birch-Pfeiffer, Charlotte – (1780 – 1868)
German actress and writer
Charlotte Pfeiffer was born (June 23, 1780) in Stuttgart, Wurttenburg, the daughter of a land agent. She trained for the stage at the court theare in Munich, and later in her career became admired for her tragic roles. She was married (1825) to the Danish historian Christian Andreas Birch of Copenhagen. Madame Birch-Pfeiffer was later appointed as a theatre manager in Zurich, Siwtzerland a post she held for six years before she joined the court theatre in Berlin, Prussia (1844). She was the mother of the actress Wilhelmine von Hillern. She wrote various novels and stories, some of which were successfully adapted for the stage. These works were later collectively published as Gesammelte Novellen und Erzahlungen (1863 – 1865). Madame Birch-Pfeiffer died (Aug 25, 1868) aged eighty-eight, in Berlin.

Bird, Ann – (1803 – 1843)
Australian newspaper proprietor
Ann Bird was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of John Morris Bird.  Bird married firstly (1821) Robert Howe, and worked together with him on the Sydney Gazette newspaper. With his early death in 1829, Ann continued to run the paper for some time until she finally sold the business and bought property at Glenwock Plains, near the Macleay River, and married a third husband (1840) Thomas Armitage Salmon. Ann Bird died aged forty, in Sydney.

Bird, Bonnie – (1914 – 1995)
American dancer and teacher
Bird was born in Portland, Oregon, and became a specialist in contemporary dance. She was the head of dance at the Cornish School of Fine Arts (1937 – 1940) where her pupils included Merce Cunningham. She later founded the dance troupe known as the Merry-Go-Rounders and served as chairwoman of the American Dance Guild (1965 – 1967). Bird was responsible for the introduction of the first degree in dance studies in Britain (1977) and was the editorial adviser for the Dance Theatre Journal (1983 – 1995). bonnie Bird also founded the Transitions Dance Company (1983) and the New Choreography Fund (1984) which sponsored dance research.

Bird, Isabella      see      Bishop, Isabella Lucy Bird

Bird, Rose – (1936 – 1999)
American judge
Rose Bird was the first woman to be appointed to the Supreme Court of California (1977 – 1986). After earning her law degree she worked as a clerk for the chief justice of the Nevada Supreme Court (1965 – 1966) before becoming a deputy public defender in Santa Clara County (1966 – 1974). Bird worked closely with Jerry Brown as a volunteer during his successful 1974 political campaign to become governor and was appointed secretary of California’s Department of Agriculture (1975 – 1977). Under Governor Brown Bird became the first woman in California state government history to hold cabinet level position, and the first Californian woman to be appointed a chief justice. Bird supported consumer rights and environmental protection, and she was agitated against by Conservatives whe feared her liberal political stance. She was eventually removed from office by popular vote because of her opposition to the death penalty (1986).  Rose Bird died of cancer (Dec 4, 1999) aged sixty-three, in Palo Alto, California.

Birgitta of Bavaria – (977 – after 1004)
Saxon princess
Birgitta was the daughter of Heinrich II, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Gisela of Burgundy, and was sister to the Holy Roman emperor Heinrich II (1002 – 1024). She was dedicated to the church as a child and entered the monastery of Regensburg founded by St Wolfgang and eventually became abbess there. Birgitta was revered by the Benedictines as a saint and was listed in the Acta Sanctorum.

Birgitta of Norway – (c1136 – c1180)
Queen consort of Sweden (c1154 – 1161)
Princess Birgitta was the daughter of King Harald IV Gille of Norway and his wife Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter, the granddaughter of Inge I, king of Sweden. Birgitta was important mainly for dynastic reasons, and took three husbands. Her first marriage was to Karl Sunasson, Jarl of Vastergotland (c1152), her second (c1154) to Magnus II Henriksson, king of Sweden, who was killed near Uppsala (1161). Her last husband (c1163) was Birger Brosa, Jarl of Sweden (c1130 – 1202). Birgitta’s daughter by her second marriage, Christina Magnusdotter, became the second wife of Boleslav I, Duke of Silesia (1127 – 1201), making Birgitta the royal progenatrix of the Silesian dukes and princes who ruled in Poland until the seventeenth century.

Birgitta of Sweden (Bridget) – (1303 – 1373) 
Scandinavian mystic and author
Birgitta was born at Finsta in Upland, into an ancient patrician family with strong links to the royal house. She bore her husband eight children, but it was only after his death (1344) that Bridget became absorbed in religious activity. For the rest of her life she was seeing and recording her visions, which concerned political questions as well as spiritual matters. In 1349, after a disagreement with the Swedish king she travelled to Italy, and settled permanently in Rome. In 1370, with papal consent she founded the Augustinian order of the the Bridgettines. She was canonized (1391) by Pope Boniface IX (1389 – 1404).

Birkenna – (fl. 291 BC)
Greek princess
Birkenna was the daughter of Bardylis, King of Illyria. She became the second wife of Pyrrhus I (318 – 272 BC), King of Epirus, and was the mother of his son Prince Helenus of Epirus.

Birks, Edith Napier – (1900 – 1975)
Australian painter and pastellist
Edith Birks studied art in Adelaide, South Australia, and then travelled to London where she continued her studies at the Slade School. Returning to Australia she established the School of Fine Arts in London (1921). She was married twice and left four children, but none of her work has survived, being destroyed by damp in storage.

Birks, Rosetta Jane – (1856 – 1911)
Australian suffrage campaigner and civic reformer
Rosetta Thomas was born (March, 1856) in Adelaide, South Australia, the daughter of a newspaper publisher. She became the second wife of the draper Charles Birks, the widower of her elder sister. Mrs Birks was closely associated with the Flinders Street Baptist Church and was a member of the Social Purity Society. This led to her involvement with the Women’s Suffrage League of which organization she served as treasurer.
Rosetta Birks was the first woman in Glenelg to vote (April, 1896) and assisted Catherine Spence with the foundation of the National Council of Women (1902). She represented Australasia in London at the world committee of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) (1906) and also travelled to conferences in Paris and Berlin (1910). Rosetta Birks died whilst presiding over a women’s missionary meeting.

Birmingham, Eva de – (c1177 – c1226)
Irish mediaeval heiress
Eva was the daughter of Robert de Birmingham. She was married firstly (c1192) to Gerald Fitzmaurice (died 1203) who became the first feudal Baron of Offaley in Eva’s right. Eva had brought the barony of Offaley to the marriage as her dowry, and it included the manors of Lea in Queen’s County and Geashill in King’s County, Fitzmaurice being in possession of these lands prior to 1199.
Eva survived her husband for over two decades as the Dowager Baroness Offaley, and remarried secondly to Geoffrey Fitzrobert (died 1211), and thirdly (before 1218) to Geoffrey de Marisco. By her first marriage Eva was the mother of Maurice Fitzgerald the Friar (an Brathair) (c1194 – 1257), who succeeded his father as the second Baron of Offaley (1203 – 1257) and left many descendants.

Biron, Francoise Pauline de La Rochefoucald, Duchesse de – (1723 – 1793)
French heiress, courtier of Louis XV and Louis XVI
Francoise de La Rochefoucald was born (March 7, 1723) the younger daughter of Francois II de La Rochefoucald, Comte de Roucy and Marquis de Severac, and his wife Margeurite Elisabeth de Semonville, the daughter of Alphonse Denis Huguet de Semonville. Francoise inherited the marquisate of Severac from her father. She was married (1740) to Antoine de Gontaut-Biron, Duc de Biron (1701 – 1788). There were no children. She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchesse de Biron (1788 – 1793). The duchesse perished during the Revolution, being arrested and guillotined in Paris, aged seventy.

Bischofsheim, Marie Laure de – (1902 – 1970)
French avant-garde salonniere
Marie Laure de Bischofsheim was born (Oct 31, 1902) in Paris into a well-known Belgian banking family, and became the wife (1923) of Vicomte Charles de Noailles (1891 – 1981). With her husband she was the patron of such noted musicians as Darius Milhaud, Georges Auric (1899 – 1983), Francois Poulenc (1899 – 1963), Germaine Tailefferre, and others whom formed the msuical group Le Groupe des Six. She was also patron of the the opera La Voyante (The Seer) produced by Henri Sauguet, and with her husband commissioned the two classic surrealist films, Le Sang d’Un Poete (A Poet’s Blood) (1930) by Jean Cocteau and L’Age d’Or (The Golden Age) (1930), produced by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel. Inspired by the writer Paul Eluard, Bischofsheim herself produced several volumes of poetry. Marie Laure de Bischofsheim died (Jan 29, 1970) aged sixty-seven, in Paris.

Biscossi, Sibylla – (1287 – 1367)
Italian blind saint
Sibylla Biscossi was born in Pavia. Orphaned in childhood she began work as a servant before becoming blind, when she went to reside with the Third order Dominicans. Sibylla received visions from St Dominic which revealed that paradise in the next world awaited her for her patient resignation with her present affliction. At the age of fifteen she lived as a recluse under the protection of the Dominicans, and remained in her cell for sixty-five years. Sybilla was beatified five hundred years later (1857).

Biset, Margaret – (c1215 – 1242)
English Plantagenet courtier
Margaret and her elder sister Emma Biset served as ladies-in-waiting to Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III (1216 – 1272). When her sister retired with an annual pension (1238), Margaret took over her former position in the royal household. With Margaret Biset’s early death Queen Eleanor paid her annual pension to her executors until 1245 so that masses could be said for her soul.

Bishop, Ann – (1899 – 1990)
British parasitologist and protozoologist
Bishop was born in Manchester, Lancashire, and attended Manchester University. She became a teacher with the Zoology Department at Cambridge University (1921), and was for many years a research fellow at Girton College. From 1929 she was associated with the Molteno Institute for Parasitology. Bishop did research into the mechanisms of drug resistance, which provided an understanding of the processes of the malaria protzoa. Ann Bishop was later elected a fellow of the Royal Society (1959).

Bishop, Anna Riviere, Lady – (1810 – 1884)
British soprano
Anna Riviere was born in London and attended the Royal Academy of Music from 1824. Her youth and beauty attracted the suit by the famous harpist Nicholas Boscha (1789 – 1856). The director of the Academy, Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786 – 1855), dismissed Boscha and married Anna himself (1826). The marriage declined because Anna wished to pursue her career as a concert singer, and Sir Henry thought such a career unseemly for his wife.
Anna Bishop made her London debut in 1831, and then Boscha re-entered her life (1839) and proposed to take Anna on tour with him as a harp accompanist. This suggestion much angered Sir Henry, and Anna left for a tour of the English provinces and the Continent. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia commissioned a series of concerts in St Petersburg. Anna toured America and Australia with Boscha, who later died of dropsy in Sydney, New South Wales (1856). Anna later returned to America where she remarried to Martin Schultz in New York (1856). She made two more subsequent tours of Australia, but loss all her possessions and savings when she ship in which she was travelling to China, was grounded on a coral reef in the Marianas for three weeks (1865). She returned to America but never really recovered from this disaster and retired in 1883. Lady Bishop died of apoplexy (March 18, 1884) in New York.

Bishop, Elizabeth Walton – (1911 – 1979)
American poet
Elizabeth was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. Her first two volumes of poetry, North & South (1946) and, Cold Spring (1955), won for her the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. She produced several other collections of verse, Questions of Travel (1965), Complete Poems (1969), and, Geography III (1976), as well as the travelogue Brazil (1962) and some English translations of Brazilian classics. Bishop taught at Harvard University and at the Institute of Technology in Massachusetts. Elizabeth Walton Bishop died (Oct 6, 1979) aged sixty-eight, at Boston.

Bishop, Ethel Alicia – (1892 – 1958)
Anglo-Australian painter
Ethel Bishop was born in Bath, Somerset and came to Australia during her childhood. She studied art under James Ashton (1906 – 1911), and continued her education at the National Gallery School in Melbourne, Victoria. Bishop was then employed as a teacher at the South Australian Scool of Arts (1914 – 1918), and then travelled to Britain, having won a travelling scholarship from the National Gallery School. Examples of her work are preserved in the Art Gallery of South Australia.

Bishop, Flower    see   Clarendon, Flower Backhouse, Countess of

Bishop, Hazel Gladys – (1906 – 1998)
American comsmetics manufacturer and inventor, she was born at Hoboken, New Jersey, the daughter of businessman Henru Bishop. She graduated from Barnard College, and was employed as a chemist at the Columbia University Medical Center, where she worked as a dermatologist, studying allergies and cosmetics. During WW II she held the position as a senior organic chemist with the company that is now Exxon, and with the end of the war she moved to Mobil.
It was at this time that she developed herself her own brand of kissproof lipstick, and in 1950 she formed the company Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her new product with the motto  ’ …. it stays on you not on him….’. It proved to be an instant success, but she became involved with a dispute with the Revlon Company, as well as a dispute with her own shareholders. When she left her company in 1954 the sales had exceeded to million dollars annually. She then set up Hazel bishop Laboroatories, but ran into legal problems with her former partner, and could not use her own name to sell her products. In 1962 she became a stockbroker with Bache & Company, and later a financial analyst, but with the remergence of the the popularity of cosmetic products, her advice was sought after, and she joined the lecture circuit which proved very successful for her. In 1978 she was appointed an adjunct professor at the Fashion Institute of Technology in Manhattan, and later to the Revlon Chair in Cosmetics Marketing at F.I.T. (1980). Hazel Bishop died at Rye, New York.

Bishop, Isabella Lucy Bird – (1832 – 1904)
British explorer, traveller, and writer
Isabella Bird was born (Oct 15, 1832) at Boroughbridge Hall, Yorkshire, the daughter of Edward Bird, rector of Tattenhall, Cheshire, and his wife Dorothy, the daughter of Marmaduke Lawson, of Boroughbridge Hall and Aldborough Manor, Yorskhire. Bishop wrote extensively of her foreign travels, and her publications included, The Englishwoman in America (1856), Six Months in the Sandwich Islands (1873), A Lady’s Life in the Rocky Mountains (1874), Unbeaten Tracks in Japan (1880, 2 vols.), The Golden Chersonese (1882), Journeys to Persia and Kurdistan (1892, 2 vols.), Among the Tibetans (1894), Korea and Her Neighbours (1898, 2 vols.), The Yangtze Valley and Beyond (1899), and, Pictures from China (1900). Isabella Bird Bishop died (Oct 7, 1904) aged seventy-one.

Bishop, Julie – (1914 – 2001)
American actress
Bishop was born in Denver, Colorado (Aug 30, 1914). She appeared in many films, notably as Laurie Smith in the wild western classic, Westward the Women (1951), with Robert Taylor. Julie Bishop died (Aug 30, 2001) on her eighty-seventh birthday, in Mendocino, California.

Bishop, Matilda Ellen – (1844 – 1913)
British educator
Matilda Bishop was born at Tichborne, in Hants, the daughter of Reverend A.C. Bishop of Oxford. Educated at Queen’s College, London, she was later appointed assistant mistress at Oxford High School (1875 – 1877) and then headmistress of Chelsea High School (1877 – 1879). From 1879 – 1887 she served as headmistress of Oxford High School, and she was then appointed as the first principal of the Royal Holloway College for Women (1887 – 1897). From 1899 till her death Matilda served as principal of St Gabriel’s Training College for Elelmentary Teachers. She remained unmarried.

Bithiah (Bethia) – (fl. c1250 BC)
Egyptian princess
The foster mother of the Hebrew prophet and leader, Moses, Bithiah was probably daughter to Ramesses I, and was thus sister to Seti I, and aunt to the Great Ramesses II. She is remembered in the Bible as being responsible for saving the infant Moses from a basket in the Nile River, and raising him as her own son, in the pharoah’s palace. Various versions of the story provide her with different names, such as Mercis, Myrrhina, and Thermuthis, but the Bible account merely refers to her as ‘the pharaoh’s daughter.’ Bithiah was portrayed on the screen by Dutch actress Nina Foch in the Cecil B. De Mille epic The Ten Commandments (1956), with Charlton Heston as her son, and Yul Brynner as Ramesses.

Bitri, Anita – (1968 – 2004)
Albanian-American violinist and vocalist
Born in Albania, Bitri began her career as a vocalist at an early age (1984) and performed the popular hit song’ First Love.’ She immigrated to the USA in 1996 and married name was Bitri-Prpaniku. She was in the process of recording two music labums, one in Albanian and one in English when she and several members of her family accidentally died (Oct 19, 2004) from carbon monoxide poisoning in New York. Anita Bitri was thirty-six years old.

Biydar – (1858 – 1918)
Ottoman sultana (1878 – 1909)
Biydar was born (May 5, 1858) in the Caucasus region. She became the second wife (1875) of Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842 – 1918) at Yildiz. With the birth of her son Prince Abdulkadir at Bechtikache Biydar was granted the title of Haseki Sultan (Princess Favourite). Abdulhamid I was deposed in 1909. Sultana Biydar died (Jan 13, 1918) aged fifty-nine, at Erenkeuy in Asia Minor shortly before her husband. Her children were Princess Naime Osmanoglu (1876 – 1945) the wife of Mehmed Kemaleddin Bey (1869 – 1920), and Prince Abdulkadir Osman (1878 – 1944) who served as a Colonel in the Ottoman Army.

Bjarkland, Unnur Benediksdottir    see   Huldah

Bjelke-Petersen, Marie Caroline – (1874 – 1969)
Danish-Australian writer
Marie Bjelke-Petersen was born at Jagtvejen in Denmark and received her education in London and Germany. She immigrated to Hobart in Tasmania with her family (1891) and was for several years employed by her brother as a physical instructor. Bjelke-Petersen achieved international acclaim with her romantic novel, The Captive Singer (1917), which sold well over one hundred thousand copies. Most of her works were set in the Tasmanian bush and had subtle religious themes. These works included, Jewelled Nights (1924), which was adapted for the cinema by actress Louise Lovely (1925), The Moon Minstrel (1927), and, Monsoon Music (1930). Her work was recognized by the award of the King’s Jubilee Medal (1935). Bjelke-Petersen remained unmarried. She was the aunt of notorious politician, Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen, who served as premier of Queensland (1968 – 1987). Marie Bjelke-Petersen died (Oct 11, 1969) aged ninety-four.

Black, Clementina Maria – (1853 – 1922)
British trade unionist, suffrage leader and writer
Clementina Black was the daughter of a coroner, and was raised at Brighton. She was a talented linguist, speaking fluent French and German which she taught to her younger sisters who included the translator Constance Garnett. She later lived in London with her sisters and remained unmarried. Clementina worked in the East End to improve the conditions for working women, and established the Women’s Trade Union Association.
Black co-founded a Women’s Labour Bureau with Frances Hicks. She later disbanded the WTUA which she reorganized into the Women’s Industrial Council (1894), and edited the organization’s journal The Women’s Industrial News for a time. Her published works included Sweated Industry and the Minimum Wage (1907) and Married Women’s Work (1915), as well as various novels such as Orlando (1880) An Agitator (1894) and several dramatic works for children.

Black, Dorrit Foster – (1891 – 1951)
Australian painter
Dorothea Black was born in Adelaide, South Australia, the daughter of an engineer and studied painting at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts and the Julian Ashton Art School.
An allowance paid by her father, as well as money earnt by herself as a teacher, enabled Dorrit Black to travel to England, where she continued her studies at the Grosvenor Art School, and then to Paris, where she studied at the academy of Andre Lhote. Foster was foundation vice-chairman of the Contemporary Art Society of South Australia (1942). Examples of her work are preserved in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, and at the state art galleries of South Australia and New South Wales. Dorrit Black was killed in Adelaide (Sept 13, 1951) aged fifty-nine, as the result of a car accident.

Black, Margaret Macleod – (1912 – 1993)
Scottish educator
Margaret Black was born (May 1, 1912), the daughter of James Black, and was educated at Kelso High School and at Edinburgh University. Black was appointed as mistress of Classics at the Lancaster Girls’ Grammar School (1936 – 1944) and later at the Manchester School for Girls in Lancashire. She was appointed headmistress of Great Yarmouth Girls’ High School (1950 – 1955), and then served fot two decades as headmistress of the Bradford Girls’ Grammar School (1955 – 1975). Margaret Macleod Black died (May 10, 1993) aged eighty-one, at Skipton in North Yorkshire.

Black, Veronica    see   Peters, Maureen

‘Black Agnes’    see   Dunbar, Agnes Randolph, Countess of

Blackborow, Sarah – (fl. c1650 – 1662)
English Quaker polemicist
Originally an Anglican, she was converted to Quaker theology. The depths of her new religious convictions are revealed in her three pamphlets A Visit to the Spirit in Prison (1658), The Goodwill of God to the World (1659), and The Just and Equal Balance Discovered (1660). Her later work The Oppressed Prisoners Complaint (1662) attacked the legal system as it was conducted in the Old Bailey.

Blackburn, Clarice – (1920 – 1995)
American stage actress
Clarice Blackburn was born in San Francisco, California and graduated from the Texas State College for Women. She made her stage debut in The Circle of Chalk in Martha’s Vineyard (1947).
Blackburn appeared in other stage productions such as The Great Big Doorstep (1950), produced by the Equity Library Theater, American Gothic and The Grass Harp (both 1953) at Circle in the Square, and in the Broadway production of Desk Set (1955).
Miss Blackburn made appearances in other prodsuctions such as Juno (1959), The Miracle Worker (1961) and The Queen and the Rebels (1965), and won acclaim for her role as Zeena in the television production of Ethan Frome (1960). She later appeared in television soap operas and won Emmy Awards (1985) and (1988) for her part in writing the television serial All My Children. Clarice Blackburn died of cancer (Aug 5, 1995) aged seventy-four, in Manhattan, New York.

Blackburn, Helen – (1842 – 1903)
Irish suffrage campaigner
Blackburn was born at Knightstown on Valencia Island, the daughter of a civil engineer. She came to London as a young woman and quickly became involved with the movement for women’s suffrage. Helen Blackburn served as the secretary of the London Central Committee for Women’s Suffrage (1874 – 1895), of the Bristol and West England Society (1880 – 1895), and of the London Central Association (1887 – 1895).
Blackburn served as the editor of The Englishwoman’s Review (1881 – 1890) and was a close friend of Jessie Boucherett, with whom she established the Freedom of Labour Defense League (1899). Together they published The Condition of Working Women and the Factory Acts (1896). Her own published works included A Handbook for Women Engaged in Social and Political Work (1881), The Women’s Suffrage Calendar (1896) and Women’s Suffrage: a Record of the Women’s Suffrage Movement in the British Isles (1902). Miss Blackburn was appointed as the official delegate to the Trades Union Congress (1881) for the Bristol National Union of Working Women.

Blackburn, Jemima – (1823 – 1909)
Scottish painter and landscape artist
Jemima Wedderburn was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of James Wedderburn the Scottish Solicitor General. Jemima learnt to draw, particularly animals, from an early age, and her talent in this field much impressed the painter Sir Edwin Landseer. Mrs Blackburn became the foremost animal painter in Britain, and specialized in portraying the wildlife of the Scottish Highlands. She illustrated over two dozen books including Birds from Nature (1862).

Blackburn, Jessy – (1894 – 1995)
British aviatrix
Jessica Thompson was born at Cradley in Worcestershire. She made her first flight at Roundhay Park in Leedes and became one of the first British women to fly a monoplane prior to WW I. Jessy became the wife (1914) of Robert Blackburn with whom she worked to establish the Blackburn Aircraft Company (1915) which supplied biplanes for the military during the war. Jessy Blackburn twice competed in the King’s Air Cup Races (1922) and (1928). With her divorce (1936) her association with Blackburn Aircraft ended.

Blackford, Susan Leigh – (1833 – 1903)
Southern American landowner and letter writer
Susan Blackford was the wife of Charles Minor Blackford, a Confederate plantation owner in Virginia. She kept a private diary and journal, and her letters to her husband during the Civil War (1861 – 1865) were later published in two volumes as Memoirs in and Out of the Army in Virginia during the War Between the States (1894 – 1896).

Blackmore, Bettie Crosthwaite Ridley (Rebeccah) – (c1841 – 1864)
Southern American civil war diarist
Four of her brothers and her husband, George Blackmore, served with the Confederate army in Tennessee. Bettie’s journal, which she began in 1863, gave accurate and unvarnished descriptions of army life, but died before the end of the war, whereupon her mother continued her diary until 1865. It was published posthumously as, Behind the Lines in Middle Tennessee, 1863 – 1865: The Journal of Bettie Ridley Blackmore.

Blackwell, Alice Stone – (1857 – 1950)
American feminist and editor
Alice Blackwell was the daughter of the famous radical Henry Brown Blackwell and his wife, the feminist pioneer Lucy Stone. She edited the American Women’s Journal which had been established by her parents.

Blackwell, Antoinette Louisa Brown     see    Brown Blackwell

Blackwell, Elizabeth (1) – (1712 – 1774)
British painter
Elizabeth was born in Scotland and was the wife of a physician, Alexander Blackwell, who abandoned his profession in or to become a printer and was thrown into prison for debt. In order to facilitate his release, Elizabeth drew and engraved A Curious Herbal (1737 – 1739) to raise the money required to pay his debts. This work contained five hundred illustrations. Her husband was later executed for treason in Sweden, where he had been the personal physician to King Adolphus Frederick. Two other late editions of her work were published, at Nuremburg (1757 – 1773) and at Leipzig in Saxony, this last under the title Herbarium Blackwellianum (1794).

Blackwell, Elizabeth (2) – (1821 – 1910) 
Anglo-American physician
Elizabeth Blackwell was born (Feb 3, 1821) in Bristol, England. Taken to American as a child, she studied in New York, and in 1849 became the first woman medical graduate, having by this time travelled to London to study at St Bartholomew’s hospital, she later (1859) became the first woman physician to be enrolled on the British medical register. Returning to America Elizabeth organized nursing services for the military during the Civil War.
In 1869 she settled permanently in England, and became one of the co-founders of the National Health society (1871). In 1875 became a professor at the London School of Medicine for Women, which she had helped establish. Her published works included The Human Element in Sex (1884), The Influence of Women in the Profession of Medicine (1889) and Christianity in Medicine (1891). Elizabeth Blackwell died (May 31, 1910) aged eighty-nine.

Blackwell, Emily – (1826 – 1910)
Anglo-American physician
Emily Blackwell was born in Bristol, the younger sister of Elizabeth Blackwell. She came to America with her family as a child (1832) and she attended Cleveland University. After working with the obstetrician Sir James Young Simpson as his assistant, Emily Blackwell returned to New York where she assisted her sister with the establishment of the The New York Infirmary for Indigent Woman and Children (1856). Emily ran the city dispensary for four decades (1869 – 1910) and served for three decades (1869 – 1899) as the dean and Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women at the Women’s Medical College.

Blackwood, Alicia Lambart, Lady – (1818 – 1913)
British diarist
Alicia Lambart was the daughter of George Frederick August Lambart, Viscount Kilcoursie, and was raised to the rank of an earl’s daughter (1838) when her brother Frederick succeeded as eighth earl of Cavan. She married (1849) James Stevenson Blackwood, a Church of England cleric. Blackwood and her husband travelled to the Crimea after the disastrous British defeat at the Battle of Inkerman (1854), to assist with hospital work. After a meeting with Florence Nightingale in Scutari, Lady Alicia was assigned the care of some two hundred officer’s wives, all riddles with ill-health and starvation. With the aid of the military commandant, Sir William Paulet, the couple managed to rent a house in Scutari, which they fitted out as a hospital. She organized some of the women to work as nurses, and set up a laundry, where the women actually received wages, and a nursery, so that the children of working mothers could be supervised. Lady Blackwood was the author of, A Narrative of Personal Experiences and Impressions during a Residence on the Bosphorus during the Crimean War (1881). Lady Alicia Blackwood died (July 30, 1913) aged ninety-five.

Blackwood, Beatrice Mary – (1889 – 1975)
British anthropologist and ethnologist
Blackwood was the daughter of James Blackwood, of St John’s Wood. Attending Somerville College and Oxford University, Beatrice passed her anthropology course with distinctions, and then carried out research in the Northern Solomons, New Guinea and New Britain, for several universities. Her calibre of work earned her the Rivers Memorial Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1943) and she was elected to the Society of Antiquaries (1948). In conjunction with T.K. Penniman, the curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford Beatrice edited the museum’s Occasional Papers, on technology. Her work Both Sides of the Buka Passage (1935) dealt with her research in the Solomons.

Blackwood, Lady Caroline – (1931 – 1996)
British author
Lady Caroline Blackwood was born (July 16, 1931) at Clandeboyne House, in Northern Ireland, the daughter of the fourth Marquess of Dufferin and Ava and his wife Maureen Guinness. Brought up in Ireland Caroline grew into a tall, blonde-haired and blue-eyed beauty. She gravitated towards the post-war Bohemian culture of Soho in London, and was prominent in Liberal circles in New York during the 1960’s. A famous beauty, her three marriages were all too prominent men, to the painter Lucien Freud (1953 – 1958), to the composer Israel Citkowitz, to whom she bore three daughters and from whom she separated before his death, and thirdly (1972 – 1977) to the American poet Robert Lowell whom she survived.
Lady Caroline wrote ten books including the anthology of stories entitled For All That I Found There and the novel The Stepdaughter (1976) for which she was awarded the David Higham Prize. Her most famous work Great Granny Webster (1977) was short-listed for the Booker Prize, whilst In the Pink (1987) dealt with the hunting set. Her last work The Last of the Duchess (1995) was a biography of the Duchess of Windsor. Plagued by alcoholism for most of her life, she was the model for Freud’s famous painting Girl In Bed. From 1987 she resided permanently at Long Island in the USA. Lady Caroline Blackwood died of cancer (Feb 14, 1996) in New York, aged sixty-four.

Blackwood, Dame Margaret – (1909 – 1986)
Australian botanist and geneticist
Margaret Blackwood was born (April 26, 1909), the sister of Robert Blackwood the first chancellor of Monash University in Melbourne. She was educated at Melbourne University and served with the WAAF (Women’s Auxiliary Air Force) during WW II. Afterwards Blackwood became a lecturer in botany and travelled to England for further study at Cambridge University. She lectured for over two decades (1951 – 1975) at Melbourne University.
Margaret Blackwood served as a council member of Melbourne University (1975 – 1983) and with her appointment as deputy chancellor (1981 – 1983) she became the first Australian woman to hold such a position. She was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her valuable contribution to education. Dame Margaret Blackwood remained unmarried and died (June 1, 1986) aged seventy-seven, in Melbourne.

Blagge, Margaret     see   Godolphin, Margaret

Blahetka, Leopoldine – (1810 – 1887)
Austrian pianist and composer
Marie Leopoldine Blahetka was born at Guntramsdorf, near Vienna. She achieved recognition as a concert pianist and as a dramatic composer. Leopoldine Blahetka died at Boulogne in France.

Blaine, Anita Eugenie McCormick – (1866 – 1954)
American philanthropist
Anita McCormick was born (July 4, 1866) in Manchester, Vermont, the daughter of the noted inventor, Cyrus Hall McCormick and his wife Nettie Fowler. Privately educated she also attended the Kirkland School in Chicago, Illinois. She was married (1889) to Emmons Blaine, a lawyer and businessman. With the noted Progressive educator Francis W. Parker, Mrs Blaine founded the Chicago Institute (1899) to train teachers in this method, and placed Parker in overall charge. The organization later merged with the University of Chicago School of Education (1901) the same year that Anita Blaine founded the Francis W. Parker School, which was directed by Flora Cooke. Mrs Blaine later served as a member of the Chicago Board of Education (1905 – 1907).
With the death of her son from influenza (1918), Anita Blaine devoted her entire energies to philanthropic activities. She campaigned for American inclusion within the League of Nations, and was a financial supporter of the League of Nations Association. During WW II she made a substantial donation to Madame Chiang Kai-Shek (1943) for the assistance of Chinese war orphans.  Anita McCormick Blaine died (Feb 12, 1954) in Chicago, aged eighty-seven.

Blaine, Catherine – (1829 – 1908)
American educator, traveller, and letter and journal writer
Catherine was the wife of David Blaine, the first Methodist clergyman appointed to Seattle in Washington State, and was employed as a teacher at the first public school established there.
Catherine Blaine’s private journal describing her sea voyage from the east coast of the USA to Seattle via Panama, and her letters were edited and published in Washington as, Memoirs of Puget Sound: Early Seattle, 1853 – 1856.The Latters of David and Catherine Blaine (1978).

Blaine, Harriet Bailey Stanwood – (1828 – 1903)
American socialite and diplomatic figure
Harriet Stanwood was the wife of James G. Blaine, who served as secretary of State under presidents Garfield and Arthur. Her private correspondence covering a period of three decades (1869 – 1899) was published posthumously in New York in two volumes as, Letters of Mrs James G. Blaine (1908).

Blair, Catherine – (1872 – 1946)
Scottish painter and reformer
Catherine was born in Bathgate in Midlothian. She became involved with the female suffrage movement and was closely associated with the Scottish Women’s Rural Institute. Blair was the proponent of movement to promote pottery as a cottage industry and founded the Mak’ Merry Pottery company (1920) in Macmerry in East Lothian.

Blair, Reverend David    see   Fenwick, Eliza

Blair, Emily Jane Newell – (1877 – 1951)
American suffrage leader, feminist, writer and Democratic Party official
Emily Jewell was born (Jan 9, 1877) in Joplin, Missouri. She attended secondary school in Carthage, and then attended the University of Missouri, though she did not graduate. She was educated and trained as a schoolteacher. Emily was married (1900) to a law student, Harry Wallace Blair, to whom she bore two children. Blair began her political career when she joined the Missouri Equal Suffrage Association, and she became editor of the monthly feminist publication, the Missouri Woman (1914). During WW I she  became vice chairman of the Missouri Woman’s Committee of the Council of National Defense, which organization was in charge or organizing female workers for the war effort. She assisted with the establishment of the League of Women Voters (1920) but later disavowed the organization. Emily Blair was later appointed as vice-president of the Democratic National Committee (1924), being the organization’s only female national officer. She later assisted with the establishment of the Women’s National Democratic Club, serving as secretary (1922 – 1926) and then as president. Her written works included a book on home decoration entitled, The Creation of a Home (1930), and the novel, A Woman of Courage (1931). Blair retired from the War Department after sufferring a stroke (1944). Emily Blair died (Aug 3, 1951) aged seventy-four, in Alexandria, Virginia.

Blair, Dame Emily Mathieson – (1889 – 1963)
Scottish nursing administrator
Emily Blair was born at Lenzie, near Glasgow, the daughter of a manufacturer. She trained as a nurse at the Western Infirmary in Glasgow, and served during WW I with the QARNNS (Queen Alexandra’s Royal Naval and Nursing Service). With the end of the war Blair transferred (1918) to Princess Mary’s RAF (Royal Air Force) Nursing Service, of which she was later appointed as matron-in-chief (1938 – 1943).
Blair then served as the matron-in-chief of the British Red Cross Society (1943 – 1953) and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1943) by King George VI in recognition of her public service. She was also the recipient of the Florence Nightingale Medal (1947). Dame Emily Blair died (Dec 25, 1963) aged seventy-four, in London.

Blake, Amanda – (1929 – 1989)
American actress and campaigner
Born Beverly Louise Neill in Buffalo, New York, she studied acting at the Studio Club in New York, and graduated from Pomona College, at Claremont, California.
Blake made her fim debut in Duchess of Idaho (1950) with Esther Williams, and also appeared in, Stars in My Crown (1950), Lili (1953), A Star is Born (1954), About Mrs Leslie (1954), and High Society (1956), with Bing Crosby, Grace Kelly and Frank Sinatra, amongst other film credits. However, she was best remembered for the role she made famous on CBS television, that of Miss Kitty in the series Gunsmoke, which she played for twenty years (1955 – 1975). Blake later settled in Scottsdale, Arizona, and became a prominent animal rights campaigner and anti-smoking activist, being awarded the Courage Award (1984) from the American Cancer Society. Amanda Blake died (Aug 16, 1989) in Sacramento, California.

Blake, Marie     see    Rock, Blossom

Blamire, Susanna – (1747 – 1794) 
British poet
Known as the ‘Muse of Cumberland,’ some of her work was produced in conjunction with Catherine Gilpin. Blamire’s poems truthfully and accurately portrayed ordinary daily life in Cumbria, and appeared in various magazines, but no collection of her works was published until 1842. She wrote several well known popular songs in the Scottish dialect including What ails this heart o’mine and The Traveller’s Return.

Blanca    see also   Blanche   and   Branca

Blanca de Bourbon – (1868 – 1949)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Blanca de Castille Maria de la Concepcion Teresa Francisca de Asis Margarita Juana Beatriz Carlota Luisa Fernanda Adelgunda Elvira Ildefonsa Regina Josefa Micaela Gabriela Rafaela was born (Sept 7, 1868) in Graz, Austria, the eldest daughter of Prince Carlos de Bourbon (1848 – 1909), Duque de Madrid, the Carlist pretender (Carlos VII) to the throne of Spain, and his first wife Margherita of Parma (1847 – 1893), the daughter of Carlo III, Duke of Parma. She was married at Frohsdorf Castle (1889) to the Hapsburg archduke Leopold Salvator of Tuscany (1863 – 1931) to whom she bore ten children. During WW I the Archduchess Blanca enrolled as a Red Cross nurse and organized hospital facilities at the front, and established herself as a protektorin (protector) of the Austrian women’s relief organization (Lands und Frauenhilfsverein) which was aimed at assisting the war effort. From 1918 – 1931, and from thence intermittently she resided in Spain. She survived her husband as the Dowager Archduchess and thereafter occasionally resided in Vienna. Archduchess Blanca died (Oct 25, 1949) aged eighty-one, at Viareggio in Italy. Her children were,

Blanchard, Madeleine Sophie – (c1770 – 1819)
French balloonist
Madeleine Blanchard was the wife of the aeronautist Jean Pierre Blanchard. A small woman of nervous disposition, she sufferred from various phobias, but was quite calm and composed aboard a balloon, and she made several successful ascents before her husband’s death in 1795. Her death was occasioned when her hydrogen balloon was ignited during a fireworks display. The balloon lost altitude and collided with a building. Madame Blanchard fell out and broke her neck, becoming the first woman to be killed in an aerial accident.

Blanchard, Ruth Elizabeth Becker – (1899 – 1990)
American disaster survivor
Ruth Becker was the daughter of Allen Oliver Becker, a missionary in India, and his wife Nellie Baumgartner. She was travelling on the ill-fated Titanic (April, 1912) with her mother, her sister Marion, and baby brother, Richard Becker (1910 – 1975). All were rescued in lifeboats, and rejoined Allen Becker at Benton Harbor in Michigan. Ruth Becker later trained as a teacher and taught high school in Kansas. She was married for two decades to David Blanchard, from whom she was later divorced. During her retirement, whilst residing in Santa Barbara in California, Blanchard gave interviews and attended conventions of the the Titanic Historical Society. A few months before her death, at the age of ninety, she went on a cruise to Mexico, her first sea voyage in almost eighty years.

Blanche I (Blanca) – (1386 – 1441)
Queen regnant of Navarre (1425 – 1441)
Princess Blanche was the daughter of Carlos III, King of Navarre and his wife the Infanta Leonora Enriquez of Castile, the daughter of Enrique II, King of Castile. She was married firstly (1403 as his second wife) to Martin I (1375 – 1409), King of Sicily, formerly Duke de Montblanch, the nephew of Pedro IV, King of Aragon and became the queen consort of Sicily (1403 – 1409). There were no surviving children. King Martin died young (1409) leaving Blanche and the kingdom to his father Martin I of Aragon who became King of Sicily as Martin II.
Martin II had no surviving children of his own and intended that Sicily, if not Aragon as well should pass to his grandson Federigo de Luna, a bastard son of Queen Blanche’s late husband. However with Martin II’s death (1410) the succession was contested and Ferdinand I el Antequera, the grandson of Pedro IV was chosen King of Aragon as Ferdinando I (1412). He defeated the partisan’s of de Luna and restablished Queen Blanche’s authority as regent of Sicily. From then on the Aragonese and Sicilian crowns remained untied for nearly three hundred years until the War of the Spanish Succession. Prince Humphrey Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, the brother of Henry V of England began negotiations for a possible marriage between himself and Queen Blanche (1419) but this came to nothing.
Queen Blanche then remarried (1420) and became the first wife of Juan II (1397 – 1479), King of Aragon, who was over a decade her junior and became queen consort of Aragon for two decades (1420 – 1441). Despite this age difference, the queen bore Juan a son and heir, Carlos of Aragon (1422 – 1462) Prince of Viana, who succeeded her in name as Carlos IV of Navarre (1441 – 1462), and two daughters Blanche II (Blanca) and Eleanor (Leonor), the wife of Gaston de Foix.
With the death of her father Carlos III (1425) Blanche became queen regant of Navarre, whilst King Juan became king consort only. Their children were the legal heirs to Navarre but Juan II found them to be a constant threat to the rule he was determined to establish in that country. In middle age the queen was large and good-natured and chroniclers record that she was fond of rich foods. Queen Blanche I died (April 1, 1441) aged fifty-four.

Blanche II (Blanca) – (1421 – 1464)
Titular queen regnant of Navarre (1462 – 1464)
Infanta Blanca was the younger daughter of Juan II, King of Aragon, and his first wife, Queen Blanche I, the widow of Martin, King of Sicily. She became the first wife (1443) of Enrique IV (Henry) (1425 – 1474), King of Castile (1454 – 1474). Her husband was nicknamed the Impotent, and the union remained unconsummated, though the king continued to treat her with outward displays of affection. The union was eventually ended after a decade (1453), the king being exculpated by the Pope, who declared that some vague form of witchcraft had prevented the consummation. Queen Blanche was sent home to Navarre (1455), but her father, who had governed the kingdom of Navarre after the death of her mother, and did not wish to hand over power, caused her to be confined in the castle of Ortiz in Bearn. With the death of her brother, Carlos IV of Navarre (1441 – 1462) without legitimate issue, Blanche succeeded as the tiular monarch of that country, but never ruled in her own right. Her father wanted to arrange for her to marry the French duc de Berry, but Blanche refusd to consider the match. She was never released from custody, and was eventually poisoned there by order of her ambitious sister, Leonor de Foix. She was buried within Ortiz Castle.

Blanche Capet (1) – (1240 – 1243)
Princess of France
Princess Blanche was born (Dec 4, 1240), the eldest child of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270) and his wife Margaret of Provence, the daughter of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence. She was named in honour of her maternal grandmother the famous Blanche of Castile, widow of Louis VIII (1223 – 1226). The princess died in infancy (April 29, 1243) aged only two years, and was interred within the Abbey of Royaumont. Her tomb and effigy, together with that of her brother Jean (1247), who also died an infant, were framed in medallions which were decorated with coloured enamel foliatures and the children’s coats of arms. Blanche was portrayed with her feet resting upon a greyhound, a symbol of her rank. Both of these tombs survived the destruction which followed the Revolution, and remain preserved at Royaumont within gilded and enamel copper plates.

Blanche Capet (2) – (1253 – 1323)
Princess of France and Infanta of Castile
Princess Blanche was born at Jaffa in Palestine, the third daughter of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270) and his wife Margaret of Provence, the daughter of Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy. She was named in honour of her paternal grandmother the famous Blanche of Castile, widow of King Louis VIII. Her father King Louis arranged for her to be married at Burgos (1268) to the Infante Ferdinando I de la Cerda (1256 – 1275) of Castile, the eldest son and heir of King Alfonso X of Castile, three years her junior.
Her husband died young leaving Blanche with two infant sons the Infantes Alfonso and Ferdinando. Blanche’s father-in-law King Alfonso, fearing the consequences of a long term regency if he should die chose instead to disinherit his grandsons and make his second son Sancho his heir instead. Finding herself sidelined and oppressed at the Castilian court, and her sons’heritage lost, Blanche appealed to her brother Philip III of France for protection. King Philip then sent ambassadors to the Spanish court desiring that Blanche and her children be given into his care. Philip was unabled to obtain guardianship of the children as Alfonso believed that the sons would be used to ferment rebellion in Castile when they reached manhood. He promised however that correct provision would be made for them and Princess Blanche was permitted to return to her brother’s court.
In Paris the princess paid for considerable enlargements to be made to the convent of the Cordeliers in the Faubourg St Mariel, and built the nuns a new church. Blanche then resided within the precincts of the new church where she passed the remainder of her life practicing religious piety and providing charity to the poor. Princess Blanche died (Jan 17, 1323) aged sixty-nine. Her children were,

Blanche Capet (3)(1277 – 1305)
Princess of France
Princess Blanche was born in Paris, the elder daughter of Philip III, King of France (1270 – 1285) and his second wife Marie of Brabant, the daughter of Heinrich III, Duke of Brabant. With the death of her father the princess and her sister Margeurite remained under the guardianship of her half-brother King Philip IV (1285 – 1314). An extremely beautiful woman whom poets and troubadours praised for her looks and sprightly nature as ‘Blanche la belle’ these reports reached the ears of the elderly widower Edward I, King of England (1272 – 1307). Negotiations for Edward’s marriage with Blanche began in 1291 but continued for several years with no result. The ageing king became quite besotted over the glowing reports given him of Blanche by the French ambassadors, and Blanche received several letters from Edward which she answered in a hopeful vein.
Philip IV used King Edward’s infatuation for his sister to his full advantage and demanded that Gascony be restored to France in return for Blanche’s hand. Edward eventually agreed to this demand but then Philip betrothed Blanche (1297) to Rudolf III (1282 – 1307), Duke of Austria, five years her junior. King Edward had to be content with the hand of Blanche’s younger sister Marguerite instead (1299). Philip was actually keeping his sister in reserve for a marriage more politically advantageous. Rudolf of Austria had sought Blanche’s hand and his father the German king Albert I and Philip IV had arranged the marriage at a meeting in 1299. They were then betrothed at Toul in Lorraine in the same year.
Blanche was married to Rudolf (1300) and bore him an only child, a daughter who died in infancy. The duchess herself died suddenly (March 19, 1305) aged twenty-seven. In affectionate remembrance, and because of his marriage with her sister, Edward I of England commanded that prayers for the duchess’ soul be said at Canterbury Cathedral in Kent (1306). Princess Blanche enjoyed a reputation for religious piety and sanctity and was venerated (April 26) in the convent of Longchamps near Paris, founded by her great-aunt Princess Isabelle Capet. She is mentioned in the Franciscan Martyrology.

Blanche de Valois (1) – (1312 – 1358)
Princess of France
Blanche was born in Paris, the fourth daughter and fourth child of Philip V, King of France (1316 – 1322) and his wife Jeanne of Burgundy, the daughter of Eudes IV, Count of Burgundy and his wife Maude de Artois. When aged only four Blanche was placed with the Franciscan nuns at the Abbey of Longchamps (1316). Early in 1317 her father appears to have considered marrying Blanche to Louis, Count of Nevers the heir of Flanders. Queen Jeanne however, would not hear of this and her younger daughter Margeurite was married to the Count instead.
Blanche was professed as a nun (1327) and she later inherited certain properties inherited from her mother (1331). She received permission from Pope Clement VI to have two secular women in attendance upon her as befitted her royal rank. She later succeeded as the Abbess of Longchamps and at her won request King Jean II granted the abbey a house with gardens for the use of the nuns. The nuns were also granted wood from the forest of Rouvroy by royal permission. During the English invasion (1357) the Abbess and her nuns fled for safety to the city of Paris. Princess Blanche died (April 26, 1358) aged forty-five.

Blanche de Valois (2) – (1328 – 1392)
Princess of France
Princess Blanche was born (April 11, 1328), the posthumous child of Charles IV, King of France (1322 – 1328) and his third wife Jeanne d’Evreux. Her father died (Feb, 1328) leaving only one daughter Marie and a pregnant widow, and the two months preceeding Blanche’s birth were full of anxiety and anticipation that the child would prove to be a son and heir. As Blanche was female the Salic Law prevented throne passing to a female and her cousin Philip de Valois was crowned king as Philip VI (May 29, 1328).
Nevertheless Blanche was a rich matrimonial prize, as with the death of her elder sister (1341) she became the sole heiress of her mother the Dowager Queen Jeanne, and from birth bore the title of Comtesse de Beaumont-le-Roger. Her uncle Philip VI offered Blanche as a bride (1343) to Pedro, the son of Alfonso of Castile, in an attempt to prevent Castile from joining forces with England against France, but Pedro was betrothed to a daughter of Edward III of England instead. In the prescence of her mother, Philip VI and the entire court the princess was married (1344) to the king’s younger surviving son Prince Philip (1336 – 1375), Duc d’Orleans who was eighty years her junior. The marriage remained childless.
During the rising of the Jacquerie (1358) the duchess was residing in her castle at Beaumont-sur-Oise. Warned in time of the approach of these murderous rebels she escaped with her household and fled to Paris for safety. Madame d’Orleans gave so much of her property away yo the poor and needy that at her death very little of her property was found to be intact. Despite her charitable nature however the duchess remained proud of her illustrious lineage. The historian Sainte-Marthe in his Histoire de la Maison de France recorded an example of her proud nature. On one occasion when displeased by something said to her by Philip VI of Jean II Blanche replied that had it pleased God to allow her to be born a man instead of a woman, they would not have dared to speak to her in that manner, implying that she would then have been the king and they the subject.
Blanche survived her husband as the Dowager d’Orleans (1375 – 1392) and for some years she was a figure of social prominence at the court of Charles VI and Queen Isabeau. The Duchesse d’Orleans died (Feb 7, 1392) aged sixty-three. She was interred within the Chapel of Notre Dame (White Chapel) beside her sister Marie in the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris.

Blanche of Anjou – (1280 – 1310)
Queen consort of Aragon (1295 – 1310)
Princess Blanche was the eldest daughter of Charles II of Anjou, King of Naples, and his wife Maria of Hungary. She became the second wife (1295, at Villabertran) of Jaime II, King of Aragon (1265 – 1327), and bore him a large family of twelve children. The marriage had been arranged by the king’s trusted adviser, Don Berenger de Lauria, after he had met the princess at Perpignan. The union had also been supported by Pope Boniface III as a token of the reconciliation thus effected between the royal houses of Anjou and Aragon. By the terms of the treaty, King Jaime surrendered his rights to the kingdom of Sicily in return for Sardinia and Corsica being granted him by the papacy.
Thus Blanche was wideley revered throughout Aragon as ‘the Saintly Queen, the White Lady of Holy Peace.’ The queen’s marriage was one of domestic happiness, and she devoted much of her short life to the care and education of her many children, most notable of whom were, Infante Jaime (1297 – 1334), who renounced his rights to the throne, and became Grand Master of the Order of St John, Alfonso IV (1299 – 1336), King of Aragon (1327 – 1336), and, Isabella (1300 – 1330), the wife of Frederick III, King of Germany. Queen Blanche died (Oct 14, 1310) aged only thirty, at Barcelona, from the effects of childbirth, and was interred at her own request, in the Abbey of Santa Creus.

Blanche of Artois – (1247 – 1302)
Queen consort of Navarre (1269 – 1274)
Blanche was the daughter of Robert I, Count of Artois and his wife Matilda of Brabant, the daughter of Heinrich II, Duke of Brabant. She was named in honour of her paternal grandmother Blanche of Castile, the wife of Louis VIII of France. Blanche was married firstly (1269) to Henry I (1239 – 1274), King of Navarre, by whom she was the mother of a son Theobald (1270 – 1273) who died in infancy, and Queen Jeanne I of Navarre (1271 – 1305), later the wife of Philip IV, King of France (1285 – 1314). They were crowned together at Pampeluna (March, 1273).
With the death of King Henry the queen mother ruled Navarre as regent (1274 – 1275) for their daughter. She relinquished the regency in favour of her son-in-law Philip, and then remarried a second time (1276) to Prince Edmund Plantagenet (1245 – 1296), Earl of Lancaster, the son of Henry III, King of England, and younger brother of King Edward I. In consequence of this married Edmund was styled Count of Champagne and Brie in France. Whilst in England Blanche founder a convent of Clarissan nuns in London. Edmund died (June 5, 1296) at Bayonne whilst besieging Bordeaux, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. A year afterwards Blanche made an oath of fealty to King Edward I for her dower lands at Westminster (June 9, 1297) and she was then granted those lands the prince had possessed in the earldom of Ferrers, as in their marriage contract Edmund had granted Blanche a third of all his lands and all of his rights to the earldom. Her maternal granddaughter Isabella of Valois became the wife of Edward II of England. Queen Blanche died (May 2, 1302) in Paris, and was interred within the Church of the Minoresses in Aldgate, London. The children of her second marriage were,

Blanche of Bourbon – (1336 – 1361)
Queen consort of Castile (1352 – 1361)
Princess Blanche was the daughter of Pierre I, Duc de Bourbon, and his wife Isabelle de Valois, the granddaughter of Philip III, King of France (1271 – 1285). Her sister Jeanne became the wife of the Valois king Charles V (1364 – 1380). Brought up at Moulins, her proxy marriage (1351) to Pedro I the Cruel, King of Castile (1334 – 1369) was arranged by the Castilian diplomat, Don Juan Alonso de Alburquerque. However, the new queen and her entourage arrived in state in Valladolid, only to discover Pedro completely uninterested in his new wife, being instead besotted by his mistress, Maria de Padilla.
The king’s treatment of his queen caused ludicrous and embarrassing rumours to circulate, including the Blanche had acutally borne a child to Don Fadrique, Master of Santiago, and one of the ambassadors who had assisted with her marriage arrangments. The couple were married at the church of Santa Maria la Nueva in Valladolid (June 3, 1352) but the king refused to cohabit with Blanche at all, and returned to his mistress. A few days later Pedro ordered Blanche and her household to remove to the city of Toledo, and they never saw each other again. Pedro had the marriage declared null and void, and remarried to Juana de Castro, whom he also deserted a few weeks later. Blanche remained at the Alcazar Palace, in Toledo, with her duenna, Leonora de Soldena, whose devotion to the young queen, won from Pope Innocent VI a tribute of respect and admiration, and he sent a letter to the citizens of Toledo exhorting them to protect her.
Finally Pedro’s bastard brother, Henry Trastamara entered the city by a ruse (May, 1355). He caused Blanche to be sent to the Castle of Jerez, at Medina-Sidonia. She remained in captivity her for six years. Finally Pedro ordered the castellan Inigo Ortiz de Estuniga to poison her. When he gallantly refused, he was replaced by a simple ballaestro, Perez de Reballedo, who showed no hesitation in carrying out the king’s command. The death of this innocent woman, at the age of twenty-five, led to serious repercussions throughout Europe, and France used her untimely death as a pretext for war, which eventually toppled Pedro from his throne (1369).

Blanche of Burgundy – (1293 – 1326)
French princess
Blanche was the second daughter of Eudes IV (Otto), Count of Burgundy and his wife Maude of Artois, the daughter and heiress of Robert II, Count of Artois. Through her mother she was descended from Louis VIII of France (1223 – 1226) and his wife Blanche of Castile for whom she was named. Blanche was married (1307) to Prince Charles, Comte de La Marche (1294 – 1328), the third son of Philip IV of France (1285 – 1314). At the same time her elder sister Jeanne became the wife of Charles’s elder brother Philip, Comte de Poitiers.
Little is known of her married life save that it remained unhappy, though she bore a daughter named Jeanne who died in infancy (1321). Blanche’s personal behaviour became scandalous and the subject of common gossip. Princess Blanche, together with her sister-in-law Queen Margeurite of Navarre was accused of involvement in an illicit intrigue with two knights, Philippe and Gautier d’Aunoy (1314). Madame de Poitiers was also arrested and accused of having concealed this offence, but was later released and restored to her husband. After the knights confessed under torture, Blanche and Margeurite also confessed, and she was imprisoned at the Chateau Gaillard d’Andelys (1314 – 1322).
Though it seems that Blanche’s confession may have been coerced, the paternity of her son Philip (1314 – 1322) remains doubtful. Her mother believed Blanche to be guilty and Prince Charles however evidently believed her guilty also, as he refused to take her back as his wife. At Chateau Gaillard however, her conduct was flagrantly bad and Blanche bore an illegitimate child to one of her jailers. When her husband succeeded to the French throne as Charles IV (1322) Blanche’s marriage was finally annulled by a specially appointed ecclesiastical commission. She was then forced to become a nun at the Abbey of Maubuisson where she may have been reconciled with her mother. Blanche died (before April 5 in 1326).

Blanche of Castile – (1188 – 1252)
Queen consort and regent of France
Infanta Blanca was born (March 4, 1188) in Palencia, Castile, the daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, and his wife Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of Henry II, King of England (1154 – 1189), and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her marriage to Louis VIII of France (1187 – 1223) was arranged by her maternal grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine (1199) as a dynastic treaty between England and France, and she was escorted to France for the wedding by her grandmother (May 23, 1200, at Bordeaux). She brought as her dowry the long disputed lordships of Issoudon, Berry, and Gracay, in France. The marriage was amenable to both partners, and the couple eventually had twelve children.

In April, 1216, at a formal assembly held at Melun, Blanche officially claimed the English throne, and bravely supported her husband Louis’s hopeless attempt at invasion by organizing reinforcements from Calais. She then became involved in a war against the Cathar sect in southern France. Her husband succeeded his father Philip II as king in 1223, and the couple were crowned at the Abbey of St Denis, at Rheims (Aug 6). When Louis died (Nov, 1226) he appointed Blanche as regent, and made her guardian of their children. Her son Louis IX (‘Saint Louis’) (1214 – 1271) was then aged only twelve, and she quickly arranged within days for his anointing as king at Rheims (Nov 9). Queen Blanche ruled France alone from 1226 – 1234, being advised and supported by the papal legate, Cardinal Romano Frangipani. She dealt successfully with a coalition of powerful and rebellious barons, led by her cousin Pierre Mauclerc, duke of Brittany and the king’s uncle, Philippe Hurepel, Comte de Boulogne, who were supported by Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse and Henry III of England (1226). She also successfully routed the attacks mounted by the remaining French rebels and Henry III (1230), riding into battle, dressed in white on a white horse, at the head of her troops.
The queen proved less successful in dealing with the disturbances organized in Paris by the university students, and this caused the university to remove from Paris itself for several years (1229 – 1233). She made clever alliances and expanded her territory, gaining Blois, Chartres, and Sancerre for the crown by judicious agreement with her ally Theobald of Champagne, and the important counties of Toulouse and Provence through the arrangement of skilful marriage treaties, which saw her sons Louis and Alphonse married to the respective heiresses of these counties. Her struggles with Henry III of England included a bitter feud between Blanche and Henry’s mother, Isabella of Angouleme. Incensed by the proclamation of Blanche’s son Alphonse as count of Poitou (1240), in 1243 Queen Isabella led an attempted assasination of the prince. Blanche however, managed to thwart this plot, and forced Isabella into retirement at the Abbey of Fontevrault, from which she never emerged. A woman of forceful character, she retained a powerful influence over her son all of her life, especially after he came of age to rule (1234), and with regards to both government and religious affairs. Her second regency lasted from 1248, when Louis, much against her wishes, set out on a crusade, until her death four years later. With her third son Alphonse, she maintained the peace at home, despite the depletion of the country necessary to support the extravagance of a crusade. She personally negotiated for Louis’s release after the French defeat at the battle of El Mansourah.
Queen Blanche died (Nov 20, 1252) aged sixty-four, in the Louvre Palace, Paris. Of all French queens, none were more pious or more continuously admired throughout history than Blanche of Castile. Queen Blanche founded the two Cistercian monasteries of Notre Dame-la-Royale, at Maubuisson, Pontoise, where she was interred, and Notre Dame-du-Lys (also called Sainte Marie Royale), near Melun, where her heart was buried.

Blanche of Lancaster (1) – (c1305 – 1380)
English Plantagenet princess
Blanche was the eldest daughter of Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster (1326 – 1345) and his wife Matilda de Chaworth, the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth of Kidwelly. She became the wife (1316) of Thomas Wake (1298 – 1349), the second Baron Wake of Liddell without royal license. Wake had previously been betrothed to Joan the daughter of Piers Gaveston and the fine which Thomas paid for his secret marriage with Blanche, was paid to Joan Gaveston as compensation. By this marriage she became the aunt of Joan of Kent, the wife of the Black Prince and mother of King Richard II (1377 – 1399).
There were no children and Blanche survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Baroness Wake of Liddell (1349 – 1380). Sometime around 1355 Lady Wake was involved in a land dispute with Thomas Lisle, Bishop of Ely and she was later in disfavour with Edward, Prince of Wales for opposing his choice of the new Bishop of Lichfield (1359). She brought an action against the bishop for burning some of her tenements at Colne in Huntingdonshire and he was condemned to pay her damages without opportunity to answer the charges. When his chamberlain later murdered one of Lady Wake’s retainers he was forced to flee England (1356) and died abroad (1361).
Lady Wake was one of the ladies present at the funeral of Queen Philippa, the wife of Edward III (Aug, 1369). She was later appointed as executrix (Sept 12, 1379) of the will of John Wake of Blissworth, Rector of Belton. Lady Blanche died (July 10, 1380) aged about seventy-five, and was interred within the Church of the Friars Minor at Stamford in Lincolnshire. Her undated will was proved five days after her death at Liddington in Rutland (July 15). Her tombstone with a norman-French inscription was discovered at Stamford (1967) and is preserved in the museum there.

Blanche of Lancaster (2) – (1342 – 1368)
English heiress and patron
Princess Blanche was born (March 25, 1342) the younger daugher and co-heiress of Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster, and his wife Isabella, daughter of Henry de Beaumont, earl of Buchan. She was raised at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire. Blanche became the first wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the son of Edward III, at Reading Abbey, in Berkshire (1359) and became the mother of the future Henry IV (1367 – 1413).
With the early death of her childless sister, Maude, Duchess of Bavaria (1362), Blanche inherited the entire patrimony of the vast Lancaster estates, the control of which she brought to her husband and the crown. She was present at the marriage of her sister-in-law Princess Isabella with Lord Enguerrand de Coucy (July 27, 1365). A famous beauty, tall, blonde, and elegant, the duchess was famous as a patron of literature. The poet Geoffrey Chaucer translated a devotional poem to the Virgin Mary which he presented to the duchess. This work came to be known as the Book of the Duchess and was dedicated to her memory. This poem provides an insight into the character of Blanche whom Chaucer described as modest, refined, temperate, light-hearted and pious without sternness or coldness. Duchess Blanche died (Sept 12, 1368) aged twenty-six from the effects of childbirth, at Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire. She was interred within a marble tomb in a chantry next to the high altar in Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London. Her tomb and monument were destroyed during the Great Fire (1666). Her children were,

Blanche of Montferrat – (1472 – 1519)
Italian ruler
Princess Blanche was the daughter of Guglielmo XI, Marquis of Montferrat, and his wife Bernarde de Penthievre. She was married (1485) to Charles I, Duke of Savoy. With her husband’s early death (1490), Blanche ruled Savoy as regent for their son Charles II, who died at the age of seven (April, 1496), despite her extreme youth. The chronicler Philippe de Commynes was present during political negotiation conducted between the duchess and Charles VIII of France (1495), and left a record of the occasion. With the accession of her sons’s uncle, Duke Philip I, Blanche betrothed her daughter Violante Louisa to her cousin Philibert II of Savoy, but her early death (1499) ended this dynastic arrangement. Duchess Blanche died (March 30, 1519) aged forty-four.

Blanche of Namur – (1319 – 1363)
Queen consort of Sweden (1335 – 1363)
Countess Blanche was the daughter of Jean, Count of Namur, and was married (1335) to Magnus II Eriksson, King of Sweden (1316 – 1374), by whom she was the mother of kings Erik XII, who reigned jointly with his father and died childless (1359), Haakon (1374 – 1380) and three daughters. Queen Blanche was granted several large fiefs from Tunsberg in southern Norway for her dower lands. Despite her husband’s attachment to his male favourite Bengt Algotsson, Duke of Finland she maintained pleasant relations with him and became a figure of some not inconsiderable prominence. King Erik later appointed the queen to rule certain parts of Norway as regent. She and her husband were chided by St Bridget for their lack of religious piety, and enjoyment of court entertainments. They jointly granted her the estate of Vadstena, on the shores of Lake Wetten, for the foundation of her monastery (1346). Queen Blanche died aged forty-three.

Blanche of Navarre    see also   Sanchia of Navarre

Blanche of Navarre (1) – (1330 – 1398)
Queen consort of France (1349 – 1350)
Princess Blanche was the second daughter of Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre and her husband Philip III d’Evreux. Famous equally for her beauty of person and excellent qualities Blanche was popularly known as ‘Belle Sagesse.’ She remained devotedly attached to her brother Charles II of Navarre all her life, and he to her. Blanche was betrothed (1345) to Pedro, the son and heir of Alfonso XI of Castile but this engagement was broken. Instead Queen Jeanne accepted the suit of the recently widowed Dauphin Jean, the son of Philip VI (1293 – 1350), King of France (1328 – 1350) on behalf of her daughter, but the widowed King Philip admired Blanche also, and took advantage of Jean’s absence to marry the princess himself (Jan 29, 1349). The Dauphin was furious with his father for stealing his intended but was pacified when Philip provided him with a rich second wife in Jeanne of Auvergne.
Queen Blanche bore Philip a daughter Jeanne de Valois (1350 – 1371) who died unmarried. When her daughter was only three months old Philip VI died (Aug 22 – 23, 1350) at Nogent-le-Roi. Blanche was then the Queen Dowager of France for almost half a century (1350 – 1398). She retired from court to reside at the Chateau de Neauffle, near Paris with her daughter, and devoted herself to the child’s upbringing and education. Possessed of a gentle and affectionate nature Queen Blanche made many friend during her years as a royal widow, but no enemies, being universally beloved by the royal family and common people alike.
Despite the political activities of her brother Charles of Navarre, the Queen Dowager remained on excellent terms with her stepson Jean II (1350 – 1364), and it was due to her personal intercession that they were formally reconciled at the Louvre Palace (1355). When Charles was later captured and imprisoned the queen once again successfully mediated between him and the Regent Charles (Charles V). With the invasion of the English (1357) Queen Blanche and her household removed to Paris for safety, before retiring to reside at Melun. She served as one of the three godmothers to Princess Jeanne de Valois (1366) the daughter of Charles V and Jeanne de Bourbon.
Queen Blanche founded the chapel of St Hippolyte in the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris, for the souls of her later husband, her parents, their daughter Jeanne and herself (1372) with masses to be said in perpetuity. She was given first place in the coronation procession of Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of Charles VI (1388), being carried in her litter by the side of Queen Isabella when she entered Paris. Queen Blanche died (Oct 5, 1398) aged sixty-eight, at Neauffle. She was interred within the Chapel of St Hippolyte at St Denis.

Blanche of Navarre (2) – (1385 – 1413)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Originally named Juana she was the illegitimate daughter of Carlos II, King of Navarre and his mistress Catalina de Lizaso. She was the full sister of Leonel de Navarra (1378 – 1413), the first Visconde de Murazabal and Marshal of Navarre. She became the wife (1402) of Jean II de Grailly (died 1436), Count of Foix, Bearn and Bigorre.

Blanche of Valois – (1317 – 1348)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1346 – 1348)
Blanche was the daughter of Charles I, Count of Valois and his third wife Matilda of Luxemburg-St Pol. She was the paternal granddaughter of Philip III (1245 – 1285), King of France (1270 – 1285) and the much younger half-sister of Philip VI (1293 – 1350), King of France (1328 – 1350). She was married (1329) to Prince Charles of Bohemia (1316 – 1378) as his first wife. He had resided at the court of Charles IV of France for six years prior to their marriage.
Their daughter Margaret of Bohemia (1335 – 1349) became the first wife of Louis I (1326 – 1382), King of Hungary. When Charles became Margrave of Moravia Blanche became the Margravine consort and accompanied her husband to Moravia and the Tyrol. When Charles succeeded as King of Bohemia (1346) with the death of his father John of Luxemburg, Blanche became queen consort. Queen Blanche died (Aug 1, 1348). Her husband was later elected as Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV (1355 – 1378).

Blanche Plantagenet (1) – (c1270 – 1274)
Princess of England
Blanche was probably the fourth daughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor of Castile, the daughter of Ferdinando III, King of Castile. Princess Blanche died in infancy (before Aug 2, 1274) and was interred within Westminster Abbey in London.

Blanche Plantagenet (2) – (1342)
Princess of England
Blanche was born in the Tower of London (March, 1342) the third daughter of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) and his wife Philippa of Hainault, the daughter of William III, Count of Hainault. Because of her birthplace she was popularly known as ‘Blanche de la Tour’ (Blanche of the Tower). She died the same month as her birth and was interred within Westminster Abbey. Details recorded for her funeral arrangements state that the infant princess’s remains were conveyed in her mother’s chariot, attended by twelve of Queen Philippa’s valets dressed in mourning, to the Chapel of St Peter where she was interred within the same tomb as her infant brother William of Windsor. All her brothers and sisters were present for her funeral ceremonies. Her effigy in brass was later placed with those of all her family around their father’s tomb in St Edmund’s Chapel, but for Blanche and her brother William a separate monument was erected in the same chapel, though with no inscription.

Blanche Plantagenet (3) – (1392 – 1409)
Princess of England
Princess Blanche was born at Peterborough Castle during the spring of 1392, the elder daughter of Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, and his wife Lady Mary de Bohun, the younger daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex. She was the granddaughter of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster, for whom she was named, and the great-granddaughter of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) and Philippa of Hainault. Her mother died in 1394 and the care and education of Blanche and her younger sister Philippa was entrusted to their maternal grandmother Joan Fitzalan, Dowager Countess of Hereford. Her father deposed Richard II and became king as Henry IV (1402 – 1413).
Little is recorded of Blanche apart from the details of her birth and marriage. English ambassadors were appointed to treat with Duke Charles of Gueldres (1401) in order to arrange a marriage for Princess Blanche with Louis III (Ludwig) (1391 – 1436), Elector Palatine of the Rhine, the son Rupert, King of the Romans. The marriage was ratified at Dordrecht (June, 1401) and it was agreed that the princess should travel to Koln (Cologne) at Easter, 1402, and then be married at Heidelburg. Henry IV ordered financial levies to pay for Blanche’s travelling expenses and provided her with a dowry of forty thousand nobles. Financial problems meant that the princess and her household and escort did not leave England until June, 1402. Accompanied by the Earl of Somerset, the Bishop of Worcester and the Countess of Salisbury, Blanche was married to the elector Louis at Heidelberg (July 6) and became the Electress Palatine consort of the Rhine (1402 – 1409). Her father appointed her as a Lady of the Garter (1408). The Electress Blanche died from the effects of childbirth (May 22, 1409) aged seventeen, at Neustadt in Alsace, and was buried in the Church of St Maria in Neustadt. Her first child was stillborn (1407) and her younger, Count Rupert of the Palatine-Rhine (1409 – 1426) died unmarried aged seventeen. The question of payment of her dowry was not settled for forty years when the Palatine family finally paid off Blanche’s nephew Henry VI (1444).

Blanchfield, Florence Aby – (1882 – 1971)
American nurse and military officer
Florence Blanchfield was born (April 1, 1882) in Front Royal, Virginia, the daughter of a stonemason. She attended a secondary and then a private school in Oranda, Virginia. She successfully trained as a nurse in Pittsburgh (1906). Blanchfield was appointed as superintendant (1909 – 1913) of the Suburban General Hospital in Bellevue, Pennsylvania. During WW I she became a surgical nurse, but resigned in order to join (1917) the Army Nurse Corps (ANC). Blanchfield joined the Surgeon-General’s staff in Washington (1935) and during WW II was appointed as lieutenant colonel (1942) and then promoted as superintendant of the ANC, receiving the rank of colonel (1943). Colonel Blanchfield was concerned to gain full military rank for nurses serving in the war, and this was finally granted (1944) and confirmed by The Army-Navy Nurse Act (1947), the year of her own retirement. The army awarded her the Distinguished Service Medal (1945) and the International Red Cross granted her the Florence Nightingale Medal (1951). Florence Blanchfield died (May 12, 1971) aged eighty-nine, in Washington, D.C.

Bland, Edith    see   Nesbit, Edith

Blandford, Albertha Frances Anne Hamilton, Marchioness of – (1847 – 1932)
British Victorian peeress
Lady Albertha Hamilton was born (July 29, 1847) the sixth daughter of James Hamilton, first Duke of Abercorn and his wife Lady Louisa Jane Russell, the daughter of John Russell, sixth Duke of Bedford. She was a god-daughter of Queen Victoria. Raised simply without pretence and possessed of an amiable disposition, she was married (1869) in Westminster Abbey, London to George Spencer-Churchill (1844 – 1892), Marques of Blandford (later the eighth Duke of Marlborough) to whom she left four children.
Lady Blandford was possessed of few intellectual aspirations and was addicted to the playing of practical jokes, most of which she vented upon her unimpressed husband. He later deserted her for the charms of Lady Aylesford and being unable to secure a regular income form her husband Lady Blandford executed a deed of separation which secured her financial maintenance (1878). A marital reconciliation took place, but proved ineffectual and several years afterwards Lord and Lady Blandford were ultimately divorced (1883). A few months before the divorce became absolute Blandford succeeded to the dukedom of Marlborough, but Albertha retained the rank and style of Marchioness of Blandford until her death five decades later. She never remarried. Lady Blandford died (Jan 7, 1932) aged eighty-four. Her children were,

Blane, Amy Henrietta Leverson, Lady – (1885 – 1970)
British courtier
Amy Leverson was the elder daughter of Colonel George Francis Leverson, OBE (Order of the British Empire) and was married (1912) to Commodore Sir Charles Rodney Blaine of the Royal Navy, the fourth and last baronet of Blanefield, Ayrshire, Scotland. Lady Blane served as lady-in-waiting to HH Princess Helena Victoria, granddaughter of Queen Victoria (1945 – 1947) and then served as extra lady-in-waiting to her elder sister HRH Princess Marie Louise (1948 – 1956). She had been appointed O.St.J (Order of St John of Jerusalem) because of her hospital work during WW I, and was later appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1920) in recognition of her valuable work for the war effort. Having borne her husband an only daughter (1913), she was widowed when her husband was killed in action in Jutland (1916), and she was the Dowager Lady Blane for over fifty-five years. Lady Blane died (Jan 7, 1970) aged eighty-four.

Blane, Mary Magdalene – (1803 – 1881)
British letter writer
Mary Broughton was born (May 31, 1803) the daughter of Thomas Delves Broughton and his wife Elizabeth Hester Rowlls Legh of Addington Hall. She became the wife of Archibald William Blane (1788 – 1852) the foreign secretary to the Government of Mauritius, to whom she bore several children. Her daughter Minnie (Maria Lydia) Wood was living in India during the period of the Mutiny there (1856 – 1858) and she wrote home letters to Mrs Blane giving details of both Indian life and there upheavals then taking place. These letters were later edited and published by Mrs Blane’s great-granddaughter Dorothy Scobell Wood (1979). Mrs Blane survived her husband for thirty years and died (Oct 19, 1881) aged seventy-eight.

Bland, Beatrice – (1864 – 1951)
British painter
Bland was born near Lincoln, Lincolnshire (May 11, 1864), and studied painting at the Lincoln School of Art, and at the Slade School in London (1892 – 1894). Bland specialized in studies of flowers and landscapes, her work being exhibited at the Royal Academy and the New English Art Club. Her work Striped Camellias (1927) is preserved at the Tate Gallery in London. Beatrice Bland died (Jan 20, 1951) aged eighty-six, in London.

Bland, Dorothy     see    Jordan, Dorothy

Blankers-Koen, Fanny – (1918 – 2004)
Dutch athlete
Francina Blankers-Koen was born in Amsterdam. She trained as a sprinter and was a talented athlete. Fanny dominated the women’s events at the London Olympics (1948) at the Wembley Stadium where she won four gold medals, for the 100 metres, the 200 metres, the 80 metre hurdles and 400 metre relay. She became popularly known as the ‘flying Dutch housewife.’ Five decades later she was awarded the Athlete of the Century award by the IAAF (1999). Fanny Blankers-Koen died (Jan 25, 2004) aged eighty-five.

Blansy, Marie – (d. 1404)
French witchtrial victim
Famous for her herbalist knowledge and her interest in the occult arts, Marie de Blansy attempted the cure Charles VI le Fou (the Mad), King of France (1380 – 1422) of her periodic bouts of insanity, with the help of three male accomplices. When her spells and incantations proved ineffective Marie was condemned for witchcraft and was publicly burned to death in Paris.

Blasco, Ruth    see    Hall, Ruth (2)

Blatch, Harriet Stanton – (1856 – 1940)
American suffrage leader, feminist, and writer
Harriet Eaton Stanton was born in Seneca Falls in New York, the daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. She studied mathematics at Vassar College, and went to live in England after her marriage (1882) with English businessman William Blatch. With her return to the USA (1902) Mrs Blatch founded the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women (1907) and the Women’s Political Union (1908). She led the first large-scale parade for women’s suffrage in New York (1910) and published the works Mobilizing Woman-Power (1918) and A Woman’s Point of View, Some Roads to Peace (1920).

Blatch, Nora Stanton – (1883 – 1971)
American feminist and engineer
Nora Blatch was the daughter of Harriet Stanton Blatch. She became the first woman to be elected a junior member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (1909).

Blatherwick, Lily – (fl. 1877 – 1897)
Scottish painter
Lily Blatherwick resided at the small town of Helensburgh, near the Firth of Clyde, in Dunbartonshire. She specialized in flower studies, most notably of orchids, examples of which are preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Blatherwick’s work was exhibited for two decades at the Grosvenor Gallery (prior to 1890), with the Royal Academy, and with the New Water Colour Society. Her husband, A.S. Hartrick, also a painter, was a member of the Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Water Colour.

Blatta – (fl. c590 – c620)
Greek Christian saint
Blatta was sister to St Theodore Sykeota, Bishop of Anastasiopolis, in Ankyra in Asia Minor, who died in 613. Theodore was also archimandrite of the Christian monasteries in Galatia.
Blatta became a nun in Anastasiopolis, and her veneration feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (April 22).

Blaugdone, Barbara – (1609 – 1705)
English Quaker minister and memoirist
Blaugdone came from a comfortable background and received an excellent education. She worked as a school teacher in Bristol where she she was converted to the Quaker faith through the efforts of John Audland and John Camm. Her conversion caused the withdrawal of students from her school and its closure. Blaugdone then worked as a traveling Queaker minister, which she was able to finance from her own resources. She arranged for the release of fellow Quakers from prison and went to Ireland to pleade the Quaker cause before Henry Cromwell (1656 – 1657).
Barbara Blaugdone then returned to London but was sent to prison twice, and whipped in her cell when she embarked upon a hunger strike. With her release Barbara continued to work as a Quaker minister. She suffered further detention for attending a Quaker meeting (1681) and was fined for not attending her local Anglican church. Barbara Blaugdone remained unmarried and was the author of An Account of the Travels, Sufferings, and Persecutions of Barbara Blaugdone (1691).

Blavatsky, Elena Petrovna (Helena) – (1831 – 1891) 
Russian theosophist, mystic, and author
Elena Hahn was born in the Ukraine region of Russia. The details of her earlier life are not all that secure, though she appears to have travelled wideley, perhaps even into Tibet, eventually becoming an avowed spiritualist. She resided in New York from 1873 – 1878, and there she founded the Theosophical Society (1875). Elena later removed to reside in India, where she fully evolved her mystical creed and revelations. Despite the fact that the Society of Psychical Research remained unsatisfied by her supposed mystic powers, at the time of her death she ahd a cult following of over 100,000 people. Annie Besant became the leader of the theosophical movement in India. Her most famous work was Isis Unveiled (1877).

Blaze de Bury, Rose – (c1820 – 1894)
French journalist, traveller and novelist
believed to be the illegitimate daughter of a British peer, after her marriage Madame Blaze de Bury travelled throughout Germany and the Austrian Empire, and was the author of A Journey through Austria, Hungary and Germany during the events of 1848 and 1849 (1851).

Blecher, Miriam – (1912 – 1979)
American dancer and choreographer
Miriam Blecher was born in New York and attended Hunter College. She appeared as a solo artist with Martha Graham and Hanya Holm. During the Depression years she banded together with other dancers and companies, and became a member of the Workers’ Dance League. She co-founded the New Dance Group, and served as the director of this troupe for three years. Her routines were thematic and motivated by contemporary protests, and her best known work, Van der Lubbe’s Head was anti-Nazi. Her husband was George Sklar, the noted dramatist and critic.

Bleibtrey, Ethelda – (1902 – 1978)
American swimmer
Ethelda was born (Feb 27, 1902) in Waterford, New York. She began swimming after she had suffered from polio. Bleibtrey participated in the 1920 Olympic Games at Antwerp, where she won three gold medals for freestyle swimming events. Ethelda Bleibtrey died (May 6, 1978) aged seventy-six, in Palm Beach, Florida.

Bleschke, Johanna    see   Sanzara, Rahel

Blesilla – (fl. 509)
Gallo-Roman patrician
Blesilla was the daughter of Petronius Probus, consul (489 AD) and was sister to Petronius Nicomachius Cethegius, consul (504). They were possibly related to the family of the elder St Paula. The noted rhetorician and poet Magnus Felix Ennodius in his Epistulae mentioned Blesilla and her brother in his letter to Beatus in Rome, when he asked him to pass on his greetings to them.

Blessington, Margeurite Power, Countess of – (1789 – 1849) 
British traveller and diarist
Margeurite Power was born (Sept 1, 1789) the daughter of Edmund Power of Curragheen and Clorea, an Irish landowner. Having been forced into her first marriage at the age of fourteen (1804) by her father to Captain Maurice St Leger Farmer of Poplar Hall in Kildare, with his death (1817) Margeurite then remarried (1818) to Richard Gardiner (1782 – 1829), the first Earl of Blessington. Their house in London became a fashionable social and literary salon, and in 1834 the countess published A Journal of conversations with Lord Byron.
Lady Blessington achieved notoriety because of her romantic involvement with Alfred, Comte d’Orsay, the husband of her stepdaughter Lady Harriet Gardiner. D’Orsay remained her lover for twelve years, and she fled with him to France in 1849 so as to avoid imprisonment for debt. The Countess of Blessington died (June 4, 1849) aged fifty-nine. Her travel diary entitled The Idler in Italy (1839, 2 vols.) included two of her own poems To Pompeii and Lines on the Death of Lord Byron.

Blida – (c930 – c980)
Anglo-Saxon nun and saint
Blida was the mother of St Walstan (c950 – c1016), Bishop of Bamburgh in Northumberland. According to her sons Vita she was the daughter of an East-Anglian king or aetheling. In the eleventh century her supposed relics were removed to Marthan whence there was a chapel dedicated to her, and to which bequess were made as late as the reign of Henry VIII (1522). St Blida was represented on a screen, formerly in the Church of St James in Norwich, where she was depicted wearing a crown (inrecognition of her royal birth), and holding a book and a palm. This screen is now preserved in the north-east chancel of the Church of North Tuddenham. Like her son Blida seems to have enjoyed a restricted local cult and her feast day remains unknown.

Bligh, Lady Elizabeth    see   Clifton, Elizabeth Adeline Mary Bligh, Lady

Blind, Mathilde – (1841 – 1896)
German-Anglo poet and biographer
Born Mathilde Cohen at Mannheim in Germany, she was the daughter of a banker, but adopted the surname of Blind, the name of her stepfather. She published a volume of verse, entitled Poems (1867) under the pseudonym of ‘Claude Lake,’ and produced three long poems The Prophecy of St Oran (1881), The Heather on Fire (1886), and, The Ascent of Man (1889), an epic work based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. Mathilde Blind left her property by will to Newnham College at Cambridge.

Bliss, Gertrude Hoffmann, Lady (Trudy) – (1904 – 2008)
American-Anglo writer and broadcaster
Gertrude Hoffmann was born (April 2, 1904) in Belmont, Massachusetts, the daughter of the naturalist, Ralph Hoffmann. From her teenage years she resided in Santa Barbara, California. She became the wife (1925) of the noted composer, Sir Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss (1891 – 1975), who was best known for producing the score for Alexander Korda’s adaption for the screen of the work by H.G. Wells, Things to Come (1935). The couple had two daughters.
They resided in London, where she attended the Royal College of Music, and her husband dedicated to her his work, Serenade for Orchestra and Baritone (1929). During WW II her husband returned to England, but Trudy remained in the USA with their children. She contributed American cookery recipes to the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) program, The Kitchen Front. After the war she co-wrote, Come into the Kitchen (1946) with Alexie Gordon. Her husband was knighted by King George VI (1950) and Trudy became Lady Bliss, Lady Bliss was the author of two other works Jane Welsh Carlyle – A Selection of Her Letters (1949), and, Thomas Carlyle: Letters to his Wife (1953). Trudy survived her husband for over three decades as the Dowager Lady Bliss (1975 – 2008), and founded the Bliss Charitable Trust (1987), which promoted the work and recordings of her late husband, and was also a vehicle to assist new talent. Lady Bliss died (Nov 21, 2008) aged 104 years.

Bliss, Kathleen Mary – (1908 – 1989)
British theologian, lecturer and author
Kathleen Mary Moore was born (July 5, 1908), and was educated at Girton College at Cambridge. She was married (1932) to the clergyman Rupert Bliss to whom she bore three daughters. Mrs Bliss worked as a teacher in India until 1939, and was the editor of the Christian Newsletter (1945 – 1949). She organized official studies of education in industry and was appointed as the General Secretary of the Church of England Board of Education (1958 – 1966).
Mrs Bliss was a select preacher before the University of Cambridge (1967) and was a member of the Public Schools Commission (1967 – 1970). She was the lecturer in religious studies at the University of Sussex (1967 – 1972). Her published works were The Service and Status of Women in the Churches (1951), We the People (1963) and The Future of Religion (1969). Kathleen Bliss died (Sept 13, 1989) aged eighty-one.

Blitch, Iris Faircloth – (1912 – 1993)
American politician
After marrying and raising her family Mrs Blitch joined the Democratic Party. She proved successful in the 1954 primary election and became the fourth woman to represent the State of Georgia in Congress (1955 – 1963). She refused to seek re-election due to reasons of health and later resigned from the Democratic Party (1965), though she gave her support to the unsuccessful Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater. Iris Faircloth Blitch died (Aug 19, 1993) aged eighty-one, in California.

Blithilde of Cologne – (c507 – c550)
Merovingian princess
Blithilde was the daughter of Cloderic the Parracide, King of the Franks at Cologne (Koln) and his first Bavarian wife, the unnamed daughter of Agilolfinges. Her unnamed stepmother was a relative of Clotilda of Burgundy, the mother of Clovis I who caused her father to be killed (509) in revenge for his own murder of her grandfather King Sigebert the Lame. She was an infant and was raised at the court of her kinswoman Queen Coltilda. Clovis himself would have arranged for her marriage.
Blithilde then became the wife (c525 or before) of senator Ansbert (c505 – 570). He became the Margrave of Scheldt, possibly around the time of his marriage, and Blithilde became the Margravine of Scheldt and predeceased her husband. Her third son Ferreolus was born at Narbonne. Through her son Arnoald Blithilde was a direct ancestress of the Carolingian royal house and provides an early connection between that dynasty and the preceeding Merovingians. Her children were,

Blithilde of Neustria – (c557 – c603)
Merovingian princess
Princess Blithilde was the daughter of Clotaire I (496 AD – 561), King of Neustria, and his seventh wife Vuldetrada, the daughter of Vaccho, King of Lombardy and widow of King Theodovald of Austrasia. Her mother remarried to Garivald I, Duke and King of Bavaria and she was half-sister to the famous Queen Theodelinda of Lombardy. She was the paternal granddaughter of King Clovis I (481 AD – 511) and his second wife Clotilda of Burgundy. Blithilde became the second wife (c572) of Arnoald I (c537 – 611), Margrave of Scheldt and was the stepmother of St Gertrude, Abbess of Hamage. She died not long after her husband received the bishopric of Metz (603). Through her elder daughter Blithilde was the direct ancestress of the Carolingian royal dynasty, being their earliest direct connection with the Merovingian family. Her two daughters were,

Blixen, Karen Christence – (1885 – 1962)
Danish novelist
Karen was born into the aristocracy and married the Baron Blixen. Most of her work was published using the pseudonym ‘Izak Dinesen.’ She wrote mainly in English, and resided in Kenya, Africa for almost two decades (1914 – 1931). There she managed a coffee plantation, and wrote works such as the world famous Out of Africa (1937) which was made into a film of the same title starring American actress Meryl Streep as the baroness (1985) and, Shadows on the Grass (1960). Blixen’s other published works included Seven Gothic Tales (1934), Winter’s Tales (1942) and, Anecdotes of Destiny (1958). She later returned to Denmark where she died.

Bloch, Blanche – (1890 – 1980)
American concert pianist
Blanche Bloch was the wife of the violinist and conductor Alexander Bloch. She acted as his accompanist when he made his debut at the Aeolian Hall (1913) and they were married the next year. Blanche was founder of New York Women’s Orchestra and was a member of the faculty of Rollins College (1936 – 1943). She later taught music in Sarasota in Florida and at the Roeliff-Janssen School in Hillsdale. She was wrote the two novels, The Strange Case of Mr Crawford (1948), and, The Bach Festival Murders. Blanche Bloch died (March 5, 1980) aged eighty-nine, at Springhill Farm, Hillsdale.

Bloch, Lucienne – (1908 – 1999)
American painter and photographer
Lucienne Bloch was born in Geneva, Switzerland, the daughter of the noted composer Ernst Bloch, and later accompanied her family to America (1917). She produced the acclaimed mural The Evolution of Music in Manhattan, New York. Lucienne Bloch died in California.

Bloch, Suzanne – (1903 – 2002)
Swiss-American lutenist and harpist
Suzanne Bloch was born (Aug 7, 1903) in Geneva, the daughter of the composer Ernest Bloch (1880 – 1959). She accompanied her father to the USA (1917) where she studied under him and with Roger Sessions. Suzanne then went to France where she studied under Nadia Boulanger in Paris. She was a specialist in early polyphonic music and taught herself to play old instruments in order to perform the music with the instruments for which these works were originally composed.

Blodgett, Katharine Burr – (1898 – 1979)
American scientist
Katharine Blodgett attended Bryn Mawr College and then studied science at the University of Chicago. She went to England to study at Cambridge University and with her return to the USA (1926) she worked with General Electric laboratories. Dr Blodgett worked for many years as the assistant to Dr Irving Langmuir, who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry. Dr Blodgett assisted with the development of the nonreflecting film for glass which was used on most camera lenses and other optical equipment. Known popularly as ‘invisible’ glass it required the coating of transparent soap to glass in order to reduce reflections from its surface. This process was later made more permanent.
Dr Blodgett received an award from the American Association of University Women (1945), and was awarded the Garvan Medal from the American Chemical Society (1951). She was also the only scientist to be honoured by the Boston First Assembly of American Women of Achievement (1951). Katharine Blodgett died (Oct 12, 1979) aged eighty-one, at Schenectady, New York.

Bloemardine – (c1270 – 1336)
Flemish beguine
Bloemardine was born in Brussels, the daughter of a merchant. She took a vow of chastity and refused to marry, becoming a member of the beguine movement. Later in her career she decided to become a travelling preacher, and promoted the doctrine of spiritual freedom. She established herself as the leader of a group known as the ‘Brethren of the Free Spirit.’

Blok, Johanna    see   Koorten, Johanna

Blomberg, Barbara – (1527 – 1597)
German Imperial mistress
Barbara Blomberg was born at Regensburg, in Bavaria, the daughter of a local burgher, Wolfgang Plumberger and his wife Sibilla. Blonde and buxom she became involved in a liasion with the emperor Charles V, by whom she became the mother of the war hero Don Juan of Austria (1547 – 1578), the half-brother of Philip II of Spain, who famously defeated the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). Barbara Blomberg died (Dec 18, 1597) aged sixty, at Ambrosero, Spain.

Blondell, Joan – (1909 – 1979) 
American actress
Born Joan Rose Blondell, she was best remembered in the roles of self-assured, wisecracking blondes. The talented daughter of vaudevillians, she made nearly fifty films during the period 1930 – 1938, playing oppositr Jimmy Cagney and Dick Powell, who was her second husband (1936 – 1944). Joan received an Academy Award nomination as best supporting actress for her role in, The Blue Veil (1950) with Jane Wyman. Blondell was the author of the novel, Center Door Fancy (1972).

Blonnay, Clementia – (d. after 1317)
English nun
Clementia de Blonnay became a Cistercian nun at the royal Abbey of Amesbury in Wiltshire. She was vorn into an aristocratic family and was most probably a widow when she took religious vows. Surviving charter evidence reveals that Clementia’s sister and niece resided at Nuneaton Abbey as lay sisters and received a half-yearly allowance from Amesbury for their maintenance.

Blood, Jane Wilkie Hooper – (1845 – 1898)
American religious seperatist and pioneer
Jane Blood was a member of the Mormon sect, and kept a private diary over a two decade period (1880 – 1898). This was later published by her descendants as Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood: Autobiography and Abridged Diary (1966).

‘Bloody Rosa’    see    Luxemburg, Rosa

Bloomer, Amelia Jenks – (1818 – 1894)
American feminist
Amelia Bloomer was born at Homer, New York, and is best remembered for her introduction of what she described as the more ‘ rational ‘ style of dressing for women, which consisted originally of a loose skirt and loose Turkish trousers gathered around the ankles. This costume and its later modification gradually came to bear her name, hence the evolvement of the common term ‘bloomers’ which was a slang reference for ladies’ underwear.  Amelia Bloomer was an ardent campaigner for the causes of temperance and female suffrage, and founded The Lily (1848) the first magazine for American women. Published twice weekly, it was edited by Amelia herself.

Bloomfield, Georgina Liddell, Lady – (1822 – 1905)
British memoirist
Hon. (Honourable) Georgina Liddell was born in Portland Place, London, the daughter of Sir Thomas Henry Liddell, first Lord Ravensworth, and his wife Maria Susannah Simpson.Georgina served at court as maid-of-honour to Queen Victoria (Dec, 1841 – July, 1845), and married (1845) John Arthur, second Lord Bloomfield (1802 – 1879). Lady Bloomfield accompanied her husband when he was appointed British ambassador to the courts of Russia (1845 – 1851), Berlin (1851 – 1860) and Vienna (1870 – 1871).
Lady Georgina was an accomplished pianist and water colour painter, and the author of a memoir of the life of her father-in-law, Benjamin, Lord Bloomfield (1768 – 1846), besides personal memoirs entitled Reminiscences of Court and Diplomatic Life (2 vols. 1883). Lady Bloomfield died (May 21, 1905) at Bramfield House, Hertford.

Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fannie    see    Zeisler, Fannie Bloomfield

Bloor, Ella Reeve – (1862 – 1951)
American journalist, suffrage leader, labour organizer and political radical
Ella Reeve was born (July 8, 1862) on Staten Island, New York, the daughter of a storekeeper. Her future interest in social and political reform were fostered and developed by the influence of an abolitionist uncle. She married her cousin, Lucien Ware and bore him six children. Ella served as president of the WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) in Woodbury, New York and was divorced from her husband (1896). She then attended the University of Pennsylvania. She remarried (1897 – 1902) to Louis Cohen, to whom she bore two more children, but this union also ended in divorce. She later opposed the policies of the National Woman’s Party and the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) as anit-labour, and devoted her energies more and more to left-wing politics. A brief working association with the journalist, Richard Bloor, led to her adopting the surname of Bloor, which she retained for the rest of her life.
During WW I she joined the socialist groups that opposed US involvement and actively assisted those arrested for anti-war activities. Bloor joined the Workers’ Defense Union as a field organizer, and narrowly managed to escape arrest during the post-war ‘Red Scare.’ After the war she joined the Communist Party and worked on behalf of that organization for the rest of her life. She visited the USSR (1921) as a trade union delegate to the Red International of Labor Unions conference, and then, aged over sixty, made a hitchhiking trip from New York to San Francisco, for the Daily Worker periodical (1925). Known popularly as ‘Mother Bloor,’ Ella was admired for her public speaking talents, and her visit to Dakota (1930) in order to support the United Farmers’ League, resulted in her third marriage to Andrew Omholt, a farmer and Communist candidate for Congress in North Dakota. She visited Russia a second time (1937) as an honoured guest at the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the revolution. In the USA she served as a member of the Communist party’s Central Committee (1932 – 1948). She retired to Pennsylvania to live with her last husband (1937).  Ella Bloor died (Aug 10, 1951) aged eighty-nine, at Richlandtown, Pennsylvania.

Blot, Marie Cecile Pauline Charpentier d’Ennery, Comtesse de – (c1731 – after 1780)
French courtier
Marie Cecile Charpentier d’Ennery was the daughter of Thomas Jacques Charpentier, Seigneur d’Ennery, a captain with the royal army, and his wife Madeleine Angelique Rioult de Douilly. She was the sister of Victor Therese Charpentier (1732 – 1776), the Marquis d’Ennery, who served as governor of the French Leeward Islands. Marie Cecile was married (1749) to Gilbert de Chauvigny (1720 – 1785), Baron and Comte de Blot, and attended the court of Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour. Her beauty was much admired by the British Lord Chesterfield and her portrait by Carmontelle has survived.
Madame de Blot was known to the antiquarian Sir Horace Walpole who mentioned her in his correspondence. At the court of Versailles she attended the Duchesse de Chatres, the wife of Philippe Egalite as lady-in-waiting (dame des compagnie), and was known to the salonniere Madame du Deffand, as well as being a friend of Madame Necker and the Duchesse de Luxembourg. Her daughter Francoise Fortunee de Chauvigny de Blot became the wife of the Duc d’Aumont.

Blount, Albora – (c1515 – after 1540)
English Tudor gentlewoman
Albora Blount was the youngest daughter of Sir John Blount of Kinlet in Shropshire, and his wife Catherine Peshall, the daughter and heiress of Sir Hugh Peshall. She was the younger sister to Elizabeth (Bessie) Blount, the mistress of Henry VIII. Albora was the maternal aunt of Henry Fitzroy (1519 – 1536), Duke of Richmond. She was mentioned in the will of her mother, the Dowager Lady Blount, being mentioned as living still unmarried in her household (1540). She apparently remained unmarried and died in Shropshire.

Blount, Bessie – (c1499 – 1540) 
English courtier
Mistress of King Henry VIII, Elizabeth Blount was the daughter of Sir John Blount (1484 – 1531), of Kinlet, Shropshire, and his wife Catherine Peshall (1483 – 1540), the daughter and heiress of Sir Hugh Peshall, of Knightley, Stafford. Known as Bessie she was sister to Sir John Blount and her cousin, William Blount, Lord Mountjoy, obtained a place at court for her (1513) as maid-of-honour to Catharine of Aragon. Possessed of a natural vivacity of temperament, King Henry soon paid her marked attentions (1514).
During 1515 – 1516, the king’s liasion with Bessie Blount became an open court secret, and she was the first to hold the position of ‘official’ mistress. In 1519, Bessie bore the king an illegitimate son. Henry proudly acknowledged the child as his, giving him the name of Henry Fitzroy (1519 – 1536), and creating him duke of Richmond, but at the same time, he ended his liasion with Bessie, who was not permitted to return to court until he made her position acceptable by marrying her off (1521) to Gilbert, Lord Tailboys (c1492 – 1530).
Soon after the wedding, they were granted the manor of Rokeby, Warwickshire (1522) by the king, and in 1523, a further series of endowments in Yorkshire. In 1527 Tailboys was appointed one of the gentlemen of the king’s chamber. Henceforward, Bessie faded into respectable obscurity, devoting herself to her children, and receiving nothing more from King Henry than an occasional New Years’ gift.  Widowed in 1530, Bessie remarried (1534), as his first wife, to Edward Fiennes, Lord Clinton (1512 – 1585) (later the Earl of Lincoln), who was much her junior, and King Henry granted the couple three tuns of Gascon wine as a wedding gift. The marriage also confirmed Lord Clinton in the king’s favour at court. Lady Bessie was living (Feb 6, 1539) and towards the end of that year she was one of the six ladies appointed by Henry VIII to attend upon his fourth wife Anne of Cleves upon her arrival in England (Jan, 1540) at the Bishop’s Palace at Rochester. She died sometime before the end of that year.
Lord Clinton’s second wife, Elizabeth Fitzgerald, was the ‘fair Geraldine’ of Lord Surrey’s famous sonnets. The Duke of Richmond, Bessie’s royal son, married Lady Mary Howard, the daughter of Thomas, third Duke of Norfolk, but was never in good health, and died childless in 1536. His tutor was John Palsgrave and several of his letters to Bessie survive, keeping her informed of her royal son’s educational progress. To her first husband, Lord Tailboys, Bessie bore three children, George (1523 – 1540) and Robert Tailboys (1524 – 1540), who both held the barony of Kyme but died childless, and Elizabeth Tailboys, Lady Kyme (1520 – 1563), who second husband was Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, but she too died childless, and the title died with her.
Bessie Blount appears as a character in the two historical novels by Philippa Gregory, The Other Boleyn Girl (2001) and The Boleyn Inheritance (2006). She was portrayed on the screen by actress Ruta Gedmintas in the series The Tudors (2007) with Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII and Maria Doyle Kennedy as Catherine of Aragon. To her second husband Lord Clinton, Bessie bore three daughters,

Blount, Martha – (1690 – 1762)
British Hanoverian literary figure
Martha Blount was friend to the poet Alexander Pope.

Blount, Sanchia – (c1352 – 1418)
Spanish-Anglo courtier
Dona Sanchia Diaz Gomez de Ayala was the daughter of Diego Gomez, the Governor of Toledo in Castile, and his wife Inez Alfonsez de Ayala. She served at court and joined the household of the Infantas Constanza and Isabella, the daughters of King Pedro I the Cruel (1350 – 1369). With the king’s murder, his daughters and their household fled to Roquefort in France where they were given refuge. After Constanza was married (1371) to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Sanchia accompanied her mistress to the English court. There she was married soon afterwards to an English knight Sir Walter Blount (1348 – 1403) who had served under the Duke of Lancaster in Spain, and to whom she bore several children.
With her husband Sanchia received the Mountjoy estates in Derbyshire from his half-brother John Blount, and Sanchia remained in attendance upon the Duchess Constance at Hertford Castle and Knaresborough Castle. Her elder daughter was named for the duchess who may have been the child’s godmother. Sir Walter later travelled to Spain with the Duke and Duchess of Lancaster (1386 – 1388) and Dame Sanchia presumably accompanied them. With the death of the duchess (1394), Duke John, with the approval of King Richard II, granted Sir Walter and Sanchia an annuity of one hundred marks in consideration of their faithful service to his late wife (1395).
Sir Walter was killed at the battle of Shrewsbury (June 22, 1403) and Sanchia survived him for fifteen years as the Dowager Lady Blount (1403 – 1418). She founded the hospital of St Leonard’s between Alkmonton and Hungry-Bentley in Derbyshire. Lady Sanchia Blount died at Newark in Leicestershire, and was interred with Walter in the Church of St Mary at Newark. Their son Thomas later founded a chantry there in their memory (1422). Sanchia’s grandson Sir Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy increased the endowment of her hospital at St Leonard’s. Her descendant William Blount, the fourth Lord Mountjoy took as his third wife a Spanish lady, Inez de Vanegas, lady-in-waiting to Catharine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII. Sanchia’s children were,

Blow, Eleanor Alice – (c1853 – 1925)
Anglo-Australian temperance campaigner
Eleanor Clare was born in Kent, England the daughter of Reverend Job Clare, and was married (c1878) to Mark Blow. She came to Sydney, New South Wales with her husband (c1888) and became a strong and active supporter of the Methodist church, even preaching publicly herself at the Central Methodist Mission. Serving as the president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU) (1911 – 1916), Eleanor was also involved with the Prisoner’s Aid Association and the National Council of Women.

Blow, Sandra – (1925 – 2006)
British abstract painter
Sandra Blow was born (Sept 14, 1925) in London, the daughter of a fruiterer. She spent time in Kent during WW II where she painted landscapes. Sandra briefly attended the Royal Academy, before going to Italy to study at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. As a friend to the painters Alberto Burri, with whom she was involved in a romantic liaison, and Nicholas Carone, Blow became a member of avant-garde artistic world in Europe.
Blow returned to London (1950) where she exhibited her abstract work, created with a variety of materials such as cement, sand and canvas sacking, with the Institute of Contemporary Art, and became an acclaimed success. She later had a solo exhibition in New York (1957). Examples of her work included the geometric studies entitled Red and White (1982) and Vivace (1988).

Blucher von Wahlstatt, Evelyn Mary Stapleton-Bretherton, Princess von – (1876 – 1960)
Anglo-German courtier and memoirist
Evelyn Stapleton-Bretherton was born (Sept 10, 1876) in Brighton, London. She was married in London (1907) to the Prussian peer Gebhard Lebrecht, Prince Blucher von Wahlstatt (1865 – 1931). There were no children. During WW I the princess had relatives fighting on both sides and with Daisy von Pless and Princess Munster she was engaged in organizing hospitals to care for British prisoners and wounded soldiers.
Her private journal from this period (1914 – 1919) was later published in New York as, An English Wife in Berlin: A Private Memoir of Events, Politics, and Daily Life in Germany Throughout the War and the Social Revolution of 1918 (1920). She and her husband then resided in England, and Prince Blucher died at Boscombe, near Bournemouth (1931). She survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Princess Blucher von Wahlstatt (1931 – 1960). Princess Evelyn died (Jan 20, 1960) aged eighty-three, at Worthing.

Blumental, Felicja – (1911 – 1991)
Polish-Brazilian pianist
Blumental was born in Warsaw and studied music composition under Karol Szymanowski and piano under Zbigniew Drzewicki at the Warsaw Conservatorium. During the early years of World War II she remained in hiding in France and Luxembourg before escaping to Brazil with her husband (1942). She later resided in Milan, Italy (1962 – 1973) and then in Monte Carlo. Blumental performed and recorded works by Hummel, Czernym and Clementi, and the famous Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos composed his Piano Concerto No. 5 for her (1954). The Polish composers Kzysztof Pemdrecki and Witold Lutoslawski wrote works for her. Felicja Blumental died (Dec 31, 1991) aged eighty, in Tel Aviv, Israel.

Blumenthal, Maud Rosenbaum    see   Rosenbaum, Maud

Blundell, Kathleen    see   Nixon, Kathleen Irene

Blunt, Anne Isabella King, Lady – (1837 – 1917)
British traveller, diarist, and author
Lady Anne Isabella King was the only daughter of William King, earl of Lovelace and his wife Augusta Ada, the daughter of Lord Byron. She married (1869) the poet and diplomat Wilfred Scawn Blunt (1840 – 1922) to whom she bore a surviving daughter. The couple both spoke the Arabic language, and Lady Anne became the first Englishwoman to travel in, and describe, the Arabian Peninsula. Lady Blunt remained quite fearless of desert raids, and wore the native headdress (kaffiya).
Together they travelled to Turkey, Algiers, and Egypt, and then made a desert journey (1877) from Aleppo to Baghdad, recorded in, The Bedouin Tribes of the Euphrates (1878). She also wrote, A Pilgrimage to Nedji (1881). The couple purchased an estate near Cairo where they began the trade and breeding of Arabian horses. Six  months before her own death (Dec 15, 1917), at the age of eighty, which took place at Crabbet Park, near Three Bridges in Sussex, Lady Blunt succeeded her niece in the barony of Wentworth, becoming fifteenth holder of that title, which then passed to her daughter Judith Blunt-Lytton, Lady Wentworth.

Blunt, Katharine – (1876 – 1954)
American educator, home economist, nutritionist and college administrator
Katharine Blunt was born (May 28, 1876) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of a military officer. She attended school in Springfield, Massachusetts before attending Vassar College, and then studied organic chemistry at the University of Chicago (1905 – 1907). Blunt taught chemistry at Vassar until 1913 when she joined the home economics department of the University of Chicago as assistant professor. Later named associate professor (1918), Blunt later rose to become full professor and was official chairman of the department (1925). Her own particular field of research was nutrition, and Professor Blunt performed valuable work on calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and concerning the basal metablism of women and children.
During WW I she worked with the US Department of Agriculture and the Food Administration, as a nutritional specialist. With Florence Powdermaker she co-wrote the textbook, Food and the War (1918). Her own particular contribution was her research work of, Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition (1930). Blunt was apppointed (1929 – 1943) as third president of the liberal arts college, the Connecticut College for Women, being the first woman to hold that position. She retired, only to return briefly to office (1945 – 1946) and retire again. Katharine Blunt died (July 29, 1954) aged seventy-eight, in New London.

Blunt-Lytton, Judith    see    Wentworth, Judith Anne Dorothea Blunt-Lytton, Lady

Bly, Nelly – (1867 – 1922)
American journalist
Born Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman at Cochran’s Mills in Pennsylvania, she began her career as a journalist for the, Pittsburgh Dispatch, and assumed her literary pseudonym from a popular song.
Bly later worked on Joseph Pukitzer’s periodical, World, and reported on issues concerning reform and the conditions of women. She was given an assigment to travel around the world in less than eighty days, and achieved this objective (1889), which led to the publication of Nelly Bly’s Book:Around the World in Seventy-Two Days.

Blyton, Enid Mary – (1895 – 1968)
British children’s author
Enid Blyton was born in East Dulwich, London, the daughter of Thomas Carey Blyton, and his wife Theresa Mary Harrison. She married firstly (1924) Major Hugh Alexander Pollock, and secondly (1943) Kenneth Darrell Waters, and left two daughters. Enid originally trained as a nursery teacher, she worked at a boys’ preparatory school in Kent. She began her literary career publishing poems Child Whispers 1922).

By the period of the 1930’s Enid Blyton had become enormously prolific, and she published over four hundred titles, selling well over 200 million copies. Her characters the Famous Five and the Secret Seven, Noddy, Big Ears, and Mr Plod the policeman became enormously popular and recognizable childhood icons. The Island of Jersey paid tribute to the Noddy characters by portraying them on a commemorative stamp (1970).

Critics of her work stated that her books lacked imagination and character, the plots considered simple minded and stolidly conventional, but nonetheless several generations of child reading enthusiasts unhesitatingly enjoyed Enid Blyton’s books. She was the author of the children’s pantomime, Noddy in Toyland. Blyton was also the editor of various magazines including Sunny Stories, and, Pictorial Knowledge, for children, and Modern Teaching. She was co-author of Two Years in Infant School. Enid Blyton died (Nov 28, 1968) aged seventy-three. Her elder daughter was the noted author and publisher Gillian Baverstock (1931 – 1907).

Bo (1) – (c220 – 155 BC)
Chinese empress
Bo was originally one of the major concubines of the emperor Gaodi (247 – 195 BC), of the Western Han Dynasty. She was granted the higher rank of official consort (though not empress), when she bore Gaodi a son, Wendi (202 – 157 BC), who was chosen as emperor by his elder half-brother because Bo had no powerful relatives who would be able to influence his court. She was granted the rank of Empress Dowager and survived her son.

Bo (2) – (c187 – 147 BC)
Chinese empress
Bo came from the same family as the empress Bo, the mother of emperor Wendi. She was the first wife of the crown prince Liu Qi, later the emperor Jingdi of the Han Dynasty (157 – 141 BC), the fifth son and successor of emperor Wendi (180 – 157 BC). She was accorded the Imperial title at her husband’s accession, but she had borne no sons. With the death of the Grand Dowager empress Bo (155 BC) her position at court became precarious. Her husband deposed her and withdrew her Imperial rank (151 BC) and she died four years later.

Boa – (fl. c520 – 528)
Hunnish queen
Boa was the wife of Blach, king of the Sabirian Huns, to whom she bore two sons. Widowed before 528, Queen Boa succeeded her husband as ruler, and sought to stabilize her position by making an alliance with the Romans. She defeated an army of Huns allied with the Persians, killing King Glom, and capturing Kyng Tyranax, whom Boa then sent as political prisoners to the emperor Justinian in Constantinople.

Boadicea     see   Boudicca

Board, Ruby Willmett – (1880 – 1963) 
Australian feminist and welfare reformer
Ruby Board was born at Gunning, NSW, the daughter of the prominent educator Peter Board. She studied firstly in Sydney, and later abroad in Europe. Upon completing her education Boardman became determined to devote her energies to welfare causes and reform, and she served as New South Wales president 1938 – 1948 and national president 1940 – 1942 of the National Council of Women, which she represented at international conferences. From 1930 – 1938 Ruby also served as president of the Blue Mountains branch of the Country Women’s Association, and was first president of the Diabetic Association of Australia, providing valuable public information concerning this condition. Ruby Willmett Board died in Sydney.

Bobila – (fl. c630 – c650)
Gallo-Roman patrician
Bobila was the daughter of Agylenus and the wife of Severus. She was a wealthy landowner near Cahors in Gaul and made generous donations and gifts to the church whilst Desiderius was Bishop of Cahors (630 – 650). She was mentioned in the Epistolae of Bishop Desiderius who styled her materfamilias and senatrix Romana in his Vita Desiderii episcopi Cadurcensis.

Bobjwale – (fl. c1820 – c1829)
African queen
Bobjwale was married firstly to Kgari (c1800 – c1828), King of the Mamangwato in Botswana, as his second wife. Queen Bobjwale was the mother of his two children, King Khama II (c1820 – c1834) and of Princess Mokgokong, the wife of Sechele I, Chief of the Bakwena. Widowed c1828 the queen remarried to Chief Sedimo, her late husband’s cousin, who then ruled as regent during the minority of her son Khama till c1832. By her second marriage she was the mother of Macheng (c1829 – c1873), King of the Bamangwato.

Bocage, Marie Anne Le Page du – (1710 – 1802)
French dramatist and poet
Marie Anne Le Page was born at Rouen in Normandy. After marrying she came to live in Paris, where her play Les Amazons was performed at the Comedie Francaise (1749). She also wrote the epic poems Paradis terrestre (Earthly Paradise) (1748) and La Colombiade (1756). Madame du Bocage travelled extensively throughout Europe and England whilst her Paris salon continued ininterrupted by the upheavals of the Revolution. Her letters have survived.

Bocchi, Dorotea – (c1360 – 1436)
Italian physician and healer
Dorothea was the daughter of Jean Bucca, a professor at the University of Bologna. She was educated by her father, and later lectured in medicine and moral philosophy herself at the university. Her fame as a scholar spread throughout Italy.

Bocher, Joan – (c1505 – 1550)
English religious martyr
Sometimes known as Joan Knel, she may have been a native of Kent. Joan was a member of the Anabaptist sect, and was providing copies of William Tyndale’s English New Testament to the ladies of the royal court through her friendship with the martyr Anne Askew. Sometime prior to 1543 Joan was arrested and charged with heresy but Henry VIII intervened on her behalf and she was set free. However with the accession of Edward VI Joan was again arrested and charged with heresy, being arraigned before Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and Bishop Hugh Latimer (1548).
Joan Bocher was then excommunicated (1549) and handed over to the Privy Council for punishment, who left her imprisoned. Despite the best efforts of Cranmer, Latimer and other divones such as Ridley, Joan Bocher refused to recant her heresy which pertained that Christ was all divine, and thus had no human form born of a virgin. Bocher was eventually condemned and burnt to death at Smithfield in London (Oct 2, 1550). An account of her martyrdom appeared in John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments (1563).

Bochkareva, Mariya – (1889 – 1920)
Russian Bolshevik soldier
Mariya was the daughter of a poor peasant family from Novgorod. She became a prostitute at a young age and was abused by various male lovers. When one of her lovers tried to kill her (1914) Mariya escaped and became determined to be a patriot for her country. Bochkareva became a soldier with the 25th Reserve Battalion of the Russian army, and established a reputation as a war heroine, courageously rescuing comrades whilst under machine-gun fire. Nicknamed ‘Yashka’ towards the end of WW I she established the ‘Women’s Battalion of Death’ (1917) though her autocratic style offended some members.
During the October Revolution Mariya and some of her regiment tried to defend the Winter Palace against the Bolsheviks forces. They failed and many of the female soldiers were killed or raped. Mariya Bochkareva was later sentenced to death by the Bolshevik government (1918) but escaped and fled to the USA where she published the memoir entitled My Life as a Peasant Officer and Exile (1919). Mariya later returned to Russia and served under the White leader Admiral Kolchak in Omsk. She was then captured by the Bolsheviks and killed (May 15, 1920) by firing squad.

Boclande, Beatrice de – (c1163 – 1197)
Anglo-Norman heiress
Beatrice de Boclande was the eldest daughter of Hugh de Boclande, of Buckland (died after 1176), and his wife Lady Maud de Mandeville, the daughter of Geoffrey de Mandeville (died 1144), the first Earl of Essex. She became the first wife of Geoffrey Fitzpiers (c1160 – 1213), fourth Earl of Essex.

Bodda Pyne, Louisa Fanny – (1832 – 1904)
British Victorian vocalist
Louisa Pyne was the daughter of the vocalist George Pyne (1790 – 1877). She was trained as a singer by Sir George Smart, and made her stage debut at Boulogne in France (1849). She became the wife (1868) of the baritone Frank Bodda and was thenceforward known as Louisa Bodda Pyne. Louisa died (March 20, 1904) in London.

Bodenwieser, Gertrud – (1890 – 1959)
Austrian-Australian
Bodenwieser was born in Vienna and trained in ballet from an early age. Later in her career she abandoned classical dance for the New Dance Style. Bodenwieser taught dance in Vienna and established her own troupe of performers and was appointed a professor of dance and theatre arts at the Vienna State Acadeny (1926 – 1938). The growth of the Nazi regime forced her to flee to Australia, and she settled in Sydney (1939), where she worked tirelessly to introduce and promote the popularity of modern dance and choreography. Her troupe toured throughout Australia and overseas, and her best known works were, The Demon Machine (1923), and, O World (1945). Gertrud Bodenwieser died (Nov 10, 1959) in Sydney.

Bodfish, Mercy Goodwin – (1752 – 1803)
American pioneer settler
Mercy Goodwin was the daughter of Samuel Goodwin, a landowner from Pownalborough, Maine. With her father and others Mercy kept up a semi-private community diary of the community of Pownalborough, which historical record was later published posthumously as, Some Records of Samuel Goodwin of Pownalborough, Maine, and His Descendants in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1913).

Bodichon, Barbara – (1827 – 1891)
British feminist and educator
Barbara Leigh-Smith was the eldest daughter of Benjamin Leigh-Smith, Member of Parliament for Norwich. She receive a liberal education at the wish of her father and was married (1857) to the French physician Eugene Bodichon. Barbara Bodichon established the Portland Hall School for two sexes, and was a benefactress of Girton College at Cambridge which had been founded by Emily Davies.
Mrs Bodichon wrote A Brief Summary in Plain Language of the Most Important Laws Concerning Women (1854), from which evolved the Married Women’s Property Bill, which was finally passed by the British parliament (1857). Her most important work was considered to be Women and Work (1857) which pressed for need for equal paid work for women which led to their independence and usefulness to society as a whole. A talented water colour landscape artist some of her works were preserved at Girton College and at the Hastings Art Gallery.

Bodmer, Sylvia – (1902 – 1989)
British dancer and choreographer
Bodmer was born in Duisberg, Germany, and studied dance in Switzerland under Katie Wolf and Suzanne Perrotet, who introduced her to the work of Rudolph Laban. She married Ernest Billigheimer (1927), a Jewish physician, who later assumed the surname of Bodmer (1947). Bodmer had successfully auditioned for Rudolph Laban in Stuttgart, Wurttemburg, and performed with his performing group, Gleschendorf, as a solist (1922 – 1924).
Sylvia Bodmer became established as a choreographer and teacher, being recognized as one of the foremost interpreters and performers of Laban’s methods. In conjunction with Lotte Mueller, Sylvia Bodmer founded a dance school in Frankfurt (1924). With the rise of the Nazi regime, the couple went to England with their children, where Bodmer became a dance teacher at Manchester, in Lancashire, and then joined Laban and Lisa Ullman at the Laban Art of Movement Studio (1942). Bodmer and Ullman founded and organized the Manchester Dance Circle (1945). Sylvia Bodmer died (Oct 25, 1989) aged eighty-seven.

Boecop, Mechteld toe – (c1520 – after 1577) 
Flemish painter
Born Mechteld van Lichtenberg, she was married to Egbert toe Boecop sometime before 1547, the date of the execution of her earliest identifiable work. A painter of considerable artistic talent, Mechteld produced large expressive religious canvasses during a career which spanned more than thirty years. Her daughter Cornelia was her own pupil. Her last dated works included Adoration of the Shepherds (1574) and The Four Evangelists (1577).

Boedila Thorgautsdotter – (c1075 – 1102)
Queen consort of Denmark (c1093 – 1102)
Boedila was the daughter of Thorgaut Ulfsson and his wife Thorgunna Vagnesdotter, the daughter of Vagn Agesson. She was married (c1093) to Erik I Egode (1054 – 1102), King of Denmark and was mother to Knud Eriksson the Pious (Canute) (1096 – 1131), King of the Wends, and grandmother to King Valdemar I Knudsson (1131 – 1182). Her great-granddaughter Ingeborge of Denmark became the ill-fated second wife of Philip II Augustus, King of France (1180 – 1223).
Despite her husband’s popularity with the Danish people he was liable to fits of great and uncontrollable fury and was frequently unfaithful to Queen Boedila who bore his treatment of her with great meekness. When the king decided to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in order to atone for a murder he had committed (1101) the queen insisted upon accompanying him. Their son Knud was left behind at the court. The royal couple travelled through Russia and Contantinople, and from thence to Cyprus where Erik was taken ill and died (July 10, 1102). Boedila proceeded with her pilgrimage and died at the Mount of Lives, within sight of the gates of Jerusalem soon after her arrival there in the same year.

Boehl von Faber, Cecilia     see    Caballero, Fernan

Boero, Alejandra – (1918 – 2006)
Argentinian stage and film actress and theatrical director
Boero was born (Dec 9, 1918) in Buenos Aires and began her stage career at the La Mascara Theatre (1942). She built two theatres in Buenos Aires and founded the theatrical group Nuevo Teatro. She also founded a drama school and the experimental Andamio 90 theatre. Boero appeared in several films including Don Segundo Sombra (1969) and La Pelicula (1975), and was the recipient of the Moliere Award. Alejandra Boero died (May 4, 2006) aged eighty-eight.

Boeselager, Csilla von – (1941 – 1994)
Hungarian scientist, chemist and human rights activist
Boeselager was born (May 17, 1941) in Budapest and established the Csilla von Boeselager Foundation for Aid to Eastern Europe (1991). Csilla von Boeselager died (Feb 23, 1994) aged fifty-two, in Arnsberg, Germany.

Boevey, Catharine – (1669 – 1726)
British philanthropist
Catherine Riches was the daughter of John Riches of London and became the wife of John Boevey. Widowed in 1692, catharine is believed to be identical with the widow mentioned in the Spectator as being so relentless in her refusal to consider the marital addresses of Sir Roger de Coverley.  At her death, the Flaxley estate passed to her husband’s kinsman, Thomas Crawley-Boevey (c1670 – 1742) who assumed the Boevey name, and it long remained in the possession of their descendants (1900). There are monuments to her memory at Flaxley Abbey, Gloucester, and Westminster Abbey.

Bogan, Louise – (1897 – 1970)
American poet and critic
Louise Bogan was born (Aug 11, 1897) in Livermore Falls, Maine, and was raised in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Her first book Body of This Death (1923) received considerable critical acclaim. Bogan was the author of the critical history entitled, Achievement in American Poetry, 1900 – 1950 (1951) and her own verses were published as Collected Poems, 1923 – 1953 (1954). Her final works were the poetic collection The Blue Estuaries: Poems, 1923 – 1968 (1968), and a volume of her collected criticisms entitled A Poet’s Alphabet (1970). Louise Bogan died (Feb 4, 1970) aged seventy-two.

Bogislava Przemyslid – (c1192 – 1238)
Princess of Bohemia
Princess Bogislava (Bozislawa) was the second daughter of Ottokar I (1155 – 1230), King of Bohemia and his first wife Adelaide of Meissen, sister to Margrave Dietrich of Miessen. The Genealogica Wettinensis lists the three daughters of Ottokar I but does not name them. Her parents were divorced soon after her father became king (1198) and her mother left the court.
King Ottokar arranged for his daughter to make a suitably dynastic and political marriage when she the first wife (c1206) of Heinrich I (c1175 – 1241) the Count Palatine of Ortenburg, son of Rapoto of Sponheim, Count of Ortenburg and his wife Countess Elisabeth of Sulzbach. The thirteenth century Genealogiae Comitum et Marchionum recorded her marriage with Count Heinrich. Bogislava was the mother of his son and successor Count Heinrich II of Ortenburg (1241 – 1257) and of two daughters, Elisabeth of Ortenburg (c1215 – 1272), the wife if Gebhard IV (died 1279), Landgrave of Leuchtenburg, and Anna Cordula of Ortenburg who became the first wife of Count Friedrich IV von Truhendingen (died 1275) by whom she left issue. Princess Bogislava died (Feb 6, 1238) aged about forty-five.

Bogna    see    Sezepanowski, Bogna

Boguslawski, Dorothy Beers – (1911 – 1978)
American children’s care specialist and author
Having trained as a nurse Boguslawski was appointed as the director of the Halsey Day Nursery in the late 1940’s. A decade later she was appointed as the chief consultant on daycare for the overseas operations of the American Joint Distribution Committee (1958). Her published work was planning guides for the financing and administration of daycare centres. Dorothy Boguslawski died (April 3, 1978).

Bohme, Margarete – (1869 – 1939)
German novelist
Bohme was born at Husum. She used the pseudonym ‘Ormanos Sandor’ and is best known for her work, Tagebuch einer Verlorenen (1905). Margarete Bohme died (May, 1939) aged seventy, at Hamburg-Othmarschen.

Bohmer, Maria Magdalena – (c1678 – 1744)
German lyric poet
Maria Bohmer was born at Hanover in the Rhineland, and was the sister of the noted hymnist Justus Henning Bohmer (1674 – 1749). She was the author of devotional verse of some literary merit, and of the popular hymn Ein Christenherz sehnt sich nach hohen Dingen. Maria Magdalena Bohmer died aged about sixty-five.

Bohorques, Maria de – (1538 – 1559)
Spanish heretic
Maria de Bohorques was the illegitimate daughter of a nobleman from Seville in Andalusia, and had received an upper class education. Bohorques was arrested by the Inquisition because of interest she had shown in the teachings of the Lutheran faith. Having admitted under torture that her sister Juana had known of her interest, and had not dissuaded her from further study, Maria was condemned and strangled. Her sister was spared only until the birth of her child then she too was subjected to torture. Her ribs were crushed and she died from her injuries.

Bohra, Katharina von (Bora) – (1499 – 1552) 
German Protestant figure
Katharina von Bohra was born at Lippendorf, near Leipzig, in Saxony. Formerly a Catholic nun (1515) at the Cistercian convent of Marienthron at Nimbschen, she rejected Catholicism, and espoused the beliefs of the Reformation, fleeing to Wittenberg where she became the wife (1525) of the reformer Martin Luther, whom she survived. Katharina von Bohra died of the plague (Dec 20, 1552) aged fifty-three, at Torgau.

Bohrenz, Eva Margrethe – (c1740 – 1780) 
German publisher and printer
Eva Bohrenz was married to the publisher August Kasimir Bohrenz (1738 – 1771). During her widowhood she took over the management of her husband’s publishing business, and continued to publish the Schmalkalder Kommerzien-Zeitung, which right he had been granted by royal decree (1769). Eva herself was the author of the weekly journal, Polizei-und Kommerzienzeitung. Eva Bohrenz died (Oct 16, 1780) at Schmalkalden.

Bohun, Eleanor de – (1366 – 1399)
English Plantagenet royal
Lady Eleanor de Bohun was born (May, 1366), the elder daughter and coheir of Humphrey de Bohun, seventh Earl of Hereford and Essex, and his wife Joan, the daughter of Richard Fitzalan, third Earl of Arundel, a descendant of King Henry III (1216 – 1272). Her younger sister Mary de Bohun, was the first wife of Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV), and was the mother of Henry V (1413 – 1422). Lady Eleanor was married (1374) to Prince Thomas (1355 – 1397), Earl of Buckingham (1377) and duke of Gloucester (1385), the youngest son of Edward III, who then became Earl of Essex in her right. The marriage had been arranged by Edward III in order to gain the extensive Bohun estates to the crown.
Prince Thomas had also been given the custody of Eleanor’s younger sister Mary, whom they placed in a convent, thus enabling them to keep her enormous share of the Bohun inheritance for themselves. Eleanor and her husband resented the action of John of Gaunt in taking Mary from the nunnery and marrying her to his son Henry of Bolingbroke (1380). Her return to secular life and her subsequent marriage reinstated Mary as coheiress of the vast Bohun fortune and correspondingly halved Eleanor’s share. Duchess Eleanor attended the coronation procession of Richard II (July 15, 1377), and viewed it from a dais on West Chepe, together with the Dowager Princess of Wales, the Duchess of Lancaster, and the Duchess of York. Eleanor was made a Lady of the Garter by Richard II (1384). The duke and duchess of Gloucester were present at the funeral of Anne of Bohemia (Aug, 1394), the first wife of King Richard, and witnessed the famous scene between the grieving king the earl of Arundel. With the queen’s death, until the third marriage of John of Gaunt with his former mistress Katherine Swynford (1396), Duchess Eleanor was the first lady of the English court.
With Gaunt’s marriage, the new Duchess of Lancaster superseded her as first lady of the court until Richard remarried. According to the chronicler Froissart, the duchess Eleanor and her niece Philippa Mortimer, countess of Arundel, were much antagonized by this marriage, which they both believed had disgraced the family. Eleanor was later chosen as one of the ladies sent to accompany Richard’s French queen, Isabelle de Valois, to England (Oct, 1396).
Her husband was murdered on the orders of his nephew Richard, at Calais in France, and was finally buried in Westminster Abbey, London. As a widow Eleanor, who was heartily disliked by her royal nephew due to her proud and haughty temperament, retired to the Abbey of Barking in Essex. There she became a nun, but did not renounce her wealth, and retained control of her properties and income. Duchess Eleanor died (Oct 3, 1399) aged thirty-three, at the convent of the Minoresses in Aldgate, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. She had borne her husband five children,

Bohun, Mary de – (1368 – 1394)
English Plantagenet royal
Lady Mary de Bohun was the younger daughter and coheir of Humphrey de Bohun, seventh Earl of Hereford and Essex, and Earl of Northampton, by his wife Lady Joan Fitzalan, the daughter of Richard Fitzalan, third Earl of Arundel a descendant of King Henry III (1216 – 1272). Her elder sister, Eleanor de Bohun, was the wife of Prince Thomas, Duke of Gloucester the youngest son of Edward III (1327 – 1377).
Lady Mary was married (1380) at Rochford, Essex, to Henry of Bolingbroke (1367 – 1413), Earl of Derby, the eldest son and heir of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the third son of Edward III. This marriage greatly angered her sister and brother-in-law as they had hoped to send Mary into a convent as a nun, on order that her share of the vast Bohun inheritance would pass to them. After the birth and death of Mary’s first child Edward (1382) Countess Mary was returned for a period to her mother’s household to be cared for, she being deemed too young for further uncontrolled marital relations. During this time Mary’s father-in-law the Duke of Lancaster paid Lady Arundel the sum of the one hundred marks annually for her upkeep and that of her household. Prince Henry was created Earl of Northampton and Earl of Hereford in Mary’s right (1384) and she returned to reside under his roof soon afterwards (1385).
The birth of her son Henry at Monmouth in Wales (1387) nearly killed her but she managed to survive. Of her married life it is recorded that Lord and Lady Derby played chess together with a set of silver chessmen, and that they were both fond of music, and Mary had been taught to play the guitar. Countess Mary was made a Lady of the Garter (1388) by King Richard II. Mary de Bohun died during childbirth (June 4, 1394) aged twenty-five, at Peterborough Castle, and was interred in the Church of St Mary at Leicester. Her remains were later translated to Trinity Hospital, Leicester. Mary appears as a minor character in the historical novel Katherine (1954) by Anya Seton. She had borne Henry seven children,

Bohun, Matilda de – (c1215 – 1252)
English medieval literary patron
Lady Matilda de Bohun was the daughter of Henry de Bohun, first Earl of Hereford and his wife Maude Fitzpiers. The chronicler of St Albans, Matthew Paris, produced an illustrated psalter in Latin for Matilda. She was married firstly to Anselm Marshal, earl of Pembroke (c1202 – 1245), a younger son of William Longsword, and secondly to Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester (c1195 – 1264).

Boiarda, Alda – (c1475 – after 1516)
Italian courtier
Contessa Alda Boiarda served at the court of Mantua as lady-in-waiting to Isabella d’Este, the wife of Marchese Gian Francesco II Gonzaga. A favourtie of the marchesa and a popular figure at the court, Alda was a close friend of the humanist writer Conte Baldassare di Castiglione and of his mother Albisa Gonzaga. References to Alda in Castiglione’s letters reveal that she was considered as a possible bride for a member of his own family though this projected match never eventuated.
The Marchese of Mantua later caused Alda to be banished from the court, and she was compelled to retire to Ferrara where her sister was a nun at the convent of Corpus Christi. One of her letters to Contessa Albisa survives (1516) in which she congratulates the countess on her son’s upcoming marriage with Ippolita Torrelli. She signed this letter Alda Boiarda Comitissa.

Boigne, Louise Eleonore Charlotte Adelaide d’Osmond, Comtesse de – (1781 – 1866)
French courtier and memoirist
Louise Eleonore d’Osmond was born at Versailles (Feb 19, 1781) at Versailles, near Paris, into an ancient patrician family, the daughter of Rainulphe Eustache, Marquis d’ Osmond and Comte de Boitron (1751 – 1838) a royal ambassador, and his wife Eleonore Dillon. She later emigrated from France with her family (1792), and went into exile in England, where she married (1798) the Comte Benoite de Boigne (1751 – 1830). The marriage was to prove unhappy and she survived her husband for over three decades as the Dowager Comtesse de Boigne (1830 – 1866).
Her memoirs, which she penned sometime after 1835, were published in Paris in four volumes by her nephew as Recits d’une tant.Memoires de la comtesse de Boigne, nee d’Osmond, publies d’apres le manuscrit original par M. Charles Nicollaud (1907 – 1908). They provided interesting details concerning the survival of emigres during the revolution.

Boillet, Colette – (1381 – 1447)
French religious founder and saint
Also known as Colette of Corbie, she was the daughter of an abbey carpenter. With the deaths of her parents (1388) she was placed under the care of the local abbot. Colette became anun of the third order of St Francis, and resided for many years as an acnhorite attached to the abbey of Corbie. Colette experienced mystical visions in which St Francis exhorted her to reform his order and reinforce his observances. The church permitted Colette to instigate the reforms within the order of the Poor Clares, but her work provoked great opposition, and she was reviled as a witch and a fanatic. Nevertheless, she persevered with her reforms, and eventually succeeded in establishing seventeen new house of the Poor Clare order. Colette Boillet died at the age of sixty-seven, and was later canonized (1807).

Boinia Procilla – (c40 – after 96 AD)
Roman Imperial prgenatrix
Boinia Procilla was perhaps a connection of Lucius Boinius Pansa Flavianus, who held an official post in Asia Minor. She was married to Arrius Antoninus, consul (69 AD). Her daughter, Arria Fadilla became the wife of consul Titus Aurelius Fulvus, and Boinia was the grandmother of the emperor Antoninus Pius (138 – 161 AD). She was comemorated by the family of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius for her exceptional feminine virtues. An attested Boinia Antulla, the daughter of Narcissus, was probably a freedwoman of her household.

Boio – (fl. c350 BC)   
Greek poet
Boio was possibly of noble lineage, as myth describes her as the wife of an Athenian king, Actaeus, and mother of the poet Palaphatus. Also there is great confusion between Boio and the male writer Boius, and with her dates. Historically, she is said to have served as priestess of Apollo at Delphi, where she wrote in Greek hexameter verse the Hymn to Apollo. The historian Philochorus quotes her work On Divination, which unfortunately no longer survives, and she is mentioned by the Christian writer Clement in the 2nd century AD. Boio is also credited as the authoress of the poem, Ornithogonia, which describes the metamorphoses of people into birds, and was later used by the Roman Ovid in his, Metamorphoses. However, this title could also refer to the work by Boius, and Boio’s title might instead have been, Ornithomanteia, as she dealt with augury using birds. The similar names and subject matter have created almost hopeless confusion, which remains impossible to sort out.

Boise de Courcenay, Marie Rogere Gabrielle de Cugnac de Dampierre, Comtesse de – (1741 – 1816)
French Bourbon courtier and society figure
Marie Rogere de Cugnac was born (July 26, 1741) in Paris. She became the wife (1769) of Comte Claude de Boise de Courceany (1744 – 1799). The wedding took place at the Palace of Versailles, in the prescence of the king and other members of the royal family and the court. The Comte and Comtesse attended Louis XV and Madame Du Barry at Versailles, and were present at the coronation of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Rheims (1775). Both were mentioned in the correspondence of the Briitsh antiquarian Horace Walpole. Madame de Boise de Courcenay and her husband survived the horrors of the Revolution. She survived her husband as the Dowager Comtesse de Boise de Courcenay (1799 – 1816) and died (June 25, 1816) aged seventy-four.

Boisgarin, Elisabeth Anne de – (1765 – 1834)
French Bourbon aristocrat
Elisabeth was born (Feb 27, 1765) the daughter of Francois Nicolas Magon de Boisgarin. Elisabeth became the wife (1779) of Prince Eugenio of Savoy-Carignano (1753 – 1785), the younger brother of Vittorio Amadeo II, reigning prince of Carignano (1778 – 1780). The marriage was not recognized by the royal family and was considered morganatic. Prince Eugenio was granted the title of Conte di Villafranca and Elisabeth became the Contessa di Villafranca. She survived Eugenio for almost five decades as the Dowager Contessa di Villafranca (1785 – 1834) and never remarried despite being widowed at only twenty. Their only child Giuseppe Maria di Savoia (1783 – 1825) succeeded his father as Conte di Villafranca. Better known as the Chevalier de Savoie in France, he also married a Frenchwoman and left descendants.

Boisgelin, Marie Catherine Stanislas de Boufflers, Comtesse de – (1744 – 1794)
French courtier and Revolutionary victim
Catherine de Boufflers was born at Luneville in Lorraine, the only daughter of Louis Francois, Marquis de Boufflers-Remiencourt (died 1751) and his wife Marie Francoise Catherine de Beauvau-Craon (1711 – 1787), the fifth daughter of Francois Vincent Marc, Prince de Beauvau-Craon (1676 – 1754). Catherine received her third baptismal name in honour of King Stanislas I Lesczynski, the exiled King of Poland, who was the admirer of her mother, and was raised at his court at Luneville, where she was affectionately known as ‘la divine mignonne.’ She became the wife (1760) of Louis Bruno de Boisgelin de Cuce, Marquis de Boisgelin, but she remained resided at Luneville until the death of King Stanislas (1766).
With the king’s death Madame de Boisgelin, her mother and her cousin, Madame de Cambis, all removed to Paris, and joined society there, Madame Du Deffand referring to the trio as ‘The Birds.’ She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole. The comtesse attended the court at Versailles where she was appointed lady-in-waiting (dame du palais) to the Mesdames Adelaide, Victoire and Sophie, the daughters of Louis XV. Court dutied prevented Madame de Boisgelin from visiting the sickbed of her mother at Nancy, but her brother the Chevalier de Boufflers, wrote her detailed letters concerning their mother’s condition and recovery. This correspondence has survived and was edited and published in La Marquise de Boufflers et son fils le Chavalier by Gaston Maugras.
Having reached middle age Madame de Boisgelin had grown large and plain, and the Duc de Lauzun described her thus: “ She was a monster of ugliness, but quite agreeable, and as flirtatious as if she had been pretty.” Despite her appearance according to Madame d’ Oberkirche the marquise was admired from afar by one Florian, an equerry of the Princesse de Lamballe, the favourite of Queen Marie Antoinette. Madame d’ Oberkirche recorded that: “ He would not speak; condemning himself to silence he gazed at her from afar, because he said that he was afraid of loving her too deeply and of no longer being master of himself.” With the outbreak of the Revoltion the couple refused to flee abroad. They were arrested by order of the Tribunal during Robespierre’s Terror. The Comte was condemned because he refused to attend the States General, and the comtesse was sentenced to die along with him. Madame de Boisgelin was guillotined in Paris (July 6, 1794).

Boismortier, Suzanne Bodin de – (fl. 1751 – 1768)
French novelist
Suzanne Bodin de Boismortier was born in Perpignan, in Rousillon, the daughter of a composer. Besides a collection of short stories, Histoires morales (Moral Tales) (1768), Boismortier wrote two novels, Memoires historiques de la comtesse de Marienberg (Historical Memoirs of the Countess of Marienberg) (1751), and, Histoire de Jacques Feru et de la valeureuse demoiselle Agathe Mignard (The Tale of Jacques Feru and the Courageous Miss Agathe Mignard) (1766).

Boisselet, Marie Therese – (c1751 – 1800)
French royal mistress
Marie Therese Boisselet was briefly the lover of Louis XV during the period of his liasion with Madame DuBarry. She bore Louis a son, known as Charles Louis Cadet de Gassicourt (1769 – 1821), who was made a Chevalier of the Empire under Napoleon I. When the liasion had petered out, the king arranged for her marriage with Louis Claude Cadet, who died in 1799. Her descendants in the male line died out in 1879.

Boivin, Anne – (1773 – 1847)
French midwife and obstetrician
Born Marie Anne Victoire Boivin, she was trained in her craft by Marie LaChapelle, whom she later succeeded as director of the Hotel Dieu in Paris. She was the author of the standard textbook concerning diseases of the uterus (1812). Boivin is credited as having been the first person to use a stethoscope to detect the heartbeat of an infant, and was the inventor of the vaginal speculum.

Boixadors, Jeronima de – (c1510 – 1562)
Spanish poet
Jeronima de Boixadors was of noble Catalan birth and became a nun, and then abbess (1554) of the Reial Monestir de Santa Maria, at Vallbona de les Monges, at Lleida. Boixadors was the author or compiler of an anthology of poems written in praise of the Virgin Mary and her cult at Vallbona, entitled, Llibre de goigs i devocions de Vallbona (1556 – 1558). The work consists of fifty-one poems and eight prayers, of which thirty-six poems are written in Catalan, and fifteen in Castilian.

Bojani, Benvenuta – (1254 – 1292)
Italian nun and saint
Benvenuta Bojani was born at Cividale in Friuli. She sufferred ill-health from childhood, but practised religious auterities and was especially devoted to St Dominic. With her sister Maria she took vows of celibacy and joined the order of Dominican nuns at Cella, in Cividale. Benvenuta was credited with mystical powers, and is said to have healed a sister of blindness. Benvenuta died in Cividale, in her own house, and was interred in the Bojani family vault. She was venerated by the Dominicans as a saint (Oct 29).

Bojaxhiu, Agnes Gonxha    see    Teresa of Calcutta, Mother

Bok, Mary Louise Curtis     see     Zimbalist, Mary Louise Curtis Bok

Bok, Sophie Elisabeth – (c1745 – after 1800)
German actress
Sophie Schulz at was born at Lauenburg, Saxony. She first appeared on the stage as a child (1754). In 1764 she joined the Ackermann Company, based in Hanover, and married actor Johann Michael Bok. Husband and wife performed together in the private theatre of the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, of which her husband was officially appointed manager (1769). When the theatre later closed (1779) Sophie Elisabeth retired from the stage and was granted a ducal pension in recognition of her services. Sophie Bok was still living at Gotha in Thuringia in 1800.

Bokonyi, Susanna – (1879 – 1984)
Hungarian-American dwarf and centenarian
Susanna was born in Hungary, but later immigrated to the USA and resided at Newton, in New Jersey. Bokonyi was only 101 centimetres in height (3 ft and 4 inches) and was popularly referred to as ‘Princess Susanna.’ Susanna Bokonyi died (Aug 24, 1984) aged 105 years, at Newton.

Boland, Bridget – (1913 – 1988)
British author and screenwriter
Bridget Boland was born (March 13, 1913), and was educated at a convent in Roehampton before going on to study at Oxford University. During WW II Boland served with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service (1941 – 1946) where she organized plays to entertain the troops. She produced several plays such as The Damascus Blade (1950), The Return (1953), The Zodiac in the Establishment (1963) and Time out of Mind (1970).
Boland co-wrote the screenplay for the film Anne of the Thousand Days (1969) concerning Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, and which starred Richard Burton, Genevieve Bujold and Irene Papas. Her novels included the Wild Geese (1938), Portrait of a Lady in Love (1942) and Caterina (1975). Apart from several non-fiction works which were co-written, she also selected and arranged The Lisle Letters (1983) which were edited by Muriel St Clair Byrne. Bridget Boland died (Jan 19, 1988) aged seventy-three.

Bolebec, Beatrice de    see    Beatrice of Arques

Boleyn, Anne      see     Anne Boleyn

Boleyn, Lady Elizabeth    see   Wiltshire, Elizabeth Howard, Countess of

Boleyn, Elizabeth Wood, Lady – (c1490 – after 1536)
English Tudor courtier
Elizabeth Wood was the daughter of Jon Wood, and became the wife of Sir James Boleyn (1479 – 1561), the paternal uncle of Queen Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII. They resided at Blickling Hall in Norfolk, but their marriage remained childless. Lady Boleyn attended the marriage of her husband’s nephew, Sir George Boleyn, to Jane Parker, the daughter of Lord Morley (1525). With the rise of Sir James’ niece in the king’s favour, the family benefitted from the association. Lady Boleyn formed part of Queen Anne’s procession at her coronation (May, 1533), and thereafter served her at court as lady-in-waiting, whilst sir James served as her chancellor.
An admirer of Sir Thomas More, Lady Boleyn was known for her personal antipathy to her niece. When the queen was sent to the Tower of London, it was Lady Boleyn and Margaret Coffin, who were chosen to accompany her there, where their number swelled to three with the attendance of Lady Kingston, wife of the Constable of the Tower. During their time there Lady Elizabeth reported her niece’s conversations back to Thomas Cromwell. Lady Boleyn was present at her niece’s execution (May, 1536) and with the other two ladies, carried her corpse into the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, where they placed it in an arrowbox ready for burial. In the famous BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970), which starred Keith Michell as Henry, and Dorothy Tutin as Anne Boleyn, Lady Boleyn was portrayed by actress Hilary Mason.

Boleyn, Jane    see   Rochford, Jane Parker, Lady

Boleyn, Margaret Butler, Lady – (c1456 – 1540)
Irish-Anglo Plantagenet heiress
Lady Margaret Butler was the daughter of Sir Thomas Butler (died 1515), seventh Earl of Ormonde and his first wife Anne Hankford, the daughter and coheiress of Sir Richard Hankford, of Hewish and Yarnscombe, Devon, and his second wife Lady Anne de Montagu, the daughter of Sir John de Montagu, third Earl of Salisbury. Through her father she was a descendant of King Edward I of England (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor of Castile, through their youngest surviving daughter Princess Elizabeth Plantagenet and her second husband Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex. Through her mother she was also a descendant of Edward I and Queen Eleanor through their daughter Joan of Acre, Countess of Gloucester.
Lady Margaret became the wife (c1474) of Sir William Boleyn (c1451 – 1505), of Blickling Hall, Norfolk, the son of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, Lord Mayor of London. She survived her husband for many years as the Dowager Lady Boleyn (1505 – 1540) and remained resident at Hever Castle in Kent. Through her son Thomas, who was created Earl of Ormonde in her right, Lady Margaret was the maternal great-grandmother of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603). Six months after the death of her eldest son Thomas (Sept, 1539) it was discovered by the king’s officials that Lady Margaret had been incapable for some considerable time of managing her financial affairs. Lady Boleyn died soon afterwards (before March 20, 1540). Lady Margaret appears as a minor character in the historical novel The Other Boleyn Girl (2002) by Philippa Gregory. She left eleven children,

Boleyn, Mary – (c1499 – 1543)
English Tudor courtier and royal mistress
Mary Boleyn was born at Blickling Hall, Norfolk, the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Ormonde and Wiltshire, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Howard, the daughter of Thomas Howard (1443 – 1524), second Duke of Norfolk. She was raised with her siblings at Hever Castle, Kent from 1505. As a young girl her parents sent Mary to the court of Margaret of Austria in Brussels (1511) to be educated. Mary later entered the household of the French queen Claude, the first wife of King Francois I (1515 – 1547), where her sister Anne later joined her.
Whilst attending the new court Mary Boleyn was briefly the mistress of the king (1515), and of several other courtiers. Francois ungallantly christened her the ‘English mare’ or ‘hackney’ in reference to the number of times he had ‘ridden’ her, and was to refer to her years afterwards as “ una grandissima ribalda, et infame sopre tutte” (a great prostitute, infamous above all).
With her return to England her family arranged for her marriage (1521) with William Carey (c1495 – 1529), esquire of the body to Henry VIII, who sprang from a good Devonshire family. She bore him a daughter, Catherine (Kate) Carey (1524 – 1569), later the wife of Sir Francis Knollys (1514 – 1596) and favourite lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I.
The couple resided at court where Mary Carey was appointed to serve Catherine of Aragon as lady-in-waiting. Sometime during 1523 she became the mistress of King Henry. Her eldest child, Catherine (Kate) Carey (1524 – 1569) was rumoured to have been fathered by the king, though this remains uncertain, and she bore her father’s surname from birth. Catherine Carey served at court as maid-of-honour to Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard, and was later married to Sir Francis Knollys (1514 – 1596), a prominent courtier and official, to whom she bore many children. Lady Knollys was the favourite lady-in-waiting to her first cousin, Queen Elizabeth, whom she served (1558 – 1569).
Mary’s affair with King Henry continued until late 1526, when he cast her aside in favour of her younger sister Anne Boleyn, unmarried and recently returned from the French court. Mary was pregnant at the time, and though her son, Henry Carey, kept the surname of his legal father, the entire court knew that Henry had fathered the child. William Carey died of the sweating sickness (June 22, 1529) and his offices reverted to the Crown, obliging Mary and her children to retire from the court. For several years she resided in retirement with her children at Rochford in Essex. She then became involved in a liasion with Sir William Stafford (c1495 – 1556), of Grafton and Chebsey, a gentleman usher of the court, related to the late duke of Buckingham, and became pregnant. The couple married secretly (1534) but when it was discovered it aroused the anger of Queen Anne, who had hoped for a better match for her only sister. Mary was banished from court and was forced to write to Thomas Cromwell asking him to intercede with her sister on her behalf. When Cromwell was later searching for a means to divorce Henry from Anne Boleyn, he cited the fact of Henry’s liasion with Mary, which made Henry and Anne related within the forbidden degrees, and their marriage consequently illegal. With her sister’s execution (May, 1536) Lady Stafford retired from the court. With the death of her father Lord Wiltshire (1539), Lady Stafford and her niece, the Princess Elizabeth became coheirs of his vast estates.
Mary Boleyn died (July 19, 1543) aged about forty-three, at Rochford. Her husband remarried secondly to a kinswoman, Dorothy Stafford, and had further issue. Her son Henry Carey (1526 – 1596) was later created first Baron Hunsdon and left many descendants. He was both half-brother and first cousin to Queen Elizabeth I.  Mary’s grandson, George Carey (1555 – 1603), the second Lord Hundson, in a surviving letter to Queen Elizabeth (Oct 6, 1597) stated that Mary was the elder of the Boleyn sisters, and used this to justify his right of seniority, when he claimed the Irish earldom of Ormode, which had been held by Sir Thomas Boleyn. By her second marriage Mary was the mother of a daughter, Anne Stafford (born 1534) and a son, Edward Stafford (1535 – 1545), who died young.
Mary was portrayed by actress Valerie Gearon in the film Anne of the Thousand Days (1970) with Genevieve Bujold in the title role and Richard Burton as Henry VIII. She was played by Natascha McElhone in the first BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) version of The Other Boleyn Girl (2003), with Jared Harris as Henry VIII, Anthony Howell as William Carey and Philip Glenister as William Stafford. She was portrayed by Scarlett Johansson in the later film version The Other Boleyn Girl (2008), which starred Eric Bana as Henry VIII and Natalie Portman as Anne Boleyn. Mary Boleyn has left many famous descendants, including Diana, Princess of Wales, Sir Winston Churchill, Charles Darwin, the famous naturalist and anthropologist, and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyons, queen consort of George V and mother of Queen Elizabeth II.

Bolingbroke, Marie Claire des Champs de Marcilly, Lady – (1675 – 1750)
French-Anglo peeress and society figure
Marie Claire des Champs was born (Sept 9, 1675) the daughter of Armand des Champs, Seigneur de Marcilly and his wife Elisabeth Indrot. She was educated at the school of St Cyr, established by Madame de Maintenon after having proved the lineage of her family from one Erard des Champs from whom she was sixth in descent. Marie Claire was married firstly (1695) to Philippe de Valois, the Marquis de Villette who was cousin to Mme de Maintenon. She was left a widow in 1707 and became the Dowager Marquise de Villette (1707 – 1750).
She then became the second wife (1720) at Aix-la-Chapelle of Sir Henry St John (1678 – 1751), the second Viscount Bolingbroke with whom she had formed an attachment several years earlier (1717). The marriage proved reasonably contented though her husband was not perhaps completely faithful. Though considered a beauty considering her age at the time of her second marriage Lady Bolingbroke’s looks were not particularly admired by George I, though she obtained his approval to make a large financial gift to his mistress the Duchess of Kendal. When her husband finally resolved to leave politics (1735) the couple settled at Fontainbleau in France, where Lady Bolingroke received Voltaire. Lady Bolingbroke died (March 18, 1750) aged seventy-four and was buried with her second husband at Battersea in Surrey.

Bolka of Silesia – (c1352 – 1428)
Polish princess and nun
Princess Bolka was the third and youngest daughter of Boleslav (1311 – 1355), Duke of Silesia-Beuthen-Kosel and his wife Countess Margareta von Sternberg, the daughter of Jaroslav II, Count von Sternberg. Bolka remained unmarried and was sent to the royal abbey of Treibnitz to become a nun sometime prior to 1370. she was later elected to rule as abbess of Treibnitz a position she retained for over two decades (1404 – 1428). Bolka died (before Oct 14, 1428).

Bolognetti, Faustina Acciaioli, Contessa – (c1702 – 1776)
Italian society figure
Faustina Acciaioli was the sister of Cardinal Filippo Acciaioli (1700 – 1766), the papal nuncio to Lisbon (1754 – 1760), and the family were descended frrom the medieval dukes of Athens. Faustina was married (1720) to Conte Giacomo Bolognetti, and was prominent in Italian fashionable society, particularly in Bologna. Her circle of friends included the prince and princesse de Beauvau, Sir Horatio Mann, and James Edward Stuart, Prince of Wales, and his sons Charles and Henry.

Bol Poel, Martha de Kerchove de Deuterghem, Baronne – (1877 – 1956)
Belgian feminist
Martha de Kerchove de Deuterghem was the daughter of a distinguished family from Ghent, she was educated at the Kerchove Institute which was founded by her grandfather. In 1895 she went to Paris to study, taking painting classes at the Academie Julien. She married (1898) to the industrialist and politician Baron Bol Pol, and founded one of the first maternity centres at La Louvriere. Until WW I, Mme Bol Pol was actively involved in social reform and prominent in cultural and political circles. During the war she organized a secret correspondence service during the German occupation, which led to her imprisonment in 1916. Whilst in prison she became seriously ill, and was eventually exchanged in 1917 for another prisoner, though she was then exiled to Switzerland. During the 1920’s the Baroness became a leading figure in the Belgian women’s movement, being elected president of the International Council of Women from 1935 – 1940. After Belgium’s invasion by Germany in 1940 she was banned from all public activities, but still associated herself with suppressed organizations. She retained her connections with the International Council of Women until her death.

Bolte, Amely – (1811 – 1891)
German novelist
Amalie Elise Charlotte Marianna Bolte was born (Oct 6, 1811) at Rhena in Mecklenburg. She translated the novels of Ludwig Tieck, Vittoria Accorombona (1846) and Luise, oder: Die Deutsche in England (1846). Amely Bolte died (Nov 15, 1891) aged eighty, at Wiesbaden.

Bolte, Dame Edith Lilian – (1906 – 1986)
Australian political wife and civic leader
Born Edith Lilian Elder, she became the wife (1934) of Sir Henry Edward Bolte (1908 – 1990), the Premier of Victoria (1955 – 1972). Lady Bolte was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her valuable community work.

Bolton, Elizabeth – (1878 – 1961)
British surgeon
Elizabeth Bolton was born at Leeds, the daughter of William Bolton, a Congregational minister, and his wife Ellen Warrick. Educated at Stoneygate College, Leicester, and at Bedford College for Women, Elizabeth decided upon a medical career, finally studying to become a surgeon at the London School of Medicine for Women (formerly the Royal free Hospital). With her graduation and subsequent establishment of herself as a well respected and admired female surgeon, Elizabeth was eventualy appointed dean of the London School of Medicine for Women, a post she retained until retirement in 1945. She served as president of the school for over a decade (1945 – 1957). Elizabeth Bolton died (May 25, 1961) at Eastbourne, in Kent.

Bolton, Frances Payne Bingham – (1885 – 1977)
American Republican politician and reformer
Frances Payne Bolton fought to ontroduce legislation which would benefit working women, under-age children and all branches of the nursing profession in general. A member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, her field of expertise was African affairs. She served as the Republican member for the United States House of Representatives from Ohio for thirty years 1939 – 1969, eventually stepping down at the age of eighty-four. Frances Bolton died at Lyndhurst, Ohio.

Bolton, Henrietta Scott, Duchess of – (1682 – 1730)
British Stuart and Hanoverian courtier
Henrietta Scott was the granddaughter of King Charles II (1660 – 1685), being the illegitimate daughter of James Scott, Duke of Monmouth by his mistress Eleanor, the daughter of Sir Robert Needham. Her maternal aunt was the famous beauty, Jane Myddleton. Henrietta was married in Dublin, Ireland (1697) to Charles Paulet (1661 – 1722), who succeeded his fathersecond Duke of Bolton (1699), as his third wife. She was the mother of Lord Nassau Paulet (1698 – 1741), himself the father of Isabella, Countess of Egmont. Henrietta and her husband frequented the court of William III (1697 – 1702) and was appointed by George I (1714) to be lady-in-waiting to his daughter-in-law, Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales. She accompanied the duke to Ireland when he served as lord lieutenant (1717 – 1722). With his death she became the Dowager Duchess of Bolton (1722 – 1730). The duchess died (Feb 27, 1730) aged forty-seven.

Bolton, Isabel    see   Miller, Mary Britton

Bolton, Jean Mary Powlett, Lady – (1751 – 1814)
British Hanoverian heiress and peeress
Jean Mary Powlett was the illegitimate daughter of Charles Paulet (1718 – 1765) fifth Duke of Bolton and his mistress Mrs Mary Browne Banks. The duke recognized Jean as his natural child and she was given the surname of Powlett and raised in his household. Her father in his will entailed the greater part of his family estates upon Jean, failing the male issue of his brother Harry Paulet, the sixth Duke of Bolton.
Jean Powlett was married (1778) at Marylebone in London to Thomas Orde (1740 – 1807). With the death of the Jean’s uncle the last Duke of Bolton (1794) Thomas Orde inherited the family estates in her right and assumed the surname and arms of Orde-Powlett (1795). Mr Orde-Powlett was later raised to the peerage by King George III as the first Baron Bolton (1797) and Jean became the Baroness Bolton (1797 – 1807). Lady Jean survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Bolton (1807 – 1814). Lady Bolton died (Dec 14, 1814) aged sixty-three, at The Hot Wells at Bristol. She was buried at Old Basing in Hants. Her two sons were,

Bombal, Maria Luisa – (1910 – 1980)
Chilean novelist, feminist and author
Maria Luisa Bombal was born in Vina del Mar, and was raised in Paris studying at the Sorbonne. After shooting but not killing her lover the aviator Eugolio Sanchez, Bombal was able to flee to Buenos Aires in Argentina with the help of friends. She was best known for the works La ultima niebla (House of Mist) (1935) and La amortajada (The Shrouded Woman) (1948). Bombal suffered from alcoholism during her later life and returned to Chile after the death of her second husband. A collection of her short stories were collected and published posthumously in New Island (1982).

Bombelles, Angelique Charlotte de Mackau, Marquise de – (1762 – 1800)
French courtier and letter writer
Angelique de Mackau had, from her childhood, together with the Marquise de Raigecourt, been a close companion of Princess Elisabeth, the sister of Louis XVI. When she married (1778) Marc Marie, Marquise de Bombelles (1744 – 1822) King Louis provided her with a dowry of one hundred thousand francs and a pension of six thousand francs, and appointed her official ‘dame du companion’ to his sister. The marriage produced three sons and a daughter.
The princess in her own correspondence referred to Madame de Bombelles as ‘ma chere Bombe,’ and the last letter written before her execution, dated Aug 10, 1792, was addressed to her. Soon after the marquise and her family fled France as the revolution gained momentum, and eventually settled at Brunn in Moravia, where she died (Sept 27, 1800) aged only thirty-eight. Her husband later took holy orders and from 1819 – 1822 was Bishop of Amiens. Her eldest son, Louis Philippe, Marquis de Bombelles (1780 – 1843) was a career diplomat attached to the Austrian court, whilst her second son Comte Charles Rene de  Bombelles (1784 – 1856) was first the lover and later the third husband of the Empress Marie Louise, the former wife of Napoleon I.

Bompard, Gabrielle – (1869 – 1920)
French murderess
From an ordinary background she was originally a streetwalker. Together with her lover Michel Eyraud she murdered (1889) a bailiff named Toussaint-Augustin Gouffe, whom Gabrielle seductively lured to her apartment. Eyraud was waiting concealed and caused him to be hanged there whilst they stole his money. The body was placed in a sack and then a trunk which was taken by carriage to a bridge over the Rhone River at Millery near Lyons, and disposed of into the river.
The couple travelled together to Canada and Vancouver but upon returning to France, Gabrielle was arrested. In an attempt to save herself she implicated Eyraud who was then arrested at Havana in Cuba. Michel Eyraud was condemned to death for the murder and was guillotined. Bompard was dealt with more leniently because of her sex and was sentenced to two decades of hard labour but was released early (1903). Gabrielle Bompard later starred in an unsuccessful stage play which depicted the murder, to which she falsely claimed to have assisted because she was under hypnosis.

Bompas, Charlotte Selina Cox – (1830 – 1917)
Canadian missionary, traveller, and letter writer
Charlotte Bompas was the wife of Mr Selkirk, the first Anglican bishop appointed to the Yukon region. Her private journal was published as A Heroine of the North, Memoirs of Charlotte Selina Cox Bompas, Wife of Bishop Selkirk.With Extracts from her Journals and Letters (1929).

Bona    see   also   Bonne

Bona de Bourbon – (1341 – 1402)
Italian ruler
Bona de Bourbon was the daughter of Pierre I, Duc de Bourbon, and his wife Isabelle, the daughter of Charles I, Comte de Valois. Bona married firstly Godfrey of Brabant, and secondly (1355) Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy (1334 – 1383). With her husband’s death (March 1, 1383), their surviving son Amadeus VII succeeded as count, but with his early death (1391), Bona was left as regent of Savoy for her young grandson, Amadeus VIII. This arrangement infuriated her daughter-in-law, Bona of Valois-Berry, who quickly remarried into the powerful Armaganc family. The family of her daughter-in-law accused Bona of murdering her late son. This accusation began a blood feud which lasted several years before the countess was finally able to clear her reputation. After firmly establishing her innocence of this fearful crime, she ruled Savoy successfully until 1399, when she resigned power into the hands of her sixteen year old grandson. Countess Bona died (Jan 19, 1402).

Bona of Pisa – (1156 – 1207)
Italian nun and saint
Bona was the half-sister of the Patriarch of Jerusalem. She was pious from childhood and earnestly desired to become a nun, being subject to mystical visions and treating her body with great austerity. Despite family opposition Bona went on a pilgrimage to Palestine and then to the shrine of St Iago de Compostela in Spain. She was attacked and wounded by robbers but survived to continue her journey. With her return to Pisa Bona built a church there in honour of St Iago de Compostela.
Bona then decided to devote herself fully to the religious life and joined the Order of the Canons Regular, attaining a great reputation for religious